Association between selected oral pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions.
ABSTRACT: We examined whether colonization of selected oral pathogens is associated with gastric precancerous lesions in a cross-sectional study. A total of 119 participants were included, of which 37 were cases of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, or dysplasia. An oral examination was performed to measure periodontal indices. Plaque and saliva samples were tested with real-time quantitative PCR for DNA levels of pathogens related to periodontal disease (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis, Treponema denticola, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans) and dental caries (Streptococcus mutans and S. sobrinus). There were no consistent associations between DNA levels of selected bacterial species and gastric precancerous lesions, although an elevated but non-significant odds ratio (OR) for gastric precancerous lesions was observed in relation to increasing colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans (OR = 1.36 for one standard deviation increase, 95% Confidence Interval = 0.87-2.12), P. gingivalis (OR = 1.12, 0.67-1.88) and T. denticola (OR = 1.34, 0.83-2.12) measured in plaque. To assess the influence of specific long-term infection, stratified analyses by levels of periodontal indices were conducted. A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly associated with gastric precancerous lesions (OR = 2.51, 1.13-5.56) among those with ? median of percent tooth sites with PD ? 3 mm, compared with no association among those below the median (OR = 0.86, 0.43-1.72). A significantly stronger relationship was observed between the cumulative bacterial burden score of periodontal disease-related pathogens and gastric precancerous lesions among those with higher versus lower levels of periodontal disease indices (p-values for interactions: 0.03-0.06). Among individuals with periodontal disease, high levels of colonization of periodontal pathogens are associated with an increased risk of gastric precancerous lesions.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Microbial infections and mucosal dysbiosis influence morbidity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the oral cavity, periodontal bacteria and subgingival plaque dysbiosis provide persistent inflammatory stimuli at the mucosal surface. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether exposure to periodontal bacteria influences disease parameters in SLE patients. METHODS:Circulating antibodies to specific periodontal bacteria have been used as surrogate markers to determine an ongoing bacterial burden, or as indicators of past exposure to the bacteria. Banked serum samples from SLE patients in the Oklahoma Lupus Cohort were used to measure antibody titres against periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Treponema denticola) and commensals (Capnocytophaga ochracea, and Streptococcus gordonii) by ELISA. Correlations between anti-bacterial antibodies and different clinicalparameters of SLE including, autoantibodies (anti-dsDNA, anti-SmRNP, anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La), complement, and disease activity (SLEDAI and BILAG) were studied. RESULTS:SLE patients had varying amounts of antibodies to different oral bacteria. The antibody titres against A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and C. ochracea were higher in patients positive for anti-dsDNA antibodies, and they showed significant correlations with anti-dsDNA titres and reduced levels of complement. Among the periodontal pathogens, only antibodies to A. actinomycetemcomitans were associated with higher disease activity. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that exposure to specific pathogenic periodontal bacteria influences disease activity in SLE patients. These findings provide a rationale for assessing and improving periodontal health in SLE patients, as an adjunct to lupus therapies.
Project description:The detection of bacterial-specific volatile metabolites may be a valuable tool to predict infection. Here we applied a real-time mass spectrometric technique to investigate differences in volatile metabolic profiles of oral bacteria that cause periodontitis. We coupled a secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) source to a commercial high-resolution mass spectrometer to interrogate the headspace from bacterial cultures and human saliva. We identified 120 potential markers characteristic for periodontal pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (n = 13), Porphyromonas gingivalis (n = 70), Tanerella forsythia (n = 30) and Treponema denticola (n = 7) in in vitro cultures. In a second proof-of-principle phase, we found 18 (P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola) of the 120 in vitro compounds in the saliva from a periodontitis patient with confirmed infection with P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola with enhanced ion intensity compared to two healthy controls. In conclusion, this method has the ability to identify individual metabolites of microbial pathogens in a complex medium such as saliva.
Project description:In oral health, the interdental spaces are a real ecological niche for which the body has few or no alternative defenses and where the traditional daily methods for control by disrupting biofilm are not adequate. The interdental spaces are the source of many hypotheses regarding their potential associations with and/or causes of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, degenerative disease, and depression. This PCR study is the first to describe the interdental microbiota in healthy adults aged 18-35 years-old with reference to the Socransky complexes. The complexes tended to reflect microbial succession events in developing dental biofilms. Early colonizers included members of the yellow, green, and purple complexes. The orange complex bacteria generally appear after the early colonizers and include many putative periodontal pathogens, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum. The red complex (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola) was considered the climax community and is on the list of putative periodontal pathogens. The 19 major periodontal pathogens tested were expressed at various levels. F. nucleatum was the most abundant species, and the least abundant were Actinomyces viscosus, P. gingivalis, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The genome counts for Eikenella corrodens, Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, T. denticola, and Tannerella forsythensis increased significantly with subject age. The study highlights the observation that bacteria from the yellow complex (Streptococcus spp., S. mitis), the green complex (E. corrodens, Campylobacter gracilis, Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, A. actinomycetemcomitans), the purple complex (Veillonella parvula, Actinomyces odontolyticus) and the blue complex (A. viscosus) are correlated. Concerning the orange complex, F. nucleatum is the most abundant species in interdental biofilm. The red complex, which is recognized as the most important pathogen in adult periodontal disease, represents 8.08% of the 19 bacteria analyzed. P. gingivalis was detected in 19% of healthy subjects and represents 0.02% of the interdental biofilm. T. forsythensis and T. denticola (0.02 and 0.04% of the interdental biofilm) were detected in 93 and 49% of healthy subjects, respectively. The effective presence of periodontal pathogens is a strong indicator of the need to develop new methods for disrupting interdental biofilm in daily oral hygiene.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and bacterial load of 6 main periodontal pathogens between pairs of periodontal patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. <i>Porphyromonas gingivalis</i> and <i>Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans</i> genotypes were also investigated.<h4>Methods</h4>Twenty patients affected by chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes were retrospectively selected and matched to 20 patients without diabetes on the basis of the degree and severity of periodontal disease. Microbiological data of subgingival biofilms were analysed and compared for the examined pathogens: <i>A. actinomycetemcomitans</i>, <i>P. gingivalis</i>, <i>Prevotella intermedia</i>, <i>Treponema denticola</i>, <i>Fusobacterium nucleatum</i>, and <i>Tannerella forsythia</i>.<h4>Results</h4>The pairs were balanced in terms of demographic and clinical parameters, except for bleeding on probing and suppuration. In the microbiological test sites (4 for each patient), the mean probing pocket depth was 6.34±1.63 mm in patients with diabetes and 6.41±1.78 mm in patients without diabetes. No significant difference between pairs in the prevalence of <i>P. gingivalis</i> or the distribution of its genotypes was recorded. Patients with diabetes had a significantly greater amount of total bacterial load, <i>P. gingivalis</i>, <i>T. denticola</i>, <i>T. forsythia</i>, and <i>F. nucleatum</i> (<i>P</i><0.05). Moreover, patients with diabetes had a higher number of sites with a greater cell count than patients without diabetes. When compared to the total bacterial load, only <i>T. forsythia</i> maintained its relative load in patients with diabetes (<i>P</i>=0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>This retrospective matched study supports the hypothesis that microbiological differences exist among periodontal patients with and without diabetes mellitus.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03786133.
Project description:Periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated. The relationship between periodontal microbiota and early diabetes risk has not been studied. We investigated the association between periodontal bacteria and prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults. ORIGINS (the Oral Infections, Glucose Intolerance and Insulin Resistance Study) cross sectionally enrolled 300 diabetes-free adults aged 20 to 55 y (mean ± SD, 34 ± 10 y; 77% female). Prediabetes was defined as follows: 1) hemoglobin A1c values ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% or 2) fasting plasma glucose ranging from 100 to 125 mg/dL. In 1,188 subgingival plaque samples, 11 bacterial species were assessed at baseline, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Actinomyces naeslundii. Full-mouth clinical periodontal examinations were performed, and participants were defined as having no/mild periodontitis vs. moderate/severe periodontitis per the definition of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention / American Academy of Periodontology. Modified Poisson regression evaluated prediabetes prevalence across bacterial tertiles. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for third vs. first tertiles are presented. All analyses were adjusted for cardiometabolic risk factors. All results presented currently arise from the baseline cross section. Prediabetes prevalence was 18%, and 58% of participants had moderate/severe periodontitis. Prevalence ratios (95% confidence intervals) summarizing associations between bacterial levels and prediabetes were as follows: A. actinomycetemcomitans, 2.48 (1.34, 4.58), P = 0.004; P. gingivalis, 3.41 (1.78, 6.58), P = 0.0003; T. denticola, 1.99 (0.992, 4.00), P = 0.052; T. forsythia, 1.95 (1.0, 3.84), P = 0.05; A. naeslundii, 0.46 (0.25, 0.85), P = 0.01. The prevalence ratio for prediabetes among participants with moderate/severe vs. no/mild periodontitis was 1.47 (0.78, 2.74), P = 0.23. Higher colonization levels of specific periodontal microbiota are associated with higher prediabetes prevalence among diabetes-free adults.
Project description:Several cohort studies have shown that periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk for stroke. However, it remains unclear whether serum antibody titers for a specific periodontal pathogen are associated with outcome after ischemic stroke, and which kinds of pathogens are associated with ischemic stroke. We examined the relationship between serum IgG titers to periodontal pathogens and outcome in ischemic stroke patients. A total of 445 patients with acute ischemic stroke (194 female [44.0%], mean age 71.9±12.3 years) were registered in this study. Serum IgG titers to 9 periodontal pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythensis, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens) were evaluated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. An unfavorable outcome was defined as a 3 or higher on the modified Rankin Scale. The proportion of patients with unfavorable outcome was 25.4% (113 patients). Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, numbers of IgG antibodies positive for periodontal pathogens (odds ratio 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.41, p = 0.03) were independent predictors of unfavorable outcome in ischemic stroke patients.
Project description:To assess the influence of periodontal disease on cerebral hemorrhage and its clinical course, we examined the association of the serum IgG titer of periodontal pathogens with hemorrhage growth and 3-month outcome. We consecutively enrolled 115 patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage (44 females, aged 71.3 ± 13.1 years) and used ELISA to evaluate the serum IgG titers of 9 periodontal pathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter (A.) actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, Fusobacterium (F.) nucleatum, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythensis, Campylobacter rectus, and Eikenella corrodens. Significant hematoma growth was defined as an increase in the volume of >33% or an absolute increase in the volume of >12.5 mL. A poor outcome was defined as a 3 or higher on the modified Rankin Scale. We observed hemorrhage growth in 13 patients (11.3%). Multivariate analysis revealed that increased IgG titers of A. actinomycetemcomitans independently predicted the elevated hemorrhage growth (odds ratio 5.26, 95% confidence interval 1.52-18.25, p = 0.01). Notably, augmented IgG titers of F. nucleatum but not A. actinomycetemcomitans led to a poorer 3-month outcome (odds ratio 7.86, 95% confidence interval 1.08-57.08, p = 0.04). Thus, we demonstrate that elevated serum IgG titers of A. actinomycetemcomitans are an independent factor for predicting cerebral hemorrhage growth and that high serum IgG titers of F. nucleatum may predict a poor outcome in patients with this disease. Together, these novel data reveal how systemic periodontal pathogens may affect stroke patients, and, should, therefore, be taken into consideration in the management and treatment of these individuals.
Project description:Objective:To estimate the actual parameters of bacterial load in subgingival plaque during periodontitis and peri-implantitis pathologies using the RT-PCR (real-time polymerase chain reaction) method and evaluate their associations with clinical periodontal indicators. Materials and Methods:Five different groups of subjects were selected according to a formulated design of the study: with mild/moderate periodontitis, with severe periodontitis, with peri-implantitis, healthy periodontal group and healthy peri-implant group. Subgingival plaque samples were formed with paper points inserted in the pocket/sulcus area for 30 seconds. A standardized test the "ParodontoScreen" was provided for identification of target opportunistic pathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, P. intermedia, T. denticola) by the RT-PCR. Results:Bacterial load parameters demonstrated a significant tendency towards an increase within periodontitis progression and during the presence of peri-implantitis pathology. Each targeted mean bacterial load level was statistically associated with periodontitis or peri-implantitis pathology (p < 0, 05) according to the provided univariate analyses and upon condition that bacterial load parameters of healthy sites were used as reference for equiparation. The highest correlation values were found between periodontal probing depth and bacterial load parameters of A. actinomycetemcomitans (r=0, 37; p < 0, 05) and P. gingivalis (r=0, 28; p < 0, 05); and also between clinical attachment loss and bacterial load values of A. actinomycetemcomitans (r=0, 38; p < 0, 05) and P. gingivalis (r=0, 24; p < 0, 05). Conclusions:Periodontitis and peri-implantitis are associated with the same microbial pathogens even though the distribution pattern of their bacterial load and detection frequency parameters registered with RT-PCR could be distinct and linked to the individual patient-related conditions and the severity stage of pathology.
Project description:Recent studies revealed culturable periodontal keystone pathogens are associated with preterm low birth weight (PLBW). However, the oral microbiome is also comprised of hundreds of 'culture-difficult' or 'not-yet-culturable' bacterial species. To explore the potential role of unculturable and culturable periodontitis-related bacteria in preterm low birth weight (PLBW) delivery, we recruited 90 pregnant women in this prospective study. Periodontal parameters, including pocket probing depth, bleeding on probing, and clinical attachment level were recorded during the second trimester and following interviews on oral hygiene and lifestyle habits. Saliva and serum samples were also collected. After delivery, birth results were recorded. Real-time PCR analyses were performed to quantify the levels of periodontitis-related unculturable bacteria (Eubacterium saphenum, Fretibacterium sp. human oral taxon(HOT) 360, TM7 sp. HOT 356, and Rothia dentocariosa), and cultivable bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia) in saliva samples. In addition, ELISA analyses were used to determine the IgG titres against periodontal pathogens in serum samples. Subjects were categorized into a Healthy group (H, n?=?20) and periodontitis/gingivitis group (PG, n?=?70) according to their periodontal status. The brushing duration was significantly lower in the PG group compared to the H group. Twenty-two of 90 subjects delivered PLBW infants. There was no significant difference in periodontal parameters and serum IgG levels for periodontal pathogens between PLBW and healthy delivery (HD) groups. However, ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher abundance of Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, Fretibacterium sp. HOT360 and lower levels of Rothia dentocariosa were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease during pregnancy. Moreover, the amount of Eubacterium saphenum in saliva and serum IgG against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were negatively correlated with PLBW. Taken together, unculturable periodontitis-associated bacteria may play an important role both in the presence of periodontal inflammation during pregnancy and subsequent PLBW.
Project description:Among putative periodontal pathogens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis are most convincingly implicated as etiological agents in periodontitis. Therefore, techniques for detection of those three species would be of value. We previously published a description of a multiplex PCR that detects A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis. The present paper presents an improvement on that technique, which now allows more sensitive detection of all three periodontal pathogens. Sensitivity was determined by testing serial dilutions of A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, and P. gingivalis cells. Primer specificity was tested against (i) all gene sequences from the GenBank-EMBL database, (ii) six A. actinomycetemcomitans, one B. forsythus, and four P. gingivalis strains, (iii) eight different species of oral bacteria, and (iv) supra- and subgingival plaque samples from 20 healthy subjects and subgingival plaque samples from 10 patients with periodontitis. The multiplex PCR had a detection limit of 10 A. actinomycetemcomitans, 10 P. gingivalis, and 100 B. forsythus cells. Specificity was confirmed by the fact that (i) none of our forward primers were homologous to the 16S rRNA genes of other oral species, (ii) amplicons of predicted size were detected for all A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, and P. gingivalis strains tested, and (iii) no amplicons were detected for the eight other bacterial species. A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, and P. gingivalis were detected in 6 of 20, 1 of 20, and 11 of 20 of supragingival plaque samples, respectively, and 4 of 20, 7 of 20, and 13 of 20 of subgingival plaque samples, respectively, from periodontally healthy subjects. Among patients with periodontitis, the organisms were detected in 7 of 10, 10 of 10, and 7 of 10 samples, respectively. The simultaneous detection of three periodontal pathogens is an advantage of this technique over conventional PCR assays.