Identification of the enzyme responsible for N-acetylation of norfloxacin by Microbacterium sp. Strain 4N2-2.
ABSTRACT: Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2, isolated from a wastewater treatment plant, converts the antibacterial fluoroquinolone norfloxacin to N-acetylnorfloxacin and three other metabolites. Because N-acetylation results in loss of antibacterial activity, identification of the enzyme responsible is important for understanding fluoroquinolone resistance. The enzyme was identified as glutamine synthetase (GS); N-acetylnorfloxacin was produced only under conditions associated with GS expression. The GS gene (glnA) was cloned, and the protein (53 kDa) was heterologously expressed and isolated. Optimal conditions and biochemical properties (K(m) and V(max)) of purified GS were characterized; the purified enzyme was inhibited by Mn(2+), Mg(2+), ATP, and ADP. The contribution of GS to norfloxacin resistance was shown by using a norfloxacin-sensitive Escherichia coli strain carrying glnA derived from Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2. The GS of Microbacterium sp. 4N2-2 was shown to act as an N-acetyltransferase for norfloxacin, which produced low-level norfloxacin resistance. Structural and docking analysis identified potential binding sites for norfloxacin at the ADP binding site and for acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) at a cleft in GS. The results suggest that environmental bacteria whose enzymes modify fluoroquinolones may be able to survive in the presence of low fluoroquinolone concentrations.
Project description:Antimicrobial residues found in municipal wastewater may increase selective pressure on microorganisms for development of resistance, but studies with mixed microbial cultures derived from wastewater have suggested that some bacteria are able to inactivate fluoroquinolones. Medium containing N-phenylpiperazine and inoculated with wastewater was used to enrich fluoroquinolone-modifying bacteria. One bacterial strain isolated from an enrichment culture was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as a Microbacterium sp. similar to a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Microbacterium azadirachtae (99.70%), and a nematode pathogen, "M. nematophilum" (99.02%). During growth in medium with norfloxacin, this strain produced four metabolites, which were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses as 8-hydroxynorfloxacin, 6-defluoro-6-hydroxynorfloxacin, desethylene norfloxacin, and N-acetylnorfloxacin. The production of the first three metabolites was enhanced by ascorbic acid and nitrate, but it was inhibited by phosphate, amino acids, mannitol, formate, and thiourea. In contrast, N-acetylnorfloxacin was most abundant in cultures supplemented with amino acids. This is the first report of defluorination and hydroxylation of a fluoroquinolone by an isolated bacterial strain. The results suggest that some bacteria may degrade fluoroquinolones in wastewater to metabolites with less antibacterial activity that could be subject to further degradation by other microorganisms.
Project description:Fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics are an important class of synthetic antibacterial agents. These are the most extensively used drugs for treating bacterial infections in the field of both human and veterinary medicine. Herein, the antibacterial and pharmacological properties of four fluoroquinolones: lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin have been studied. The objective of this study was to analyze the antibacterial characteristics of the different fluoroquinolones. Also, the pharmacological properties of the compounds including the Lipinski rule of five, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, LD50, drug likeliness, and toxicity were evaluated. We found that among all four FQ molecules, ofloxacin showed the highest antibacterial activity through in silico assays with a strong interaction (?38.52 kJ/mol) with the antibacterial target protein (topoisomerase-II DNA gyrase enzyme). The pharmacological and pharmacokinetic analysis also showed that the compounds ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, lomefloxacin and norfloxacin have good pharmacological properties. Notably, ofloxacin was found to possess an IGC50 (concentration needed to inhibit 50% growth) value of 0.286 ?g/L against the Tetrahymena pyriformis protozoa. It also tested negative for the Ames toxicity test, showing its non-carcinogenic character.
Project description:Glutamine synthetase (GS), EC 220.127.116.11, is a central enzyme in the assimilation of nitrogen and the biosynthesis of glutamine. We have isolated the Aspergillus nidulans glnA gene encoding GS and have shown that glnA encodes a highly expressed but not highly regulated mRNA. Inactivation of glnA results in an absolute glutamine requirement, indicating that GS is responsible for the synthesis of this essential amino acid. Even when supplemented with high levels of glutamine, strains lacking a functional glnA gene have an inhibited morphology, and a wide range of compounds have been shown to interfere with repair of the glutamine auxotrophy. Heterologous expression of the prokaryotic Anabaena glnA gene from the A. nidulans alcA promoter allowed full complementation of the A. nidulans glnADelta mutation. However, the A. nidulans fluG gene, which encodes a protein with similarity to prokaryotic GS, did not replace A. nidulans glnA function when similarly expressed. Our studies with the glnADelta mutant confirm that glutamine, and not GS, is the key effector of nitrogen metabolite repression. Additionally, ammonium and its immediate product glutamate may also act directly to signal nitrogen sufficiency.
Project description:The marine picocyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. WH7803 possesses two glutamine synthetases (GSs; EC 18.104.22.168), GSI encoded by glnA and GSIII encoded by glnN. This is the first work addressing the physiological regulation of both enzymes in a marine cyanobacterial strain. The increase of GS activity upon nitrogen starvation was similar to that found in other model cyanobacteria. However, an unusual response was found when cells were grown under darkness: the GS activity was unaffected, reflecting adaptation to the environment where they thrive. On the other hand, we found that GSIII did not respond to nitrogen availability, in sharp contrast with the results observed for this enzyme in other cyanobacteria thus far studied. These features suggest that GS activities in Synechococcus sp. WH7803 represent an intermediate step in the evolution of cyanobacteria, in a process of regulatory streamlining where GSI lost the regulation by light, while GSIII lost its responsiveness to nitrogen. This is in good agreement with the phylogeny of Synechococcus sp. WH7803 in the context of the marine cyanobacterial radiation.
Project description:The genome of the halophilic archaea <i>Haloferax mediterranei</i> contains three ORFs that show homology with glutamine synthetase (GS) (<i>glnA-1</i>, <i>glnA-2</i>, and <i>glnA-3</i>). Previous studies have focused on the role of GlnA-1, suggesting that proteins GlnA-2 and GlnA-3 could play a different role to that of GS. Glutamine synthetase (EC 22.214.171.124) belongs to the class of ligases, including 20 subclasses of other different enzymes, such as aspartate-ammonia ligase (EC 126.96.36.199), glutamate-ethylamine ligase (EC 188.8.131.52), and glutamate-putrescine ligase (EC 184.108.40.206). The reaction catalyzed by glutamate-putrescine ligase is comparable to the reaction catalyzed by glutamine synthetase (GS). Both enzymes can bind a glutamate molecule to an amino group: ammonium (GS) or putrescine (glutamate-putrescine ligase). In addition, they present the characteristic catalytic domain of GS, showing significant similarities in their structure. Although these proteins are annotated as GS, the bioinformatics and experimental results obtained in this work indicate that the GlnA-2 protein (HFX_1688) is a glutamate-putrescine ligase, involved in polyamine catabolism. The most significant results are those related to glutamate-putrescine ligase's activity and the analysis of the transcriptional and translational expression of the <i>glnA-2</i> gene in the presence of different nitrogen sources. This work confirms a new metabolic pathway in the <i>Archaea</i> domain which extends the knowledge regarding the utilization of alternative nitrogen sources in this domain.
Project description:A new glutamine synthetase gene, glnN, which encodes a polypeptide of 724 amino acid residues (M(r), 79,416), has been identified in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803; this is the second gene that encodes a glutamine synthetase (GS) in this cyanobacterium. The functionality of this gene was evidenced by its ability to complement an Escherichia coli glnA mutant and to support Synechocystis growth in a strain whose glnA gene was inactivated by insertional mutagenesis. In this mutant (strain SJCR3), as well as in the wild-type strain, the second GS activity was subject to regulation by the nitrogen source, being strongly enhanced in nitrogen-free medium. Transcriptional fusion of a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) gene with the 5'-upstream region of glnN suggested that synthesis of the second Synechocystis GS is regulated at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, the level of glnN mRNA, a transcript of about 2,300 bases, was found to be strongly increased in nitrogen-free medium. The glnN product is similar to the GS subunits of Bacteroides fragilis and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, two obligate anaerobic bacteria whose GSs are markedly different from other prokaryotic and eukaryotic GSs. However, significant similarity is evident in the five regions which are homologous in all of the GSs so far described. The new GS gene was also found in other cyanobacteria but not in N2-fixing filamentous species.
Project description:Nitrogen fixation is tightly regulated in Rhodospirillum rubrum at two different levels: transcriptional regulation of nif expression and posttranslational regulation of dinitrogenase reductase by reversible ADP-ribosylation catalyzed by the DRAT-DRAG (dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase-dinitrogenase reductase-activating glycohydrolase) system. We report here the characterization of glnB, glnA, and nifA mutants and studies of their relationship to the regulation of nitrogen fixation. Two mutants which affect glnB (structural gene for P(II)) were constructed. While P(II)-Y51F showed a lower nitrogenase activity than that of wild type, a P(II) deletion mutant showed very little nif expression. This effect of P(II) on nif expression is apparently the result of a requirement of P(II) for NifA activation, whose activity is regulated by NH(4)(+) in R. rubrum. The modification of glutamine synthetase (GS) in these glnB mutants appears to be similar to that seen in wild type, suggesting that a paralog of P(II) might exist in R. rubrum and regulate the modification of GS. P(II) also appears to be involved in the regulation of DRAT activity, since an altered response to NH(4)(+) was found in a mutant expressing P(II)-Y51F. The adenylylation of GS plays no significant role in nif expression or the ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase, since a mutant expressing GS-Y398F showed normal nitrogenase activity and normal modification of dinitrogenase reductase in response to NH(4)(+) and darkness treatments.
Project description:In Enterobacteriaceae, the permeability of the outer membrane to hydrophilic antibiotics is associated with the presence of pore-forming proteins. We tested the diffusion of the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin in four Enterobacter cloacae strains: a clinical isolate and three derivatives variously producing or lacking the D and F porins. We analysed the entry of norfloxacin into E. cloacae cells in the presence of either the polyamine spermine or the recently developed cefepime, which are known to penetrate through the Escherichia coli OmpF porin. Uptake of the fluoroquinolone was decreased in both cases; the initial rate of penetration decreased as more spermine blocked the channel. Our results indicate that, like beta-lactam molecules, fluoroquinolones translocate through the outer membrane via the F porin and that cefepime and norfloxacin entries are polyamine-sensitive. This suggests that the closure of the F porin channel by polyamines might modulate the susceptibility of E. cloacae to both fluoroquinolone and cephalosporin antibiotics.
Project description:Norfloxacin belongs to the group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics which has been approved for treatment in animals. However, its residues in animal products can pose adverse side effects to consumer. Therefore, detection of the residue in different food matrices must be concerned. In this study, a single chain variable fragment (scFv) that recognizes norfloxacin antibiotic was constructed. The cDNA was synthesized from total RNA of hybridoma cells against norfloxacin. Genes encoding VH and VL regions of monoclonal antibody against norfloxacin (Nor155) were amplified and size of VH and VL fragments was 402 bp and 363 bp, respectively. The scFv of Nor155 was constructed by an addition of (Gly4Ser)3 as a linker between VH and VL regions and subcloned into pPICZ?A, an expression vector of Pichia pastoris. The sequence of scFv Nor155 (GenBank No. AJG06891.1) was confirmed by sequencing analysis. The complementarity determining regions (CDR) I, II, and III of VH and VL were specified by Kabat method. The obtained recombinant plasmid will be useful for production of scFv antibody against norfloxacin in P. pastoris and further engineer scFv antibody against fluoroquinolone antibiotics.
Project description:The glnA gene from the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae was cloned from a genomic library prepared with the lambda phage vector lambdaDASHII. A 4.6-kb DNA fragment of one of the recombinant phages was subcloned in pUC18. This Escherichia coli clone expressed a 52-kDa protein encoded by a 1,341-bp open reading frame. The nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame and the deduced amino acid sequence shared a significant degree of homology with the sequences of other glutamine synthetases (GS). The highest homology was between our deduced protein and GS of gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus. Plasmids with the cloned streptococcal glnA were able to complement E. coli glnA mutants grown on minimal media. Rabbit antisera to streptococcal GS recombinant protein recognized not only the recombinant protein but also a similar-sized band in mutanolysin extracts of all group B streptococcal strains tested, regardless of polysaccharide type or surface protein profile. The amino acid sequence of the deduced protein had similarities to other streptococcal cell-surface-bound proteins. The possible functional role of the immunological features of streptococcal GS is discussed.