Do self-report and medical record comorbidity data predict longitudinal functional capacity and quality of life health outcomes similarly?
ABSTRACT: The search for a reliable, valid and cost-effective comorbidity risk adjustment method for outcomes research continues to be a challenge. The most widely used tool, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) is limited due to frequent missing data in medical records and administrative data. Patient self-report data has the potential to be more complete but has not been widely used. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire (SCQ) to predict functional capacity, quality of life (QOL) health outcomes compared to CCI medical records data.An SCQ-score was generated from patient interview, and the CCI score was generated by medical record review for 525 patients hospitalized for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) at baseline, three months and eight months post-discharge. Linear regression models assessed the extent to which there were differences in the ability of comorbidity measures to predict functional capacity (Activity Status Index [ASI] scores) and quality of life (EuroQOL 5D [EQ5D] scores).The CCI (R2 = 0.245; p = 0.132) did not predict quality of life scores while the SCQ self-report method (R2 = 0.265; p < 0.0005) predicted the EQ5D scores. However, the CCI was almost as good as the SCQ for predicting the ASI scores at three and six months and performed slightly better in predicting ASI at eight-month follow up (R2 = 0.370; p < 0.0005 vs. R2 = 0.358; p < 0.0005) respectively. Only age, gender, family income and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CESD) scores showed significant association with both measures in predicting QOL and functional capacity.Although our model R-squares were fairly low, these results show that the self-report SCQ index is a good alternative method to predict QOL health outcomes when compared to a CCI medical record score. Both measures predicted physical functioning similarly. This suggests that patient self-reported comorbidity data can be used for predicting physical functional capacity and QOL and can serve as a reliable risk adjustment measure. Self-report comorbidity data may provide a cost-effective alternative method for risk adjustment in clinical research, health policy and organizational improvement analyses.Clinical Trials.gov NCT00416026.
Project description:High-age patients have higher rates of comorbidity that are associated with a poor prognosis. It is important to correctly evaluate their preoperative status to avoid mortality. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) was useful for predicting postoperative outcomes. This retrospective study collected data from 250 consecutive patients over 75 years of age. The CCI takes into account 19 comorbid conditions. Inflammation-based scores, including the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS) and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), are other preoperative scoring systems. The relationships among these scores and postoperative outcomes were evaluated. The patients were classified according to their vital status (dead, n = 30 or alive, n = 220). Comorbidities, the presence of double cancer, and lymph node metastases were significantly different between the groups (p < 0.01, p = 0.01, and p < 0.01). In regard to the scoring systems, the CCI, GPS, and PLR were significantly different (p = 0.02, p = 0.03, and p = 0.05). Multivariate analysis identified CCI ? 2 (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.24, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-12.1, p = 0.01) as a significant determinant of postoperative outcome (p < 0.01). The overall survival tended to be lower in patients with high CCI scores group (p = 0.03). The CCI was useful to predict postoperative outcomes in high-age colorectal cancer patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The comorbidity index is a predictor of mortality in dialysis patients but there are few reports for predicting elderly dialysis mortality and national population-based cost studies on elderly dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term mortality of incident elderly dialysis patients using the Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) and to assess the inpatient and outpatient visits along with non-dialysis costs. METHODS: Data were obtained from catastrophic illness registration of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Incident elderly dialysis patients (age ?75 years) receiving hemodialysis for more than 90 days between Jan 1, 1998, and Dec 31, 2007, were included. Baseline comorbidities were determined one year prior to the first dialysis day according to ICD-9 CM codes. Survival time, mortality rate, hospitalization time, outpatient visit frequency, and costs were calculated for different age and CCI groups. RESULTS: In 10,759 incident elderly hemodialysis patients, hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were significantly increased in the different age groups (p < 0.001) and CCI patients (p < 0.001). Death rates increased with both increasing age and CCI score. High comorbidity incident hemodialysis and elderly patients were found to have increased length of hospital stay and total hospitalization costs. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based cohort study indicated that both age and higher CCI values were predictors of survival in incident elderly hemodialysis. Increased costs and mortality rates were evident in the oldest patients and in those with high CCI scores. Conservative treatment might be considered in high comorbidity and low-survival rate end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients.
Project description:We aimed to identify independent psychological predictors of quality of life (QOL) and functional outcome after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for degenerative cervical spine disease. We prospectively included patients undergoing ACDF for degenerative cervical disc herniation and stenosis. Patients completed a structured psychological assessment including the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (ADS-K), Post-Traumatic Stress Scale-10 (PTSS-10), State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State Anxiety and - Trait Anxiety (STAI-S and STAI-T) and Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3) before surgery, after 3 and 12 months. Outcome measures included EuroQol-5D (EQ), Short Form-36 (SF-36) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. Of 104 included patients who underwent ACDF between March 2013 and November 2017, 92 completed follow-up after 3 and 12 months. The mean Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores for neck pain (- 1.4; p?<?.001) and arm pain (- 1.8; p?=?.031) significantly decreased by 12 months. QOL scores significantly increased by 3 months (EQ:?+?0.2; p?<?.001; SF-36 PCS:?+?6.2; p?<?.001; SF-36 MCS:?+?2.5; p?=?.044), a benefit which was retained at 12 months. Linear regression analyses identified statistically significant predictors in preoperative ASI-3, SF-36 MCS and STAI-S for postoperative QOL and ODI scores. There is a benefit for patients in terms of quality of life and function after undergoing surgery for degenerative cervical spine disease. With the ASI-3, SF-36 MCS and STAI-S there exist some predictors for postoperative QOL and ODI scores.
Project description:Comorbidity has a negative impact on quality of life (QoL). This study aimed to investigate whether the impact of comorbidity on QoL is lower in older home care clients with positive attitudes toward aging.Totally, 361 older adults aged 50-91 years who were clients of 14 home care agencies in two regions in the Czech Republic gave an in-person interview to research nurses and completed the WHOQOL-BREF, the WHOQOL-OLD, and the Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire. The Charlson comorbidity index was calculated using ICD-10 codes. To address possible interaction between comorbidity and attitudes toward aging for QoL, the presence of additive interaction between comorbidity and attitudes toward aging on QoL was examined by synergy index. All analyses were adjusted by age, gender, education, and living arrangement.A higher comorbidity index was significantly associated with lower scores of both QoL measures; one index increase was associated with 3.7 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.5: 5.9] decreases in generic QoL and 3.6 (95 % CI 1.3: 5.9) decreases in older-specific QoL. In stratified analyses by attitudes toward aging, comorbidity showed no association with QoL among those with positive attitudes, while it was significantly associated with low QoL in those without positive attitudes. The presence of additive interactions between comorbidity and less than positive attitudes on falling in low QoL was clearly suggested.The negative impact of comorbidity on QoL might be mitigated by promoting a positive self-perception of aging in older people.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a diagnosis of exclusion, and it can be challenging to adjudicate when there are multiple comorbidities and concomitant medications. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that comorbidity burden impacts the causality adjudication in patients with suspected DILI. METHODS:We studied consecutive patients with suspected DILI enrolled in the Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network Prospective Study at 2 centers between 2003 and 2017. The comorbidity burden at presentation was determined using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). We analyzed the association between significant comorbidity (CCI > 75th percentile) and (i) the adjudication of DILI by expert consensus as definite, highly likely, or probable (high-confidence DILI) and (ii) the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) scores. RESULTS:Our cohort consisted of 551 patients who were classified as "no comorbidity" (54%, CCI = 0), "mild comorbidity" (29%, CCI = 1 or 2), and "significant comorbidity" (17%, CCI > 2). The probability of high-confidence DILI was significantly lower in patients with significant comorbidity compared with those with mild or no comorbidities (67% vs 76% vs 87%, respectively, P < 0.001). The mean RUCAM scores decreased with increasing comorbidity (no comorbidity 6.6 ± 2, mild comorbidity 6 ± 2.4, and significant comorbidity 5.6 ± 2.7, P < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression, significant comorbidity had an independent inverse relationship with DILI (odds ratio: 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.2-0.69, P = 0.001). DISCUSSION:Higher comorbidity burden impacts the causality assessment in patients with suspected DILI. Further studies are needed to investigate the utility of comorbidity burden as a variable in the DILI causality instruments.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Pneumonia is a common but serious illness that continues to present significant morbidity and mortality. Although the effect of severity at admission on outcome has been well reported, the role of comorbidity is still not widely understood. The Charlson Comorbidity Index measures comorbidity with a well-established history of predicting long-term outcome but its utility in pneumonia prognosis is still limited. Here, we use the Charlson Comorbidity Index and hospital surveillance data to investigate associations between comorbidities and in-hospital mortality due to community-acquired pneumonia. RESULTS:Among the 535 eligible adult patients (69.0% male, median [IQR] age, 79 [70-84] years), 100 (18.7%) acquired severe to extremely severe pneumonia. The median [IQR] CCI was 1 [1-3]. Malignancy (129 of 535, 24.1%), chronic pulmonary diseases (113 of 535, 21.1%) and congestive heart failure (103 of 535, 19.3%) were frequent. Higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores were associated with higher risk of in-hospital mortality (OR 1.28; 95% CI 1.07-1.53). These results support the inclusion of comorbid burden in predicting community-acquired pneumonia outcome.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have multiple comorbid conditions. Obtaining comorbidity data from medical records is cumbersome. A self-report comorbidity questionnaire is a useful alternative. Our aim in this study was to examine the predictive value of a self-report comorbidity questionnaire in terms of survival in ESRD patients. METHODS: We studied a prospective cross-sectional cohort of 282 haemodialysis (HD) patients in a single centre. Participants were administered the self-report questionnaire during an HD session. Information on their comorbidities was subsequently obtained from an examination of the patient's medical records. Levels of agreement between parameters derived from the questionnaire, and from the medical records, were examined. Participants were followed-up for 18 months to collect survival data. The influence on survival of comorbidity scores derived from the self-report data (the Composite Self-report Comorbidity Score [CSCS]) and from medical records data--the Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI] were compared. RESULTS: The level of agreement between the self-report items and those obtained from medical records was almost perfect with respect the presence of diabetes (Kappa score ? 0.97), substantial for heart disease and cancer (? 0.62 and ? 0.72 respectively), moderate for liver disease (? 0.51), only fair for lung disease, arthritis, cerebrovascular disease, and depression (? 0.34, 0.35, 0.34 and 0.29 respectively). The CSCS was strongly predictive of survival in regression models (Nagelkerke R(2) value 0.202), with a predictive power similar to that of the CCI (Nagelkerke R(2) value 0.211). The influences of these two parameters were additive in the models--suggesting that these parameters make different contributions to the assessment of comorbidity. CONCLUSION: This self-report comorbidity questionnaire is a viable tool to collect comorbidity data and may have a role in the prediction of short-term survival in patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis. Further work is required in this setting to refine the tool and define its role.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Medication-related burden (MRB) is a negative experience with medicine, which may impact on psychological, social, physical and financial well-being of an individual. This study describes the development and initial validation of an instrument specifically designed to measure MRB on functioning and well-being-the Medication-Related Burden Quality of Life (MRB-QoL) tool. METHODS:An initial pool of 76-items for MRB-QoL was generated. The link to MRB-QoL survey was sent to a sample of consumers living with at least one chronic medical condition and taking ?3?prescription medicines on a regular basis. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to determine the underlining factor structure. Internal consistency (Cronbach's ?) and construct validity were examined. The latter was examined through correlation with Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI), Drug Burden Index (DBI) and Charlson's Comorbidity Index (CCI). RESULTS:367 consumers completed the survey (51.2% male). EFA resulted in a 31-item, five-factor solution explaining 72% of the total variance. The five subscales were labelled as 'Routine and Regimen Complexity' (11 items), 'Psychological Burden' (six items), 'Functional and Role Limitation' (seven items), 'Therapeutic Relationship' (three items) and 'Social Burden' (four items). All subscales showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's ? 0.87 to 0.95). Discriminant validity of MRB-QoL was demonstrated via its correlations with MRCI (Spearman's r -0.16 to 0.08), DBI (r 0.12 to 0.28) and CCI (r -0.23 to -0.15). Correlation between DBI and 'Functional and Role Limitation' subscale (r 0.36) indicated some evidence of convergent validity. Patients with polypharmacy, multiple morbidity and DBI >0 had higher median scores of MRB-QoL providing evidence for known group validity. CONCLUSIONS:The MRB-QoL V.1 has good construct validity and internal consistency. The MRB-QoL may be a useful humanistic measure for evaluating the impact of pharmaceutical care interventions on patients' quality of life. Future research is warranted to further examine additional psychometric properties of MRB-QoL V.1 and its utility in patient care.
Project description:To examine the impact of comorbidity on overall survival (OS) in a population-based study of patients with head and neck cancer who were treated between 2009 and 2011. Data of 1094 patients with primary head and neck carcinomas without distant metastasis from the Thuringian cancer registries were evaluated concerning the influence of patient's characteristics and comorbidity on OS. Data on comorbidity prior to head and neck cancer diagnosis was adapted to the Charlson Comorbidity (CCI), age-adjusted CCI (ACCI), head and neck CCI (HNCCI), simplified comorbidity score (SCS), and to the Adult Comorbidity Evaluation-27 (ACE-27). Most patients were male (80%; median age: 60 years; 50% stage IV tumors). Smoking, alcohol abuse, and anemia were registered for 38%, 33%, and 23% of the patients, respectively. Predominant therapy was surgery + radiochemotherapy (30%), surgery (29%), and surgery + radiotherapy (21%). Mean CCI, ACCI, HNCCI, SCS and ACE-27 were 1.0 ± 1.5, 2.6 ± 2.1, 0.6 ± 0.8, 4.4 ± 4.2, and 0.9 ± 0.9, respectively. Median follow-up was 25.7 months. Multivariable analyses showed that higher age, higher UICC stage, no therapy, including surgery or radiotherapy, alcohol abuse, and anemia, higher comorbidity were independent risk factors for worse OS (all P < 0.05). According to the discriminatory power analysis none of the five comorbidity scores was superior to the other scores to prognosticate OS. This population-based study showed that comorbidity is frequent in German patients with head and neck cancer and is an important risk factor for poor OS. Comorbidity should be routinely assessed and taken into account in prospective clinical trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patient-related factors, namely comorbidities, impact the clinical outcome of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS:The prevalence and prognostic impact of comorbidities were examined using the validated scores Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) in 181 patients with DLBCL at initial diagnosis before treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and prednisone (R-CHOP). RESULTS:Pronounced comorbidities as defined by CCI and HCT-CI scoring of ?2 were detected in 9.9% and 28.2% of patients, respectively, and occurred more frequently at advanced age (p < 0.001). Higher CCI scoring was associated with lower complete response rate (p = 0.020). Both advanced CCI and HCT-CI were significantly associated with shortened overall survival (3-year OS: CCI ?2 vs. 0-1, 38.9% vs. 81.3%, p < 0.001; HCT-CI ?2 vs. 0-1, 56.9% vs. 84.9%, p < 0.001). Both comorbidity scores remained independent risk factors in the multivariate analysis (HCT-CI ?2 HR: 2.6, p = 0.004; CCI ?2 HR: 3.6, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION:This study demonstrates the prognostic relevance of comorbidities classified by CCI and HCT-CI in patients with DLBCL undergoing curative treatment with R-CHOP. A structured evaluation of comorbidities might refine prognostication alongside currently used prognostic parameters, namely age, and should be evaluated in prospective trials.