Engagement of platelet toll-like receptor 9 by novel endogenous ligands promotes platelet hyperreactivity and thrombosis.
ABSTRACT: A prothrombotic state and increased platelet reactivity are common in pathophysiological conditions associated with oxidative stress and infections. Such conditions are associated with an appearance of altered-self ligands in circulation that can be recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Platelets express a number of TLRs, including TLR9; however, the role of TLR in platelet function and thrombosis is poorly understood.To investigate the biological activities of carboxy(alkylpyrrole) protein adducts, an altered-self ligand generated in oxidative stress, on platelet function and thrombosis.In this study we show that carboxy(alkylpyrrole) protein adducts represent novel unconventional ligands for TLR9. Furthermore, using human and murine platelets, we demonstrate that carboxy(alkylpyrrole) protein adducts promote platelet activation, granule secretion, and aggregation in vitro and thrombosis in vivo via the TLR9/MyD88 pathway. Platelet activation by TLR9 ligands induces IRAK1 and AKT phosphorylation, and it is Src kinase-dependent. Physiological platelet agonists act synergistically with TLR9 ligands by inducing TLR9 expression on the platelet surface.Our study demonstrates that platelet TLR9 is a functional platelet receptor that links oxidative stress, innate immunity, and thrombosis.
Project description:RATIONALE:Platelet hyperreactivity, which is common in many pathological conditions, is associated with increased atherothrombotic risk. The mechanisms leading to platelet hyperreactivity are complex and not yet fully understood. OBJECTIVE:Platelet hyperreactivity and accelerated thrombosis, specifically in dyslipidemia, have been mechanistically linked to the accumulation in the circulation of a specific group of oxidized phospholipids (oxPCCD36) that are ligands for the platelet pattern recognition receptor CD36. In the current article, we tested whether the platelet innate immune system contributes to responses to oxPCCD36 and accelerated thrombosis observed in hyperlipidemia. METHODS AND RESULTS:Using in vitro approaches, as well as platelets from mice with genetic deletion of MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88) or TLRs (Toll-like receptors), we demonstrate that TLR2 and TLR6 are required for the activation of human and murine platelets by oxPCCD36. oxPCCD36 induce formation of CD36/TLR2/TLR6 complex in platelets and activate downstream signaling via TIRAP (Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein)-MyD88-IRAK (interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase)1/4-TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6), leading to integrin activation via the SFK (Src family kinase)-Syk (spleen tyrosine kinase)-PLC?2 (phospholipase C?2) pathway. Intravital thrombosis studies using ApoE-/- mice with genetic deficiency of TLR2 or TLR6 have demonstrated that oxPCCD36 contribute to accelerated thrombosis specifically in the setting of hyperlipidemia. CONCLUSIONS:Our studies reveal that TLR2 plays a key role in platelet hyperreactivity and the prothrombotic state in the setting of hyperlipidemia by sensing a wide range of endogenous lipid peroxidation ligands and activating innate immune signaling cascade in platelets.
Project description:Platelets are anucleated blood cells that participate in a wide range of physiological and pathological functions. Their major role is mediating haemostasis and thrombosis. In addition to these classic functions, platelets have emerged as important players in the innate immune system. In particular, they interact with leukocytes, secrete pro- and anti-inflammatory factors, and express a wide range of inflammatory receptors including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), for example, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). TLR4, which is the most extensively studied TLR in nucleated cells, recognises lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that are compounds of the outer surface of Gram-negative bacteria. Unlike other TLRs, TLR4 is able to signal through both the MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. Notably, despite both pathways culminating in the activation of transcription factors, TLR4 has a prominent functional impact on platelet activity, haemostasis, and thrombosis. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on TLR4 signalling in platelets, critically discuss its impact on platelet function, and highlight the open questions in this area.
Project description:Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae strains vary considerably in their ability to cause invasive disease in humans, which is at least in part determined by the capsular serotype. Platelets have been implicated as sentinel cells in the circulation for host defence. One of their utensils for this function is the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We here aimed to investigate platelet response to S. pneumoniae and a role for TLRs herein. Platelets were stimulated using four serotypes of S. pneumonia including an unencapsulated mutant strain. In vitro aggregation and flow cytometry assays were performed using blood of healthy volunteers, or blood of TLR knock out and WT mice. For in vivo pneumonia experiments, platelet specific Myd88 knockout (Plt-Myd88-/-) mice were used. We found that platelet aggregation was induced by unencapsulated S. pneumoniae only. Whole blood incubation with all S. pneumoniae serotypes tested resulted in platelet degranulation and platelet-leukocyte complex formation. Platelet activation was TLR independent, as responses were not inhibited by TLR blocking antibodies, not induced by TLR agonists and were equally induced in wild-type and Tlr2-/-, Tlr4-/-, Tlr2/4-/-, Tlr9-/- and Myd88-/- blood. Plt-Myd88-/- and control mice displayed no differences in bacterial clearance or immune response to pneumonia by unencapsulated S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, S. pneumoniae activates platelets through a TLR-independent mechanism that is impeded by the bacterial capsule. Additionally, platelet MyD88-dependent TLR signalling is not involved in host defence to unencapsulated S. pneumoniae in vivo.
Project description:Proteasome inhibitors used in the treatment of hematologic cancers also reduce thrombosis. Whether the proteasome participates in platelet activation or function is unclear because little is known of the proteasome in these terminally differentiated cells.Platelets displayed all 3 primary proteasome protease activities, which MG132 and bortezomib (Velcade) inhibited. Proteasome substrates are marked by ubiquitin, and platelets contained a functional ubiquitination system that modified the proteome by monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination. Systemic MG132 strongly suppressed the formation of occlusive, platelet-rich thrombi in FeCl3-damaged carotid arteries. Transfusion of platelets treated ex vivo with MG132 and washed before transfusion into thrombocytopenic mice also reduced carotid artery thrombosis. Proteasome inhibition reduced platelet aggregation by low thrombin concentrations and ristocetin-stimulated agglutination through the glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex. This receptor was not appropriately internalized after proteasome inhibition in stimulated platelets, and spreading and clot retraction after MG132 exposure also were decreased. The effects of proteasome inhibitors were not confined to a single receptor as MG132 suppressed thrombin-stimulated, ADP-stimulated, and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microparticle shedding. Proteasome inhibition increased ubiquitin decoration of cytoplasmic proteins, including the cytoskeletal proteins Filamin A and Talin-1. Mass spectrometry revealed a single MG132-sensitive tryptic cleavage after R1745 in an extended Filamin A loop, which would separate its actin-binding domain from its carboxy terminal glycoprotein Ib?-binding domain.Platelets contain a ubiquitin/proteasome system that marks cytoskeletal proteins for proteolytic modification to promote productive platelet-platelet and platelet-wall interactions.
Project description:Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is primarily due to coronary atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent thrombus formation. Platelets play a key role in the genesis and progression of both atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Since platelets are anuclear cells that inherit their mRNA from megakaryocyte precursors and maintain it unchanged during their life span, gene expression (GE) profiling at the time of an AMI provides information concerning the platelet GE preceding the coronary event. In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), a gene-by-gene analysis of the platelet GE identified five differentially expressed genes (DEGs): FKBP5, S100P, SAMSN1, CLEC4E and S100A12. The logistic regression model used to combine the GE in a STEMI vs healthy donors score showed an AUC of 0.95. The same five DEGs were externally validated using platelet GE data from patients with coronary atherosclerosis but without thrombosis. Early signals of an imminent AMI are likely to be found by platelet GE profiling before the infarction occurs. Overall design: Platelet gene expression profiling in ST-acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, Healthy Donor (HD), coronary artery diseases (SCAD) patients
Project description:The platelet receptor CLEC-2 is involved in thrombosis/hemostasis, but its ligand, podoplanin, is expressed only in advanced atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated CLEC-2 ligands in vessel walls. Recombinant CLEC-2 bound to early atherosclerotic lesions and normal arterial walls, co-localizing with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry showed that recombinant CLEC-2, but not an anti-podoplanin antibody, bound to VSMCs, suggesting that CLEC-2 ligands other than podoplanin are present in VSMCs. VSMCs stimulated platelet granule release and supported thrombus formation under flow, dependent on CLEC-2. The time to occlusion in a FeCl3-induced animal thrombosis model was significantly prolonged in the absence of CLEC-2. Because the internal elastic lamina was lacerated in our FeCl3-induced model, we assume that the interaction between CLEC-2 and its ligands in VSMCs induces thrombus formation. Protein arrays and Biacore analysis were used to identify S100A13 as a CLEC-2 ligand in VSMCs. However, S100A13 is not responsible for the above-described VSMC-induced platelet activation, because S100A13 is not expressed on the surface of normal VSMCs. S100A13 was released upon oxidative stress and expressed in the luminal area of atherosclerotic lesions. Suspended S100A13 did not activate platelets, but immobilized S100A13 significantly increased thrombus formation on collagen-coated surfaces. Taken together, we proposed that VSMCs stimulate platelets through CLEC-2, possibly leading to thrombus formation after plaque erosion and stent implantation, where VSMCs are exposed to blood flow. Furthermore, we identified S100A13 as one of the ligands on VSMCs.
Project description:Platelets contribute to thrombosis, and platelet toll-like receptors (TLRs) are central in pathogen detection, potentially mediating infection-induced vascular occlusion. Using a large community-based cohort study, we sought to examine if platelets express all known TLR transcripts and analyze their association with cardiovascular risk factors.mRNA levels for TLRs were measured in isolated platelets by high-throughput quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in 1625 participants (mean age, 66.6±9; 54% women) of the Framingham Heart Study. We measured circulating inflammatory and thrombotic markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1, soluble tumor necrosis factor-? receptor 1, and soluble p-selectin) and analyzed TLRs and their association with sex and cardiovascular risk factors by multivariable logit regression model adjusted for confounding factors. Platelets expressed all 10 TLR transcripts, and all TLRs were coexpressed. Women had higher platelet TLR expression, which associated with different cardiovascular risk factors, compared with men. In women, TLR1, TLR3, TLR6, and TLR7 were associated with body mass index and TLR5, TLR7, and TLR10 were associated with total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio. In men, TLR1, TLR2, and TLR3 were associated with lipid and TLR8 with hypertension treatment. Similarly, TLR expression in men was more commonly associated with circulating inflammatory markers (soluble tumor necrosis factor-? receptor 1 and intracellular cell adhesion molecule 1), whereas in women, TLR expression was associated with soluble p-selectin levels.We report the first study to demonstrate that platelets express all TLR transcripts using a large community-based observational cohort. These transcripts are more abundant in women and have distinct associations with cardiovascular risk and inflammatory biomarkers that vary by sex.
Project description:Anucleate platelets circulate in the blood to facilitate thrombosis and diverse immune functions. Platelet activation leading to clot formation correlates with increased glycogenolysis, glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and lactic acid production. Simultaneous deletion of glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and GLUT3 (double knockout [DKO]) specifically in platelets completely abolished glucose uptake. In DKO platelets, mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of non-glycolytic substrates, such as glutamate, increased. Thrombosis and platelet activation were decreased through impairment at multiple activation nodes, including Ca2+ signaling, degranulation, and integrin activation. DKO mice developed thrombocytopenia, secondary to impaired pro-platelet formation from megakaryocytes, and increased platelet clearance resulting from cytosolic calcium overload and calpain activation. Systemic treatment with oligomycin, inhibiting mitochondrial metabolism, induced rapid clearance of platelets, with circulating counts dropping to zero in DKO mice, but not wild-type mice, demonstrating an essential role for energy metabolism in platelet viability. Thus, substrate metabolism is essential for platelet production, activation, and survival.
Project description:Activated platelets shed microparticles from plasma membranes, but also release smaller exosomes from internal compartments. While microparticles participate in athero-thrombosis, little is known of exosomes in this process.Ex vivo biochemical experiments with human platelets and exosomes, and FeCl3 -induced murine carotid artery thrombosis.Both microparticles and exosomes were abundant in human plasma. Platelet-derived exosomes suppressed ex vivo platelet aggregation and reduced adhesion to collagen-coated microfluidic channels at high shear. Injected exosomes inhibited occlusive thrombosis in FeCl3 -damaged murine carotid arteries. Control platelets infused into irradiated, thrombocytopenic mice reconstituted thrombosis in damaged carotid arteries, but failed to do so after prior ex vivo incubation with exosomes.CD36 promotes platelet activation, and exosomes dramatically reduced platelet CD36.CD36 is also expressed by macrophages, where it binds and internalizes oxidized LDL and microparticles, supplying lipid to promote foam cell formation. Platelet exosomes inhibited oxidized-LDL binding and cholesterol loading into macrophages. Exosomes were not competitive CD36 ligands, but instead sharply reduced total macrophage CD36 content. Exosomal proteins, in contrast to microparticle or cellular proteins, were highly adducted by ubiquitin. Exosomes enhanced ubiquitination of cellular proteins, including CD36, and blockade of proteosome proteolysis with MG-132 rescued CD36 expression. Recombinant unanchored K48 poly-ubiquitin behaved similarly to exosomes, inhibiting platelet function, macrophage CD36 expression and macrophage particle uptake.Platelet-derived exosomes inhibit athero-thrombotic processes by reducing CD36-dependent lipid loading of macrophages and by suppressing platelet thrombosis. Exosomes increase protein ubiquitination and enhance proteasome degradation of CD36.
Project description:Platelets are critical to hemostatic and immunological function, and are key players in cancer progression, metastasis, and cancer-related thrombosis. Platelets interact with immune cells to stimulate anti-tumor responses and can be activated by immune cells and tumor cells. Platelet activation can lead to complex interactions between platelets and tumor cells. Platelets facilitate cancer progression and metastasis by: (1) forming aggregates with tumor cells; (2) inducing tumor growth, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and invasion; (3) shielding circulating tumor cells from immune surveillance and killing; (4) facilitating tethering and arrest of circulating tumor cells; and (5) promoting angiogenesis and tumor cell establishment at distant sites. Tumor cell-activated platelets also predispose cancer patients to thrombotic events. Tumor cells and tumor-derived microparticles lead to thrombosis by secreting procoagulant factors, resulting in platelet activation and clotting. Platelets play a critical role in cancer progression and thrombosis, and markers of platelet-tumor cell interaction are candidates as biomarkers for cancer progression and thrombosis risk.