Mutations in multiple domains of Gag drive the emergence of in vitro resistance to the phosphonate-containing HIV-1 protease inhibitor GS-8374.
ABSTRACT: GS-8374 is a potent HIV protease inhibitor (PI) with a unique diethyl-phosphonate moiety. Due to a balanced contribution of enthalpic and entropic components to its interaction with the protease (PR) active site, the compound retains activity against HIV mutants with high-level multi-PI resistance. We report here the in vitro selection and characterization of HIV variants resistant to GS-8374. While highly resistant viruses with multiple mutations in PR were isolated in the presence of control PIs, an HIV variant displaying moderate (14-fold) resistance to GS-8374 was generated only after prolonged passaging for >300 days. The isolate showed low-level cross-resistance to darunavir, atazanavir, lopinavir, and saquinavir, but not other PIs, and contained a single R41K mutation in PR combined with multiple genotypic changes in the Gag matrix, capsid, nucleocapsid, and SP2 domains. Mutations also occurred in the transframe peptide and p6* domain of the Gag-Pol polyprotein. Analysis of recombinant HIV variants indicated that mutations in Gag, but not the R41K in PR, conferred reduced susceptibility to GS-8374. The Gag mutations acted in concert, since they did not affect susceptibility when introduced individually. Analysis of viral particles revealed that the mutations rendered Gag more susceptible to PR-mediated cleavage in the presence of GS-8374. In summary, the emergence of resistance to GS-8374 involved a combination of substrate mutations without typical resistance mutations in PR. These substrate changes were distributed throughout Gag and acted in an additive manner. Thus, they are classified as primary resistance mutations indicating a unique mechanism and pathway of resistance development for GS-8374.
Project description:Insertions in the protease (PR) region of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent an interesting mechanism of antiviral resistance against HIV PR inhibitors (PIs). Here, we demonstrate the improved ability of a phosphonate-containing experimental HIV PI, GS-8374, relative to that of other PIs, to effectively inhibit patient-derived recombinant HIV strains bearing PR insertions and numerous other mutations. We correlate enzyme inhibition with the catalytic activities of corresponding recombinant PRs in vitro and provide a biochemical and structural analysis of the PR-inhibitor complex.
Project description:GS-8374 is a novel bis-tetrahydrofuran HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitor (PI) with a unique diethylphosphonate moiety. It was selected from a series of analogs containing various di(alkyl)phosphonate substitutions connected via a linker to the para position of a P-1 phenyl ring. GS-8374 inhibits HIV-1 PR with high potency (K(i) = 8.1 pM) and with no known effect on host proteases. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of GS-8374 binding to PR demonstrated an extremely slow off rate for the inhibitor and favorable contributions of both the enthalpic and entropic components to the total free binding energy. GS-8374 showed potent antiretroviral activity in T-cell lines, primary CD4(+) T cells (50% effective concentration [EC(50)] = 3.4 to 11.5 nM), and macrophages (EC(50) = 25.5 nM) and exhibited low cytotoxicity in multiple human cell types. The antiviral potency of GS-8374 was only moderately affected by human serum protein binding, and its combination with multiple approved antiretrovirals showed synergistic effects. When it was tested in a PhenoSense assay against a panel of 24 patient-derived viruses with high-level PI resistance, GS-8374 showed lower mean EC(50)s and lower fold resistance than any of the clinically approved PIs. Similar to other PIs, in vitro hepatic microsomal metabolism of GS-8374 was efficiently blocked by ritonavir, suggesting a potential for effective pharmacokinetic boosting in vivo. In summary, results from this broad in vitro pharmacological profiling indicate that GS-8374 is a promising candidate to be further assessed as a new antiretroviral agent with potential for clinical efficacy in both treatment-naïve and -experienced patients.
Project description:The maturation inhibitor bevirimat [3-O-(3',3'dimethysuccinyl)betulinic acid; BVM; also known as PA-457 or DSB] potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by blocking protease (PR)-mediated cleavage at the junction between capsid (CA) and spacer peptide 1 (SP1) in Gag. We previously isolated a panel of single-amino-acid substitutions that confer resistance to BVM in vitro (C. S. Adamson, S. D. Ablan, I. Boeras, R. Goila-Gaur, F. Soheilian, K. Nagashima, F. Li, K. Salzwedel, M. Sakalian, C. T. Wild, and E. O. Freed, J. Virol. 80:10957-10971, 2006). The BVM resistance mutations cluster at or near the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Because BVM likely will be used clinically in patients harboring viruses resistant to PR inhibitors (PIs), in this study we evaluated the interplay between a PI-resistant (PIR) PR and the BVM resistance mutations in Gag. As expected, the PIR mutations had no effect on inhibition by BVM; however, we observed general processing defects and a slight delay in viral replication in Jurkat T cells associated with the PIR mutations, even in the absence of compound. When combined, most BVM resistance and PIR mutations acted additively to impair viral replication, particularly in the presence of BVM. The BVM-resistant mutant SP1-A1V was an exception, as it supported robust replication in the context of either wild-type (WT) or PIR PR, even at high BVM concentrations. Significantly, the emergence of BVM resistance was delayed in the context of the PIR PR, and the SP1-A1V mutation was acquired most frequently with either WT or PIR PR. These results suggest that resistance to BVM is less likely to emerge in patients who have failed PIs than in patients who are PI naive. We predict that the SP1-A1V substitution is the most likely to emerge in vivo, as this mutant replicates robustly independently of PR mutations or BVM. These findings offer insights into the effect of PIR mutations on the evolution of BVM resistance in PI-experienced patients.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) specifically target the HIV-1 protease enzyme. Mutations in the enzyme can result in PI resistance (termed PI mutations); however, mutations in the HIV-1 gag region, the substrate for the protease enzyme, might also lead to PI resistance. We analyzed gag and pol sequence data from the following 313 HIV-1-infected patients: 160 treatment-naïve patients, 93 patients failing antiretroviral treatment that included a PI (with no major PI mutations), and 60 patients failing antiretroviral treatment that included a PI (with major PI mutations). Additional sequences from 13 patients were included for longitudinal analysis. We assessed positive selection pressure on the gag/protease region using a test for the overall influence of positive selection and a total of five tests to identify positively selected single codons. We found that positive selection pressure was the driving evolutionary force for the gag region in all three patient groups. An increase in positive selection was observed in gag cleavage site regions p7/p1/p6 only after the acquisition of major PI mutations, suggesting that amino acids in gag cleavage sites under positive selection pressure could function as compensatory mutations for major PI mutations in the protease region. Isolated gag mutations did not appear to confer PI resistance, but mutations in the gag cleavage sites could substitute for minor PI resistance mutations in the protease region.
Project description:Resistance to various human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) challenges the effectiveness of therapies in treating HIV-1-infected individuals and AIDS patients. The virus accumulates mutations within the protease (PR) that render the PIs less potent. Occasionally, Gag sequences also coevolve with mutations at PR cleavage sites contributing to drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the structural basis of coevolution of the p1-p6 cleavage site with the nelfinavir (NFV) resistance D30N/N88D protease mutations by determining crystal structures of wild-type and NFV-resistant HIV-1 protease in complex with p1-p6 substrate peptide variants with L449F and/or S451N. Alterations of residue 30's interaction with the substrate are compensated by the coevolving L449F and S451N cleavage site mutations. This interdependency in the PR-p1-p6 interactions enhances intermolecular contacts and reinforces the overall fit of the substrate within the substrate envelope, likely enabling coevolution to sustain substrate recognition and cleavage in the presence of PR resistance mutations.Resistance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors challenges the effectiveness of therapies in treating HIV-1-infected individuals and AIDS patients. Mutations in HIV-1 protease selected under the pressure of protease inhibitors render the inhibitors less potent. Occasionally, Gag sequences also mutate and coevolve with protease, contributing to maintenance of viral fitness and to drug resistance. In this study, we investigated the structural basis of coevolution at the Gag p1-p6 cleavage site with the nelfinavir (NFV) resistance D30N/N88D protease mutations. Our structural analysis reveals the interdependency of protease-substrate interactions and how coevolution may restore substrate recognition and cleavage in the presence of protease drug resistance mutations.
Project description:Drug resistance is an important cause of antiretroviral therapy failure in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Mutations in the protease render the virus resistant to protease inhibitors (PIs). Gag cleavage sites also mutate, sometimes correlating with resistance mutations in the protease, but their contribution to resistance has not been systematically analyzed. The present study examines mutations in Gag cleavage sites that associate with protease mutations and the impact of these associations on drug susceptibilities. Significant associations were observed between mutations in the nucleocapsid-p1 (NC-p1) and p1-p6 cleavage sites and various PI resistance-associated mutations in the protease. Several patterns were frequently observed, including mutations in the NC-p1 cleavage site in combination with I50L, V82A, and I84V within the protease and mutations within the p1-p6 cleavage site in combination with D30N, I50V, and I84V within the protease. For most patterns, viruses with mutations both in the protease and in either cleavage site were significantly less susceptible to specific PIs than viruses with mutations in the protease alone. Altered PI resistance in HIV-1 was found to be associated with the presence of Gag cleavage site mutations. These studies suggest that associated cleavage site mutations may contribute to PI susceptibility in highly specific ways depending on the particular combinations of mutations and inhibitors. Thus, cleavage site mutations should be considered when assessing the level of PI resistance.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resistance to protease inhibitors (PI) results from mutations in the viral protease (PR) that reduce PI binding but also decrease viral replicative capacity (RC). Additional mutations compensating for the RC loss subsequently accumulate within PR and in Gag substrate cleavage sites. We examined the respective contribution of mutations in PR and Gag to PI resistance and RC and their interdependence using a panel of HIV-1 molecular clones carrying different sequences from six patients who had failed multiple lines of treatment. Mutations in Gag strongly and directly contributed to PI resistance besides compensating for fitness loss. This effect was essentially carried by the C-terminal region of Gag (containing NC-SP2-p6) with little or no contribution from MA, CA, and SP1. The effect of Gag on resistance depended on the presence of cleavage site mutations A431V or I437V in NC-SP2-p6 and correlated with processing of the NC/SP2 cleavage site. By contrast, reverting the A431V or I437V mutation in these highly evolved sequences had little effect on RC. Mutations in the NC-SP2-p6 region of Gag can be dually selected as compensatory and as direct PI resistance mutations, with cleavage at the NC-SP2 site behaving as a rate-limiting step in PI resistance. Further compensatory mutations render viral RC independent of the A431V or I437V mutations while their effect on resistance persists.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease (PR) permits viral maturation by processing the gag and gag-pro-pol polyproteins. HIV-1 PR inhibitors (PIs) are used in combination antiviral therapy but the emergence of drug resistance has limited their efficacy. The rapid evolution of HIV-1 necessitates consideration of drug resistance in novel drug design. Drug-resistant HIV-1 PR variants no longer inhibited efficiently, continue to hydrolyze the natural viral substrates. Though highly diverse in sequence, the HIV-1 PR substrates bind in a conserved three-dimensional shape we termed the substrate envelope. Earlier, we showed that resistance mutations arise where PIs protrude beyond the substrate envelope, because these regions are crucial for drug binding but not for substrate recognition. We extend this model by considering the role of protein dynamics in the interaction of HIV-1 PR with its substrates. We simulated the molecular dynamics of seven PR-substrate complexes to estimate the conformational flexibility of the bound substrates. Interdependence of substrate-protease interactions might compensate for variations in cleavage-site sequences and explain how a diverse set of sequences are recognized as substrates by the same enzyme. This diversity might be essential for regulating sequential processing of substrates. We define a dynamic substrate envelope as a more accurate representation of PR-substrate interactions. This dynamic substrate envelope, described by a probability distribution function, is a powerful tool for drug design efforts targeting ensembles of resistant HIV-1 PR variants with the aim of developing drugs that are less susceptible to resistance.
Project description:To establish a baseline for monitoring resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs) and examining the efficacy of their use among persons in Cameroon infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we analyzed genetic variability and PI resistance-associated substitutions in PCR-amplified protease (PR) sequences in strains isolated from 110 HIV-1-infected, drug-naïve Cameroonians. Of the 110 strains, 85 were classified into six HIV-1 PR subtypes, A (n = 1), B (n = 1), F (n = 4), G (n = 7), H (n = 1), and J (n = 7), and a circulating recombinant form, CRF02-AG (n = 64). PR genes from the remaining 25 (23%) specimens were unclassifiable, whereas 2% (7 of 301) unclassifiable PR sequences were reported for a global collection. Two major PI resistance-associated mutations, 20M and 24I, were detected in strains from only two specimens, whereas secondary mutations were found in strains from all samples except one strain of subtype B and two strains of CRF02-AG. The secondary mutations showed the typical PI resistance-associated pattern for non-subtype B viruses in both classifiable and unclassifiable PR genes, with 36I being the predominant (99%) mutation, followed by 63P (18%), 20R (15%), 77I (13%), and 10I or 10V (11%). Of these mutations, dual and triple PI resistance-associated substitutions were found in 38% of all the Cameroonian strains. Compared with classifiable PR sequences, unclassifiable sequences had significantly more dual and triple substitutions (64% versus 30%; P = 0.004). Phenotypic and clinical evaluations are needed to estimate whether PI resistance during antiretroviral drug treatment occurs more rapidly in individuals infected with HIV-1 strains harboring multiple PI resistance-associated substitutions. This information may be important for determination of appropriate drug therapies for HIV-1-infected persons in Cameroon, where more than one-third of HIV-1 strains were found to carry dual and triple minor PI resistance-associated mutations.
Project description:Protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant HIV-1 isolates with primary substitutions in protease (PR) and secondary substitutions in Gag could potentially exhibit cross-resistance to maturation inhibitors. We evaluated the second-generation maturation inhibitor, GSK3532795, for activity toward clinical isolates with genotypic and phenotypic characteristics associated with PI resistance (longitudinal).Longitudinal clinical isolates from 15 PI-treated patients and 7 highly PI-resistant (nonlongitudinal) viruses containing major and minor PI resistance-associated mutations were evaluated for GSK3532795 sensitivity. Phenotypic sensitivity was determined using the PhenoSense Gag/PR assay (Monogram Biosciences) or in-house single- and multiple-cycle assays. Changes from baseline [CFB; ratio of post- to pre-treatment FC-IC50 (fold-change in IC50 versus wild-type virus)] <3 were considered to be within the no-effect level.All nonlongitudinal viruses tested were sensitive to GSK3532795 (FC-IC50 range 0.16-0.68). Among longitudinal isolates, all post-PI treatment samples had major PI resistance-associated mutations in PR and 17/21 had PI resistance-associated changes in Gag. Nineteen of the 21 post-PI treatment samples had GSK3532795 CFB <3. Median (range) CFB was 0.83 (0.05-27.4) [Monogram (11 patients)] and 1.5 (1.0-2.2) [single-cycle (4 patients)]. The 2 post-PI treatment samples showing GSK3532795 CFB >3 (Monogram) were retested using single- and multiple-cycle assays. Neither sample had meaningful sensitivity changes in the multiple-cycle assay. Gag changes were not associated with an increased GSK3532795 CFB.GSK3532795 maintained antiviral activity against PI-resistant isolates with emergent PR and/or Gag mutations. This finding supports continued development of GSK3532795 in treatment-experienced patients with or without previous PI therapy.