Production of phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate via PIKfyve and MTMR3 regulates cell migration.
ABSTRACT: Although phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphate (PtdIns5P) is present in many cell types and its biogenesis is increased by diverse stimuli, its precise cellular function remains elusive. Here we show that PtdIns5P levels increase when cells are stimulated to move and we find PtdIns5P to promote cell migration in tissue culture and in a Drosophila in vivo model. First, class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, which produces PtdIns3P, was shown to be involved in migration of fibroblasts. In a cell migration screen for proteins containing PtdIns3P-binding motifs, we identified the phosphoinositide 5-kinase PIKfyve and the phosphoinositide 3-phosphatase MTMR3, which together constitute a phosphoinositide loop that produces PtdIns5P via PtdIns(3,5)P(2). The ability of PtdIns5P to stimulate cell migration was demonstrated directly with exogenous PtdIns5P and a PtdIns5P-producing bacterial enzyme. Thus, the identified phosphoinositide loop defines a new role for PtdIns5P in cell migration.
Project description:The innate immune system plays an essential role in initial recognition of pathogen infection by producing inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons. cGAS is a cytoplasmic sensor for DNA derived from DNA viruses. cGAS binding with DNA induces the production of cGAMP, a second messenger that associates with STING in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). STING changes its cellular distribution from ER to perinuclear Golgi, where it activates the protein kinase TBK1 that catalyzes the phosphorylation of IRF3. Here we found that STING trafficking is regulated by myotubularin-related protein (MTMR) 3 and MTMR4, members of protein tyrosine phosphatases that dephosphorylate 3' position in phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) and generate PtdIns5P from PtdIns3,5P2 and PtdIns from PtdIns3P. We established MTMR3 and MTMR4 double knockout (DKO) RAW264.7 macrophage cells and found that they exhibited increased type I interferon production after interferon-stimulatory DNA (ISD) stimulation and herpes simplex virus 1 infection concomitant with enhanced IRF3 phosphorylation. In DKO cells, STING rapidly trafficked from ER to Golgi after ISD stimulation. Notably, DKO cells exhibited enlarged cytosolic puncta positive for PtdIns3P and STING was aberrantly accumulated in this puncta. Taken together, these results suggest that MTMR3 and MTMR4 regulate the production of PtdIns3P, which plays a critical role in suppressing DNA-mediated innate immune responses via modulating STING trafficking.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by dysregulated host:microbial interactions and cytokine production. Host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical in regulating these interactions. Multiple genetic loci are associated with IBD, but altered functions for most, including in the rs713875 MTMR3/HORMAD2/LIF/OSM region, are unknown. We identified a previously undefined role for myotubularin-related protein 3 (MTMR3) in amplifying PRR-induced cytokine secretion in human macrophages and defined MTMR3-initiated mechanisms contributing to this amplification. MTMR3 decreased PRR-induced phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) and autophagy levels, thereby increasing PRR-induced caspase-1 activation, autocrine IL-1? secretion, NF?B signaling, and, ultimately, overall cytokine secretion. This MTMR3-mediated regulation required the N-terminal pleckstrin homology-GRAM domain and Cys413 within the phosphatase domain of MTMR3. In MTMR3-deficient macrophages, reducing the enhanced autophagy or restoring NF?B signaling rescued PRR-induced cytokines. Macrophages from rs713875 CC IBD risk carriers demonstrated increased MTMR3 expression and, in turn, decreased PRR-induced PtdIns3P and autophagy and increased PRR-induced caspase-1 activation, signaling, and cytokine secretion. Thus, the rs713875 IBD risk polymorphism increases MTMR3 expression, which modulates PRR-induced outcomes, ultimately leading to enhanced PRR-induced cytokines.
Project description:The evolutionarily conserved PIKfyve, which synthesizes PtdIns5P from PtdIns, and PtdIns(3,5)P2 from PtdIns3P, requires PtdIns3P as both an enzyme substrate and a membrane recruitment signal. Whereas the PtdIns3P source is undetermined, class III PI3K (Vps34), the only evolutionarily conserved of the eight mammalian PI3Ks, is presumed as a main candidate. A hallmark of PIKfyve deficiency is formation of multiple translucent cytoplasmic vacuoles seen by light microscopy in cells cultured in complete media. Such an aberrant phenotype is often observed in cells from conditional Vps34 knockout (KO) mice. To clarify the mechanism of Vps34 KO-triggered vacuolation and the PtdIns3P source for PIKfyve functionality, here we have characterized a podocyte cell type derived from Vps34fl/fl mice, which, upon Cre-mediated gene KO, robustly formed cytoplasmic vacuoles resembling those in PikfyveKO MEFs. Vps34wt, expressed in Vps34KO podocytes restored the normal morphology, but only if the endogenous PIKfyve activity was intact. Conversely, expressed PIKfyvewt rescued completely the vacuolation only in PikfyveKO MEFs but not in Vps34KO podocytes. Analyses of phosphoinositide profiles by HPLC and localization patterns by a PtdIns3P biosensor revealed that Vps34 is the main supplier of localized PtdIns3P not only for PIKfyve activity but also for membrane recruitment. Concordantly, Vps34KO podocytes had severely reduced steady-state levels of both PtdIns(3,5)P2 and PtdIns5P, along with PtdIns3P. We further revealed a plausible physiologically-relevant Vps34-independent PtdIns3P supply for PIKfyve, operating through activated class I PI3Ks. Our data provide the first evidence that the vacuolation phenotype in Vps34KO podocytes is due to PIKfyve dysfunction and that Vps34 is a main PtdIns3P source for constitutive PIKfyve functionality.
Project description:Macroautophagy is a major intracellular degradation system. We previously reported that overexpression of phosphatase-deficient MTMR3, a member of the myotubularin phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-phosphatase family, leads to induction of autophagy. In this study, we found that MTMR3 interacted with mTORC1, an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase complex, which regulates cell growth and autophagy in response to environmental stimuli. Furthermore, overexpression of MTMR3 inhibited mTORC1 activity. The N-terminal half of MTMR3, including the PH-G and phosphatase domains, was necessary and sufficient for these effects. Phosphatase-deficient MTMR3 provided more robust suppression of mTORC1 activity than wild-type MTMR3. Furthermore, phosphatase-deficient full length MTMR3 and the phosphatase domain alone were localized to the Golgi. These results suggest a new regulatory mechanism of mTORC1 in association with PI3P.
Project description:PIKfyve, an evolutionarily conserved kinase synthesizing PtdIns5P and PtdIns(3,5)P2, is crucial for mammalian cell proliferation and viability. Accordingly, PIKfyve inhibitors are now in clinical trials as anti-cancer drugs. Among those, apilimod is the most promising, yet its potency to inhibit PIKfyve and affect endomembrane homeostasis is only partially characterized. We demonstrate here for the first time that apilimod powerfully inhibited in vitro synthesis of PtdIns5P along with that of PtdIns(3,5)P2. HPLC-based resolution of intracellular phosphoinositides (PIs) revealed that apilimod triggered a marked reduction of both lipids in the context of intact cells. Notably, there was also a profound rise in PtdIns3P resulting from arrested PtdIns3P consumption for PtdIns(3,5)P2 synthesis. As typical for PIKfyve inhibition and the concomitant PtdIns(3,5)P2 reduction, apilimod induced the appearance of dilated endomembrane structures in the form of large translucent cytoplasmic vacuoles. Remarkably, bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) fully reversed the aberrant cell phenotype back to normal and completely precluded the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuoles when added prior to apilimod. Inspection of the PI profiles ruled out restoration of the reduced PtdIns(3,5)P2 pool as a molecular mechanism underlying BafA1 rescue. Rather, we found that BafA1 markedly attenuated the PtdIns3P elevation under PIKfyve inhibition. This was accompanied by profoundly decreased endosomal recruitment of fusogenic EEA1. Together, our data demonstrate that apilimod inhibits not only PtdIns(3,5)P2 but also PtdIns5P synthesis and that the cytoplasmic vacuolization triggered by the inhibitor is precluded or reversed by BafA1 through a mechanism associated, in part, with reduction in both PtdIns3P levels and EEA1 membrane recruitment.
Project description:Gene mutations in the phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes are linked to various human diseases. In mammals, PIKfyve synthesizes PtdIns(3,5)P(2) and PtdIns5P lipids that regulate endosomal trafficking and responses to extracellular stimuli. The consequence of pikfyve gene ablation in mammals is unknown. To clarify the importance of PIKfyve and PIKfyve lipid products, in this study, we have characterized the first mouse model with global deletion of the pikfyve gene using the Cre-loxP approach. We report that nearly all PIKfyve(KO/KO) mutant embryos died before the 32-64-cell stage. Cultured fibroblasts derived from PIKfyve(flox/flox) embryos and rendered pikfyve-null by Cre recombinase expression displayed severely reduced DNA synthesis, consistent with impaired cell division causing early embryo lethality. The heterozygous PIKfyve(WT/KO) mice were born at the expected Mendelian ratio and developed into adulthood. PIKfyve(WT/KO) mice were ostensibly normal by several other in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro criteria despite the fact that their levels of the PIKfyve protein and in vitro enzymatic activity in cells and tissues were 50-55% lower than those of wild-type mice. Consistently, steady-state levels of the PIKfyve products PtdIns(3,5)P(2) and PtdIns5P selectively decreased, but this reduction (35-40%) was 10-15% less than that expected based on PIKfyve protein reduction. The nonlinear decrease of the PIKfyve protein versus PIKfyve lipid products, the potential mechanism(s) discussed herein, may explain how one functional allele in PIKfyve(WT/KO) mice is able to support the demands for PtdIns(3,5)P(2)/PtdIns5P synthesis during life. Our data also shed light on the known human disorder linked to PIKFYVE mutations.
Project description:The tumour suppressor EWI2 associates with tetraspanins and regulates tumour cell movement and proliferation. The short cytoplasmic domain of EWI2 is positively charged; five out of the ten residues of this domain are basic. In the present study we demonstrated that the EWI2 cytoplasmic tail interacts specifically with negatively charged PIPs (phosphatidylinositol phosphates), but not with other membrane lipids. The PIPs that interact with EWI2 cytoplasmic tail include PtdIns5P, PtdIns4P, PtdIns3P, PtdIns(3,5)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4)P2. The binding affinity of PIPs to the EWI2 tail, however, is not solely based on charge because PtdIns5P, PtdIns4P and PtdIns3P have a higher affinity to EWI2 than PtdIns(3,5)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4)P(2) do. Mutation of either of two basic residue clusters in the EWI2 cytoplasmic tail abolishes PIP binding, and PIP binding is also determined by the position of basic residues in the EWI2 cytoplasmic tail. In addition, EWI2 is constitutively palmitoylated at the cytoplasmic cysteine residues located at the N-terminal of those basic residues. The PIP interaction is not required for, but appears to regulate, the palmitoylation, whereas palmitoylation is neither required for nor regulates the PIP interaction. Functionally, the PIP interaction regulates the stability of EWI2 proteins, whereas palmitoylation is needed for tetraspanin-EWI2 association and EWI2-dependent inhibition of cell migration and lamellipodia formation. For cell-cell adhesion and cell proliferation, the PIP interaction functions in opposition to the palmitoylation. In conclusion, the EWI2 cytoplasmic tail actively engages with the cell membrane via PIP binding and palmitoylation, which play differential roles in EWI2 functions.
Project description:Polyphosphoinositides play an important role in membrane trafficking and cell signalling. In plants, two PtdInsP isomers have been described, PtdIns3P and PtdIns4P. Here we report the identification of a third, PtdIns5P. Evidence is based on the conversion of the endogenous PtdInsP pool into PtdIns(4,5)P(2) by a specific PtdIns5P 4-OH kinase, and on in vivo (32)P-labelling studies coupled to HPLC head-group analysis. In Chlamydomonas, 3-8% of the PtdInsP pool was PtdIns5P, 10-15% was PtdIns3P and the rest was PtdIns4P. In seedlings of Vicia faba and suspension-cultured tomato cells, the level of PtdIns5P was about 18%, indicating that PtdIns5P is a general plant lipid that represents a significant proportion of the PtdInsP pool. Activating phospholipase C (PLC) signalling in Chlamydomonas cells with mastoparan increased the turnover of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) at the cost of PtdIns4P, but did not affect the level of PtdIns5P. This indicates that PtdIns(4,5)P(2) is synthesized from PtdIns4P rather than from PtdIns5P during PLC signalling. However, when cells were subjected to hyperosmotic stress, PtdIns5P levels rapidly increased, suggesting a role in osmotic-stress signalling. The potential pathways of PtdIns5P formation are discussed.
Project description:Autophagosome formation requires PROPPIN/WIPI proteins and monophosphorylated phosphoinositides, such as phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) or PtdIns5P. This process occurs in association with mammalian endosomes, where the PROPPIN WIPI1 has additional, undefined roles in vesicular traffic. To explore whether these functions are interconnected, we dissected routes and subreactions of endosomal trafficking requiring WIPI1. WIPI1 specifically acts in the formation and fission of tubulo-vesicular endosomal transport carriers. This activity supports the PtdIns(3,5)P<sub>2</sub>-dependent transport of endosomal cargo toward the plasma membrane, Golgi, and lysosomes, suggesting a general role of WIPI1 in endosomal protein exit. Three features differentiate the endosomal and macroautophagic/autophagic activities of WIPI1: phosphoinositide binding site II, the requirement for PtdIns(3,5)P<sub>2</sub>, and bilayer deformation through a conserved amphipathic α-helix. Their inactivation preserves autophagy but leads to a strong enlargement of endosomes, which accumulate micrometer-long endosomal membrane tubules carrying cargo proteins. WIPI1 thus supports autophagy and protein exit from endosomes by different modes of action. We propose that the type of phosphoinositides occupying its two lipid binding sites, the most unusual feature of PROPPIN/WIPI family proteins, switches between these effector functions.<b>Abbreviations:</b> EGF: epidermal growth factorEGFR: epidermal growth factor receptorKD: knockdownKO: knockoutPtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphatePtdIns5P: phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphatePtdIns(3,5)P<sub>2</sub>: phosphatidylinositol-3,5-bisphosphateTF: transferrinTFRC: transferrin receptorWT: wildtype.
Project description:The virulence factor IpgD, delivered into nonphagocytic cells by the type III secretion system of the pathogen Shigella flexneri, is a phosphoinositide 4-phosphatase generating phosphatidylinositol 5 monophosphate (PtdIns5P). We show that PtdIns5P is rapidly produced and concentrated at the entry foci of the bacteria, where it colocalises with phosphorylated Akt during the first steps of infection. Moreover, S. flexneri-induced phosphorylation of host cell Akt and its targets specifically requires IpgD. Ectopic expression of IpgD in various cell types, but not of its inactive mutant, or addition of short-chain penetrating PtdIns5P is sufficient to induce Akt phosphorylation. Conversely, sequestration of PtdIns5P or reduction of its level strongly decreases Akt phosphorylation in infected cells or in IpgD-expressing cells. Accordingly, IpgD and PtdIns5P production specifically activates a class IA PI 3-kinase via a mechanism involving tyrosine phosphorylations. Thus, S. flexneri parasitism is shedding light onto a new mechanism of PI 3-kinase/Akt activation via PtdIns5P production that plays an important role in host cell responses such as survival.