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Influence of episodes of intermittent viremia ("blips") on immune responses and viral load rebound in successfully treated HIV-infected patients.

ABSTRACT: Presenting episodes of intermittent viremia (EIV) under combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is frequent, but there exists some controversy about their consequences. They have been described as inducing changes in immune responses potentially associated with a better control of HIV infection. Conversely, it has been suggested that EIV increases the risk of virological failure. A retrospective analysis of a prospective, randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study was performed. Twenty-six successfully treated HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive an immunization schedule or placebo, and after 1 year of follow-up cART was discontinued. The influence of EIV on T cell subsets, HIV-1-specific T cell immune responses, and viral load rebound, and the risk of developing genotypic mutations were evaluated, taking into account the immunization received. Patients with EIV above 200 copies/ml under cART had a lower proportion of CD4(+) and CD4(+)CD45RA(+)RO(-) T cells, a higher proportion of CD8(+) and CD4(+)CD38(+)HLADR(+) T cells, and higher HIV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses compared to persistently undetectable patients. After cART interruption, patients with EIV presented a significantly higher viral rebound (p=0.007), associated with greater increases in HIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses and T cell populations with activation markers. When patients with EIV between 20 and 200 copies/ml were included, most of the differences disappeared. Patients who present EIV above 200 copies/ml showed a lower CD4(+) T cell count and higher activation markers under cART. After treatment interruption, they showed greater specific immune responses against HIV, which did not prevent a higher virological rebound. EIV between 20 and 200 copies/ml did not have this deleterious effect.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC3537296 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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