Targeting TIM-1 on CD4 T cells depresses macrophage activation and overcomes ischemia-reperfusion injury in mouse orthotopic liver transplantation.
ABSTRACT: Hepatic injury due to cold storage followed by reperfusion remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). CD4 T cell TIM-1 signaling costimulates a variety of immune responses in allograft recipients. This study analyzes mechanisms by which TIM-1 affects liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in a murine model of prolonged cold storage followed by OLT. Livers from C57BL/6 mice, preserved at 4°C in the UW solution for 20 h, were transplanted to syngeneic recipients. There was an early (1 h) increased accumulation of TIM-1+ activated CD4 T cells in the ischemic OLTs. Disruption of TIM-1 signaling with a blocking mAb (RMT1-10) ameliorated liver damage, evidenced by reduced sALT levels and well-preserved architecture. Unlike in controls, TIM-1 blockade diminished OLT expression of Tbet/IFN-?, but amplified IL-4/IL-10/IL-22; abolished neutrophil and macrophage infiltration/activation and inhibited NF-?B while enhancing Bcl-2/Bcl-xl. Although adoptive transfer of CD4 T cells triggered liver damage in otherwise IR-resistant RAG(-/-) mice, adjunctive TIM-1 blockade reduced Tbet transcription and abolished macrophage activation, restoring homeostasis in IR-stressed livers. Further, transfer of TIM-1(Hi) CD4+, but not TIM-1(Lo) CD4+ T cells, recreated liver IRI in RAG(-/-) mice. Thus, TIM-1 expressing CD4 T cells are required in the mechanism of innate immune-mediated hepatic IRI in OLTs.
Project description:Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), an innate immunity-driven local inflammation, remains the major problem in clinical organ transplantation. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM-3)-Galectin-9 (Gal-9) signaling regulates CD4+ Th1 immune responses. Here, we explored TIM-3-Gal-9 function in a clinically relevant murine model of hepatic cold storage and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). C57BL/6 livers, preserved for 20?h at 4°C in UW solution, were transplanted to syngeneic mouse recipients. Up-regulation of TIM-3 on OLT-infiltrating activated CD4+ T cells was observed in the early IRI phase (1?h). By 6?h of reperfusion, OLTs in recipients treated with a blocking anti-TIM-3 Ab were characterized by: (1) enhanced hepatocellular damage (sALT levels, liver Suzuki's histological score); (2) polarized cell infiltrate towards Th1/Th17-type phenotype; (3) depressed T cell exhaustion markers (PD-1, LAG3); and (4) elevated neutrophil and macrophage infiltration/activation. In parallel studies, adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells from naïve WT, but not from TIM-3 Tg donors, readily recreated OLT damage in otherwise IR-resistant RAG(-/-) test recipients. Furthermore, pre-treatment of mice with rGal-9 promoted hepatoprotection against preservation-association liver damage, accompanied by enhanced TIM-3 expression in OLTs. Thus, CD4+ T cell-dependent "negative" TIM-3 costimulation is essential for hepatic homeostasis and resistance against IR stress in OLTs.
Project description:Sotraustaurin (STN), a small molecule, targeted protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor that prevents T-lymphocyte activation via a calcineurin-independent pathway, is currently being tested in Phase II renal and liver transplantation clinical trials. We have documented the key role of activated T cells in the inflammation cascade leading to liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This study explores putative cytoprotective functions of STN in a clinically relevant rat model of hepatic cold ischemia followed by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Livers from Sprague-Dawley rats were stored for 30 h at 4°C in UW solution, and then transplanted to syngeneic recipients. STN treatment of liver donors/recipients or recipients only prolonged OLT survival to >90% (vs. 40% in controls), decreased hepatocellular damage and improved histological features of IRI. STN treatment decreased activation of T cells, and diminished macrophage/neutrophil accumulation in OLTs. These beneficial effects were accompanied by diminished apoptosis, NF-?B/ERK signaling, depressed proapoptotic cleaved caspase-3, yet upregulated antiapoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xl and hepatic cell proliferation. In vitro, STN decreased PKC?/I?B? activation and IL-2/IFN-? production in ConA-stimulated spleen T cells, and diminished TNF-?/IL-1? in macrophage-T cell cocultures. This study documents positive effects of STN on liver IRI in OLT rat model that may translate as an additional benefit of STN in clinical liver transplantation.
Project description:By binding to T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (TIM-3) on activated Th1 cells, galectin-9 (Gal-9) negatively regulates Th1-type alloimmunity. Although T cells contribute to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), it is unknown whether negative T cell-dependent TIM-3 co-stimulation may rescue IR-stressed orthotopic liver transplants from innate immunity-driven inflammation.We used wild type (WT) and TIM-3 transgenic (Tg) mice (C57BL/6) as liver donors and recipients in a clinically-relevant model of hepatic cold storage (20 h at 4°C in UW solution) and syngeneic orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).Orthotopic liver transplants in WT or TIM-3Tg?TIM-3Tg groups were resistant against IR-stress, evidenced by preserved hepatocellular function (serum ALT levels) and liver architecture (Suzuki's score). In contrast, orthotopic liver transplants in WT or TIM-3Tg?WT groups were susceptible to IRI. TIM-3 induction in circulating CD4+ T cells of the recipient: (1) depressed T-bet/IFN-?, while amplifying GATA3 and IL-4/IL-10 expression in orthotopic liver transplants; (2) promoted T cell exhaustion (PD-1, LAG-3) phenotype; and (3) depressed neutrophil and macrophage infiltration/function in orthotopic liver transplants. In parallel studies, we documented for the first time that Gal-9, a natural TIM-3 ligand, was produced primarily by and released from IR-stressed hepatocytes, both in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, exogenous recombinant Gal-9 (rGal-9) potentiated liver resistance against IRI by depressing T cell activation and promoting apoptosis of CD4+ T cells.Harnessing TIM-3/Gal-9 signalling at the T cell-hepatocyte interface facilitates homeostasis in IR-stressed orthotopic liver transplants. Enhancing anti-oxidant hepatocyte Gal-9 potentiates liver IR-resistance. Negative regulation by recipient TIM-3+CD4+ cells provides evidence for cytoprotective functions of a discrete T cell subset, which should be spared when applying T cell-targeted immunosuppression in transplant recipients.
Project description:The Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway regulates host cell defense responses against oxidative stress and maintains the cellular redox balance.We investigated the function/molecular mechanisms by which Keap1-Nrf2 complex may influence liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) in a mouse model of hepatic cold storage (20h at 4°C) followed by orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).The Keap1 hepatocyte-specific knockout (HKO) in the donor liver ameliorated post-transplant IRI, evidenced by improved hepatocellular function and OLT outcomes (Keap1 HKO?Keap1 HKO; 100% survival), as compared with controls (WT?WT; 50% survival; p<0.01). By contrast, donor liver Nrf2 deficiency exacerbated IRI in transplant recipients (Nrf2 KO?Nrf2 KO; 40% survival). Ablation of Keap1 signaling reduced macrophage/neutrophil trafficking, pro-inflammatory cytokine programs, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis, while simultaneously promoting anti-apoptotic functions in OLTs. At the molecular level, Keap1 HKO increased Nrf2 levels, stimulated Akt phosphorylation, and enhanced expression of anti-oxidant Trx1, HIF-1?, and HO-1. Pretreatment of liver donors with PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) disrupted Akt/HIF-1A signaling and recreated hepatocellular damage in otherwise IR-resistant Keap1 HKO transplants. In parallel in vitro studies, hydrogen peroxide-stressed Keap1-deficient hepatocytes were characterized by enhanced expression of Nrf2, Trx1, and Akt phosphorylation, in association with decreased release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in cell culture supernatants.Keap1-Nrf2 complex prevents oxidative injury in IR-stressed OLTs through Keap1 signaling, which negatively regulates Nrf2 pathway. Activation of Nrf2 induces Trx1 and promotes PI3K/Akt, crucial for HIF-1? activity. HIF-1?-mediated overexpression of HO-1/Cyclin D1 facilitates cytoprotection by limiting hepatic inflammatory responses, and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis in a PI3K-dependent manner.
Project description:Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a risk factor for early graft dysfunction and an obstacle to expanding donor pool in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We have reported on the crucial role of macrophage Notch1 signaling in mouse warm hepatic IRI model. However, its clinical relevance or therapeutic potential remain unknown. Here, we used Serelaxin (SER), to verify Notch1 induction and putative hepatoprotective function in ischemia-reperfusion-stressed OLT. C57BL/6 mouse livers subjected to extended (18-hour) cold storage were transplanted to syngeneic recipients. SER treatment at reperfusion ameliorated IRI, improved post-OLT survival, decreased neutrophil/macrophage infiltration, and suppressed proinflammatory cytokine programs, while simultaneously increasing Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes1) target genes. In bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures, SER suppressed proinflammatory while enhancing antiinflammatory gene expression concomitantly with increased NICD and Hes1. Hepatic biopsies from 21 adult primary liver transplant patients (2 hours postreperfusion) were divided into low-NICD (n = 11) and high-NICD (n = 10) expression groups (western blots). Consistent with our murine findings, human livers characterized by high NICD were relatively IRI resistant, as shown by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels at day 1 post-OLT. Our study documents the efficacy of SER-Notch1 signaling in mouse OLT and highlights the protective function of Notch1 in liver transplant patients.
Project description:Although modifications of gut microbiota with antibiotics (Abx) influence mouse skin and cardiac allografts, its role in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains unknown. We aimed to determine whether and how recipient Abx pretreatment may affect hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and OLT outcomes. Mice (C57BL/6) with or without Abx treatment (10 days) were transplanted with allogeneic (BALB/c) cold-stored (18 hours) livers, followed by liver and blood sampling (6 hours). We divided 264 human OLT recipients on the basis of duration of pre-OLT Abx treatment into control (Abx-free/Abx <10 days; n = 108) and Abx treatment (Abx ≥10days; n = 156) groups; OLT biopsy (Bx) samples were collected 2 hours after OLT (n = 52). Abx in mice mitigated IRI-stressed OLT (IRI-OLT), decreased CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) (endoplasmic reticulum [ER] stress), enhanced LC3B (autophagy), and inhibited inflammation, whereas it increased serum prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hepatic PGE2 receptor 4 (EP4) expression. PGE2 increased EP4, suppressed CHOP, and induced autophagosome formation in hepatocyte cultures in an EP4-dependent manner. An EP4 antagonist restored CHOP, suppressed LC3B, and recreated IRI-OLT. Remarkably, human recipients of Abx treatment plus OLT (Abx-OLT), despite severe pretransplantation clinical acuity, had higher EP4 and LC3B levels but lower CHOP levels, which coincided with improved hepatocellular function (serum aspartate aminotransferase/serum aspartate aminotransferase [sALT/sAST]) and a decreased incidence of early allograft dysfunction (EAD). Multivariate analysis identified "Abx-free/Abx <10 days" as a predictive factor of EAD. This study documents the benefits of Abx pretreatment in liver transplant recipients, identifies ER stress and autophagy regulation by the PGE2/EP4 axis as a homeostatic underpinning, and points to the microbiome as a therapeutic target in OLT.
Project description:Although CEACAM1 (CC1) glycoprotein resides at the interface of immune liver injury and metabolic homeostasis, its role in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains elusive. We aimed to determine whether/how CEACAM1 signaling may affect hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and OLT outcomes. In the mouse, donor liver CC1 null mutation augmented IRI-OLT (CC1-KO?WT) by enhancing ROS expression and HMGB1 translocation during cold storage, data supported by in vitro studies where hepatic flush from CC1-deficient livers enhanced macrophage activation in bone marrow-derived macrophage cultures. Although hepatic CC1 deficiency augmented cold stress-triggered ASK1/p-p38 upregulation, adjunctive ASK1 inhibition alleviated IRI and improved OLT survival by suppressing p-p38 upregulation, ROS induction, and HMGB1 translocation (CC1-KO?WT), whereas ASK1 silencing (siRNA) promoted cytoprotection in cold-stressed and damage-prone CC1-deficient hepatocyte cultures. Consistent with mouse data, CEACAM1 expression in 60 human donor liver biopsies correlated negatively with activation of the ASK1/p-p38 axis, whereas low CC1 levels associated with increased ROS and HMGB1 translocation, enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses, and inferior early OLT function. Notably, reduced donor liver CEACAM1 expression was identified as one of the independent predictors for early allograft dysfunction (EAD) in human OLT patients. Thus, as a checkpoint regulator of IR stress and sterile inflammation, CEACAM1 may be considered as a denominator of donor hepatic tissue quality, and a target for therapeutic modulation in OLT recipients.
Project description:Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a major risk factor of early graft dysfunction and acute/chronic rejection as well as a key obstacle to expanding the donor pool in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Although glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling may enhance cytoprotective programs, clinical use of glucocorticoid is limited because of adverse effects, whereas clinical relevance of GR-facilitated cytoprotection in OLT remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the significance of hepatic GR in clinical OLT and verify the impact of recombinant human relaxin (rhRLX), which may function as a GR agonist in a tissue/disease-specific manner. Fifty-one OLT patients were recruited under an institutional research board (IRB) protocol. Liver biopsies were collected after cold storage (presurgery) and 2 hours postreperfusion (before abdominal closure), followed by western blotting-assisted hepatic analyses. Forty-three percent of OLTs failed to increase GR perioperatively under surgical stress. Post-/pre-GR ratios at postoperative day 1 correlated negatively with serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/cleaved caspase-3 and positively with B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) levels. In a murine OLT model with extended (18-hour) cold storage, treatment with rhRLX ameliorated ischemia-reperfusion (IR) damage and improved survival while up-regulating hepatocyte GR and Bcl-xL/Bcl-2 expression in OLT. rhRLX-induced GR suppressed hepatocyte high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) translocation/release, accompanied by decreased Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), suppressed interleukin 1 beta (IL1?), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), C-X-C motif chemokine (CXCL)10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?), CXCL1, and CXCL2 levels, and attenuated neutrophil/macrophage accumulation in OLT. Inhibition of GR in hepatocyte culture and in OLT diminished rhRLX-mediated cytoprotection. CONCLUSION:This translational study underscores the role of rhRLX-GR signaling as a regulator of hepatocellular protection against IR stress in OLT. In the context of a recent phase III clinical trial demonstrating positive outcomes of rhRLX in patients with acute heart failure, studies on rhRLX for the management of IRI in OLT recipients are warranted. (Hepatology 2018;68:258-273).
Project description:By documenting potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory functions, preclinical studies encourage heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-inducing regimens in clinical orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). We aimed to determine the importance of recipient-derived HO-1 in murine and human OLTs. Hepatic biopsies from 51 OLT patients were screened for HO-1 expression (Western blots) prior to put-in (basal) and post reperfusion (stressed) and correlated with the hepatocellular function. In parallel, livers from HO-1 proficient mice (WT; C57/BL6), subjected to ex vivo cold storage (18 hour), were transplanted to syngeneic myeloid HO-1 deficient (mHO-1 KO) or FLOX (control) hosts, and sampled postreperfusion (6 hour). In human OLT, posttransplant but not pretransplant HO-1 expression correlated negatively with ALT levels (P = .0178). High posttransplant but not pretransplant HO-1 expression trended with improved OLT survival. Compared with controls, livers transplanted into mHO-1 KO recipient mice had decreased HO-1 levels, exacerbated hepatic damage/frequency of TUNEL+ cells, increased mRNA levels coding for TNF?/CXCL1/CXCL2/CXCL10, higher frequency of Ly6G+/4HN+ neutrophils; and enhanced MPO activity. Peritoneal neutrophils from mHO-1 KO mice exhibited higher CellRox+ ratio and increased TNF?/CXCL1/CXCL2/CXCL10 expression. By demonstrating the importance of posttransplant recipient HO-1 phenotype in hepatic macrophage/neutrophil regulation and function, this translational study identifies recipient HO-1 inducibility as a novel biomarker of ischemic stress resistance in OLT.
Project description:Purpose: RNAseq was used to look in donor allografts for genes encoding cytokine receptors specific to the cytokines identified to be upregulated in the blood of Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) receipients with ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) Methods: Liver mRNA cytokine receptor profiles of allografts taken before and after transplant, demultiplexed with Illumina CASAVA, trimmed with Cutadapt, aligned to hg38 with STAR, counted with featureCounts Results: We identified expression of genes encoding 10 cognate receptors for the 14 potential cytokines found to be upregulated in IRI+ patients. Conclusion: Many of the cytokines that are upregulated in the blood of IRI+ OLT recipients have cognate receptors present in donor livers that could allow completed signaling pathways to occur Overall design: Liver allograft mRNA profiles of pre- and post-reperfusion biopsies from IRI+ and IRI- OLT recipients were generated by deep sequencing using Illumina HiSeq 2000