Alterations of microbiota in urine from women with interstitial cystitis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Interstitial Cystitis (IC) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder with unknown etiology. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial community present in the urine from IC female patients by 454 high throughput sequencing of the 16S variable regions V1V2 and V6. The taxonomical composition, richness and diversity of the IC microbiota were determined and compared to the microbial profile of asymptomatic healthy female (HF) urine. RESULTS: The composition and distribution of bacterial sequences differed between the urine microbiota of IC patients and HFs. Reduced sequence richness and diversity were found in IC patient urine, and a significant difference in the community structure of IC urine in relation to HF urine was observed. More than 90% of the IC sequence reads were identified as belonging to the bacterial genus Lactobacillus, a marked increase compared to 60% in HF urine. CONCLUSION: The 16S rDNA sequence data demonstrates a shift in the composition of the bacterial community in IC urine. The reduced microbial diversity and richness is accompanied by a higher abundance of the bacterial genus Lactobacillus, compared to HF urine. This study demonstrates that high throughput sequencing analysis of urine microbiota in IC patients is a powerful tool towards a better understanding of this enigmatic disease.
Project description:AIMS:Recent reports have suggested that patients with heart failure (HF) have an altered gut microbiota composition; however, associations with diet remain largely uninvestigated. We aimed to explore differences in the gut microbiota between patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction and healthy controls, focusing on associations with diet and disease severity. METHODS AND RESULTS:The microbiota composition of two cross-sectional cohorts (discovery, n = 40 and validation, n = 44) of patients with systolic HF and healthy controls (n = 266) was characterized by sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The overall microbial community (beta diversity) differed between patients with HF and healthy controls in both cohorts (P < 0.05). Patients with HF had shifts in the major bacterial phyla, resulting in a lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio than controls (P = 0.005). Patients reaching a clinical endpoint (listing for heart transplant or death) had lower bacterial richness and lower F/B ratio than controls (P < 0.01). Circulating levels of trimethylamine-N-oxide were associated with meat intake (P = 0.016), but not with gut microbiota alterations in HF. Low bacterial richness and low abundance of several genera in the Firmicutes phylum were associated with low fibre intake. CONCLUSIONS:The gut microbiota in HF was characterized by decreased F/B ratio and reduced bacterial diversity associated with clinical outcome. The gut microbiota alterations in HF were partly related to low fibre intake, emphasizing the importance of diet as a covariate in future studies. Our data could provide a rationale for targeting the gut microbiota in HF with high-fibre diet.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may be associated with altered urinary microbiota in female patients. We investigated alterations of urinary microbiota in Chinese female T2DM patients, and explored the associations between urinary microbiota and a patient's fasting blood glucose (FBG), urine glucose (UGLU), age, menstrual status, and body mass index (BMI). Midstream urine was collected from 70 female T2DM patients and 70 healthy females. Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform by targeting the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that bacterial diversity was decreased in T2DM patients. Increased Actinobacteria phylum was positively correlated with FBG, UGLU, and BMI; Lactobacillus abundance decreased with age and menopause; and increased Lactobacillus correlated positively with FBG and UGLU. Decreased Akkermansia muciniphila was associated with FBG and UGLU. Escherichia coli abundance did not differ between the two cohorts. Carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism was reduced in T2DM patients, which were associated with bacterial richness indices such as Chao1 and ACE. Detailed microbiota analysis of well-characterized T2DM patients and healthy controls indicate that Chinese T2DM female patients exhibit dysbiosis of urinary microbiota.
Project description:Incorporation of carrot or pumpkin at 0, 20 or 40% dry matter (DM-basis) with crop maize, with or without a silage inoculant was evaluated after 70 days ensiling for microbial community diversity, nutrient composition, and aerobic stability. Inclusion of carrots or pumpkin had a strong effect on the silage bacterial community structure but not the fungal community. Bacterial microbial richness was also reduced (P?=?0.01) by increasing vegetable proportion. Inverse Simpson's diversity increased (P?=?0.04) by 18.3% with carrot maize silage as opposed to pumpkin maize silage at 20 or 40% DM. After 70 d ensiling, silage bacterial microbiota was dominated by Lactobacillus spp. and the fungal microbiota by Candida tropicalis, Kazachstania humilis and Fusarium denticulatum. After 14 d aerobic exposure, fungal diversity was not influenced (P???0.13) by vegetable type or proportion of inclusion in the silage. Inoculation of vegetable silage lowered silage surface temperatures on day-7 (P?=?0.03) and day-14 (P???0.01) of aerobic stability analysis. Our findings suggest that ensiling unsalable vegetables with crop maize can successfully replace forage at 20 or 40% DM to produce a high-quality livestock feed.
Project description:Persistent mucosal inflammation and microbial infection are characteristic of Chronic Rhinosinusitis (CRS). Though mucosal microbiota dysbiosis is a characteristic feature of other chronic inflammatory diseases, the relationship between sinus microbiota composition and CRS is unknown. Here we demonstrate, using comparative microbiome profiling of a cohort of CRS patients and healthy subjects, that the sinus microbiota of CRS patients exhibit significantly reduced bacterial diversity. Characteristic of this community collapse is the depletion of multiple, phylogenetically distinct, Lactic Acid Bacteria and the concomitant increase in relative abundance of a single species, Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum. Recapitulating the conditions observed in our human cohort in a murine model confirmed the pathogenic potential of C. tuberculostearicum and the critical necessity for a replete mucosal microbiota to protect against this species. Moreover, we provide evidence that Lactobacillus sakei, identified from our comparative microbiome analyses as a potentially protective species, affords defense against C. tuberculostearicum sinus infection, even in the context of a depleted sinus bacterial community. These studies demonstrate that sinus mucosal health is highly dependent on the composition of the resident microbiota, and identifies a new sino-pathogen and a strong bacterial candidate for therapeutic intervention. A total of 14 samples were profiled for microbiome composition: 7 from non-sinusitis patients, and 7 from patients with clinically diagnosed chronic sinusitis.
Project description:Tens of trillions of microorganisms constitute the gut microbiota of the human body. The microbiota plays a critical role in maintaining host immunity and metabolism. Analyses of the gut microbial composition in Korea are limited to a few studies consisting of small sample sizes. To investigate the gut microbial community in a large sample of healthy Koreans, we analyzed the 16S ribosomal RNA of 4 representative bacterial genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Clostridium.A total of 378 DNA samples extracted from 164 infants and 214 adults were analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA of 4 representative bacterial genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Clostridium showed that the gut microbiota in infants had higher relative abundances of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus than that in adults, which was dominated by Bacteroides and Clostridium.To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study evaluating the distinct characteristics of the microbial community of Korean infants and adults. The differences between the 2 populations suggest that external factors such as age, diet, and the environment are important contributing factors to the change in gut microbial composition during development.
Project description:The female lower genital tract harbors a complex microbial community essential for homeostasis and health. During pregnancy, the female body undergoes unique hormonal changes that contribute to weight gain as well as modulations in immune function that can affect microbiota composition. Several studies have described the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women from the USA, Europe and Mexico. Here we expand our knowledge about the vaginal microbial communities during the third trimester to healthy expectant Brazilian mothers. Vaginal samples were collected from patients delivering at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Microbial DNA was isolated from samples and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using the PGM Ion Torrent. Brazilian pregnant women presented three distinct types of microbial community at the time of labor. Two microbial communities, Cluster 1 and Cluster 3, presented an overall dominance of Lactobacillus while Cluster 2 tended to present higher diversity and richness, with the presence of Pseudomonas, Prevotella and other vaginosis related bacteria. About half of the Brazilian mothers sampled here had dominance of L. iners. The proportion of mothers without dominance of any Lactobacillus was higher in Brazil (22%) compared to UK (2.4%) and USA, where this community type was not detected. The vaginal microbiota showed significant correlation with the composition of the babies' gut microbiota (p-value?=?0.002 with a R2 of 15.8%). Mothers presenting different vaginal microbiota shared different microorganisms with their newborns, which would reflect on initial colonizers of the developing newborns' gut.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the mucosal and luminal content microbiota of the cecum and colon of healthy and diarrheic horses. Marked differences in the richness and in the community composition between the mucosal and luminal microbiota of the cecum and large colon of horses with colitis were observed. Microbial dysbiosis occurs in horses with colitis at different levels of the intestinal tract, and microbiota composition is different between the mucosa and luminal content of diarrheic horses. The changes in some key taxa associated with dysbiosis in the equine intestinal microbiota, such as Escherichia, Fusobacterium and Lactobacillus, deserve further inquiry in order to determine their utility for disease diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is one of the most prevalent vaginal infectious diseases, and there are controversial reports regarding the diversity of the associated vaginal microbiota. We determined the vaginal microbial community in patients with VVC, bacterial vaginosis (BV), and mixed infection of VVC and BV using Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA tags. Our results revealed for the first time the highly variable patterns of the vaginal microbiome from VVC patients. In general, the alpha-diversity results of species richness and evenness showed the following order: normal control < VVC only < mixed BV and VVC infection < BV only. The beta-diversity comparison of community structures also showed an intermediate composition of VVC between the control and BV samples. A detailed comparison showed that, although the control and BV communities had typical patterns, the vaginal microbiota of VVC is complex. The mixed BV and VVC infection group showed a unique pattern, with a relatively higher abundance of Lactobacillus than the BV group and higher abundance of Prevotella, Gardnerella, and Atopobium than the normal control. In contrast, the VVC-only group could not be described by any single profile, ranging from a community structure similar to the normal control (predominated with Lactobacillus) to BV-like community structures (abundant with Gardnerella and Atopobium). Treatment of VVC resulted in inconsistent changes of the vaginal microbiota, with four BV/VVC samples recovering to a higher Lactobacillus level, whereas many VVC-only patients did not. These results will be useful for future studies on the role of vaginal microbiota in VVC and related infectious diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The urinary microbiota is similarly complex as the vaginal and penile microbiota, yet its role as a reservoir for pathogens and for recurrent polymicrobial biofilm diseases like bacterial vaginosis (BV) is not clear. RESULTS:Here, we analysed the urinary microbiota of healthy men and women and compared it with that of women during BV and after antibiotic treatment using next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V1-V2 regions. Eight different community types, so called urotypes (UT), were identified in healthy humans, all of which were shared between men and women, except UT 7, dominated in relative abundance by Lactobacillus crispatus, which was found in healthy women only. Orally applied metronidazole significantly reduced Shannon diversity and the mean relative abundance of Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Sneathia amnii, while L. iners increased to levels twofold higher than those found in healthy women. Although individual urine microbial profiles strongly responded to the antibiotic, the healthy community could not be restored. The correlation between urinary and vaginal fluid microbiota was generally weak and depending on UT and BV status. It was highest in UT 1 in acute BV (59% of samples), but after metronidazole treatment, only 3 out of 35 women showed a significant correlation between their urinary and vaginal microbiota composition. CONCLUSIONS:Urethra and bladder thus harbor microbial communities distinct from the vagina. The high abundance of BV related species in the urine of both men and women suggests that urine may act as a reservoir of pathogens and contribute to recurrence. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02687789.
Project description:Most associations between animals and their gut microbiota are dynamic, involving sustained transfer of food-associated microbial cells into the gut and shedding of microorganisms into the external environment with feces, but the interacting effects of host and microbial factors on the composition of the internal and external microbial communities are poorly understood. This study on laboratory cultures of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster reared in continuous contact with their food revealed time-dependent changes of the microbial communities in the food that were strongly influenced by the presence and abundance of Drosophila. When germfree Drosophila eggs were aseptically added to nonsterile food, the microbiota in the food and flies converged to a composition dramatically different from that in fly-free food, showing that Drosophila has microbiota-independent effects on the food microbiota. The microbiota in both the flies that developed from unmanipulated eggs (bearing microorganisms) and the associated food was dominated by the bacteria most abundant on the eggs, demonstrating effective vertical transmission via surface contamination of eggs. Food coinoculated with a four-species defined bacterial community of Acetobacter and Lactobacillus species revealed the progressive elimination of Lactobacillus from the food bearing few or no Drosophila, indicating the presence of antagonistic interactions between Acetobacter and Lactobacillus. Drosophila at high densities ameliorated the Acetobacter/Lactobacillus antagonism, enabling Lactobacillus to persist. This study with Drosophila demonstrates how animals can have major, coordinated effects on the composition of microbial communities in the gut and immediate environment.