Prohibitins and the cytoplasmic domain of CD86 cooperate to mediate CD86 signaling in B lymphocytes.
ABSTRACT: CD86 engagement on a CD40L/IL-4-primed murine B cell activates signaling intermediates that promote NF-?B activation to increase Oct-2 and mature IgG1 mRNA and protein expression, as well as the rate of IgG1 transcription, without affecting class switch recombination. One of the most proximal signaling intermediates identified is phospholipase C?2, a protein reported to bind tyrosine residues, which are absent in the cytoplasmic domain of CD86. Using a proteomics-based identification approach, we show that the tyrosine-containing transmembrane adaptor proteins prohibitin (Phb)1 and Phb2 bind to CD86. The basal expression of Phb1/2 and association with CD86 was low in resting B cells, whereas the level of expression and association increased primarily after priming with CD40. The CD86-induced increase in Oct-2 and IgG1 was less when either Phb1/2 expression was reduced by short hairpin RNA or the cytoplasmic domain of CD86 was truncated or mutated at serine/threonine protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, which did not affect Phb1/2 binding to CD86. Using this approach, we also show that Phb1/2 and the CD86 cytoplasmic domain are required for the CD86-induced phosphorylation of I?B?, which we previously reported leads to NF-?B p50/p65 activation, whereas only Phb1/2 was required for the CD86-induced phosphorylation of phospholipase C?2 and protein kinase C?/?(II), which we have previously reported leads to NF-?B (p65) phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation. Taken together, these findings suggest that Phb1/2 and the CD86 cytoplasmic domain cooperate to mediate CD86 signaling in a B cell through differential phosphorylation of distal signaling intermediates required to increase IgG1.
Project description:Prohibitin 1 (PHB1) is a mitochondrial chaperone whose expression is dysregulated in cancer. In liver cancer, PHB1 acts as a tumor suppressor, but the mechanisms of tumor suppression are incompletely understood. Here we aimed to determine PHB1 target genes to better understand how PHB1 influences liver tumorigenesis. Using RNA-Seq analysis, we found interleukin-8 (IL-8) to be one of the most highly up-regulated genes following PHB1 silencing in HepG2 cells. Induction of IL-8 expression also occurred in multiple liver and nonliver cancer cell lines. We examined samples from 178 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and found that IL-8 mRNA levels were increased, whereas PHB1 mRNA levels were decreased, in the tumors compared with adjacent nontumorous tissues. Notably, HCC patients with high IL-8 expression have significantly reduced survival. An inverse correlation between PHB1 and IL-8 mRNA levels is found in HCCs with reduced PHB1 expression. To understand the molecular basis for these observations, we altered PHB1 levels in liver cancer cells. Overexpression of PHB1 resulted in lowered IL-8 expression and secretion. Silencing PHB1 increased c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-?B activity, induced nuclear accumulation of c-JUN and p65, and enhanced their binding to the IL-8 promoter containing AP-1 and NF-?B elements. Conditioned medium from PHB1-silenced HepG2 cells increased migration and invasion of parental HepG2 and SK-hep-1 cells, and this was blocked by co-treatment with neutralizing IL-8 antibody. In summary, our findings show that reduced PHB1 expression induces IL-8 transcription by activating NF-?B and AP-1, resulting in enhanced IL-8 expression and release to promote tumorigenesis.
Project description:Although prognosis for patients with multiple myeloma has improved over the past decade, research toward discovery of new therapeutic avenues is important and could lead to a cure for this plasma cell malignancy. Here we show that blocking the CD28-CD86 pathway via silencing of either CD28 or CD86 leads to myeloma cell death. Inhibiting this pathway leads to downregulation of integrins and IRF4, a known myeloma survival factor. Our data also indicate that CD86, the canonical ligand in this pathway, has prosurvival activity that is dependent on its cytosolic domain. These findings indicate that targeting of this pathway is a promising therapeutic avenue for myeloma, because it leads to modulation of different processes important in cell viability.
Project description:CD26 is a T cell costimulatory molecule with dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity in its extracellular region. We previously reported that recombinant soluble CD26 enhanced T cell proliferation induced by the recall antigen tetanus toxoid (TT). However, the mechanism involved in this enhancement is not yet elucidated. We now demonstrate that CD26 binds Caveolin-1 on antigen-presenting cells, and that residues 201-211 of CD26 along with the serine catalytic site at residue 630 contribute to binding to caveolin-1 scaffolding domain. In addition, after CD26-caveolin-1 interaction on TT-loaded monocytes, caveolin-1 is phosphorylated, which links to activate NF-kappaB, followed by up-regulation of CD86. Finally, reduced caveolin-1 expression on monocytes inhibits CD26-mediated CD86 up-regulation and abrogates CD26 effect on TT-induced T cell proliferation. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that CD26-caveolin-1 interaction plays a role in the up-regulation of CD86 on TT-loaded monocytes and subsequent engagement with CD28 on T cells, leading to antigen-specific T cell activation.
Project description:Aberrant activity of Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-?B) is associated with many diseases and is therapeutically targeted. Post-translational modifications, particularly phosphorylation of the RELA/p65 sub-unit, are essential for cytoplasmic to nuclear localization of NF-?B/p65 and initiation of transcription of downstream target genes. Immunoblot and phospho-flow cytometry have been used to study the relationship between phosphorylation motifs and NF-?B activation and microscopic analysis of nuclear localization of p65 is also used as a parameter for activation. The labor intensive nature of these approaches commonly limits the number of sampling points or replicates. Recent insights into the relationship between p65 phosphorylation motifs and their nuclear localization indicate that these parameters have different significances and should not be used interchangeably. In this study, we demonstrate feasibility and reproducibility of studying the relationship between p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation using imaging flow cytometry (IFC). TNF?- or PMA/Ionomycin-induced phosphorylation of p65 at serine 529 in cell line models and healthy donor lymphocytes served as the experimental model. IFC analysis demonstrated that expression of phosphorylated serine 529 (P-p65(s529)) increased rapidly following stimulation and that nuclear localization of P-p65(s529) followed the nuclear localization pattern of total p65. However, in the presence of tacrolimus, P-p65(s529) expression was inhibited without affecting nuclear localization of total p65. The data demonstrate the application of IFC to simultaneously assess phosphorylation of p65 and its cellular localization and the results obtained by this analysis corroborate current insights regarding the specific effect of tacrolimus on serine 529 phosphorylation.
Project description:Aberrant regulation of NF-kB pathway is believed to be a major event contributing to malignant transformation and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). P65 consists of a DNA-binding and dimerization domain (RHD), nuclear localization signal (NLS) and transactivation domains (TA1 and TA2). The c-terminal 30 amino acids (TA1 domain) comprise the most important transactivation domain and NF-kB transactivation may be regulated by multiple phosphorylation in this domain. This p536 is located in TA1 domain and is conserved in human, mouse, chicken. We previously discovered that p536 is present in majority of PCa and associated with ERG expression indicating that ERG can significantly enhance phosphorylation of p65 at Ser536 in vivo. We have successfully generated a dominant negative (DN) p65 which has been mutated (S536A) such that it cannot be phosphorylated at Ser 536 and cannot carry out Ser536 phosphorylation dependent functions. We also generated two mutants S536D and S536E which are the phosphomimetic mutant that resembles phospho-p65 and can be detected by anti-phospho-p65 antibody. We carried out microarray studies and discovered a set of p536 regulated genes compared with wild type p65 regulated gene set. Overall design: We established PNT1a stable cell lines expressing WT p65, S536E (active p536), S536A (DN p635) or control (pCDH). Groups were profiled for gene expression.
Project description:Conjunctival goblet cell loss in ocular surface diseases is accompanied by increased number of interleukin-12 (IL-12)-producing antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and increased interferon-? (IFN-?) expression. This study tested the hypothesis that mouse conjunctival goblet cells produce biologically active retinoic acid (RA) that suppresses CD86 expression and IL-12 production by myeloid cells. We found that conditioned media from cultured conjunctival goblet cells (CjCM) suppressed stimulated CD86 expression, NF-?B p65 activation and IL-12 and IFN-? production in unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated cultured bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) containing a mixed population of APCs. Goblet cell-conditioned, ovalbumin-loaded APCs suppressed IFN-? production and increased IL-13 production in co-cultured OTII cells. The goblet cell suppressive activity is due in part to their ability to synthesize RA from retinol. Conjunctival goblet cells had greater expression of aldehyde dehydrogenases Aldh1a1 and a3 and ALDEFLUOR activity than cornea epithelium lacking goblet cells. The conditioning activity was lost in goblet cells treated with an ALDH inhibitor, and a retinoid receptor alpha antagonist blocked the suppressive effects of CjCM on IL-12 production. Similar to RA, CjCM increased expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) in BMDCs. SOCS3 silencing reversed the IL-12-suppressive effects of CjCM. Our findings indicate that conjunctival goblet cells are capable of synthesizing RA from retinol secreted by the lacrimal gland into tears that can condition APCs. Evidence suggests goblet cell RA may function in maintaining conjunctival immune tolerance and loss of conjunctival goblet cells may contribute to increased Th1 priming in dry eye.
Project description:Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is constitutively activated in diverse human malignancies by mechanisms that are not understood. The MUC1 oncoprotein is aberrantly overexpressed by most human carcinomas and, similarly to NF-kappaB, blocks apoptosis and induces transformation. This study demonstrates that overexpression of MUC1 in human carcinoma cells is associated with constitutive activation of NF-kappaB p65. We show that MUC1 interacts with the high-molecular-weight IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex in vivo and that the MUC1 cytoplasmic domain binds directly to IKKbeta and IKKgamma. Interaction of MUC1 with both IKKbeta and IKKgamma is necessary for IKKbeta activation, resulting in phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha. Studies in non-malignant epithelial cells show that MUC1 is recruited to the TNF-R1 complex and interacts with IKKbeta-IKKgamma in response to TNFalpha stimulation. TNFalpha-induced recruitment of MUC1 is dependent on TRADD and TRAF2, but not the death-domain kinase RIP1. In addition, MUC1-mediated activation of IKKbeta is dependent on TAK1 and TAB2. These findings indicate that MUC1 is important for physiological activation of IKKbeta and that overexpression of MUC1, as found in human cancers, confers sustained induction of the IKKbeta-NF-kappaB p65 pathway.
Project description:The activation of naïve T cells requires antigen presentation by dendritic cells (DCs), and the process of antigen presentation is regulated over the course of DC maturation. One key aspect of this regulation is the cell surface up-regulation upon DC maturation of peptide·MHC-II complexes and the costimulatory molecule CD86. It is now clear that these critical induction events involve changes in ubiquitin-dependent trafficking of MHC-II and CD86 by the E3 ligase membrane-associated RING-CH-1 (MARCH1). Although ubiquitin-dependent trafficking of MHC-II has been well characterized, much less is known regarding the post-transcriptional regulation of CD86 expression. Here, we examined the physical and functional interaction between CD86 and MARCH1. We observed that CD86 is rapidly endocytosed in the presence of MARCH1 followed by lysosome-dependent degradation. Furthermore, we found that the association between CD86 and MARCH1 was conferred primarily by the transmembrane domains of the respective proteins. In contrast to MHC-II, which has a single, conserved ubiquitin acceptor site in the cytosolic domain, we found that multiple lysine residues in the cytosolic tail of CD86 could support ubiquitination consistent with the relative lack of sequence conservation across species within the CD86 cytosolic domain. These findings suggest that MARCH1 recruits multiple substrates via transmembrane domain-mediated interactions to permit substrate ubiquitination in the face of diverse cytosolic domain sequences.
Project description:The M1 and M2 states of macrophage are the two extremes of a physiologic/phenotypic continuum that is dynamically influenced by environmental signals. Molecular mechanism analysis indicated that they gain M1 and M2-related functions after encountering specific ligands in the tissue environment. Here, we first characterized the previously unknown immunobiological functions of mouse Tmem106a. This protein is abundantly expressed on the surface of mouse macrophages. Activation of Tmem106a by stimulation with anti-Tmem106a upregulated the expression of CD80, CD86, CD69 and MHC II on macrophage, and induced the release of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, CCL2 and NO, but not IL-10. These effects were largely abrogated by pretreatment with siRNA against Tmem106a. Notably, anti-Tmem106a significantly increased iNOS production and phosphorylation of STAT1, and had no effect on the ARGINASE-1 or p-STAT6 level, indicating that anti-Tmem106a activated macrophages and polarized them into M1-like macrophages. Further analysis found that anti-Tmem106a stimulation increased phosphorylation of ERK-1/2, JNK, p38 MAPK, NF-?B p65 and IKK?/?, and promoted nuclear translocation of the cytosolic NF-?B p65 subunit. Collectively, these data suggest that mouse Tmem106a might be a new trigger of macrophage activation and have some influence toward the M1 state through the activation of the MAPKs and NF-?B pathway.
Project description:Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is constitutively activated in diverse human malignancies. The mucin 1 (MUC1) oncoprotein is overexpressed in human carcinomas and, like NF-kappaB, blocks cell death and induces transformation. The present studies show that MUC1 constitutively associates with NF-kappaB p65 in carcinoma cells. The MUC1 COOH-terminal subunit (MUC1-C) cytoplasmic domain binds directly to NF-kappaB p65 and, importantly, blocks the interaction between NF-kappaB p65 and its inhibitor IkappaBalpha. We show that NF-kappaB p65 and MUC1-C constitutively occupy the promoter of the Bcl-xL gene in carcinoma cells and that MUC1-C contributes to NF-kappaB-mediated transcriptional activation. Studies in nonmalignant epithelial cells show that MUC1-C interacts with NF-kappaB in the response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces the recruitment of NF-kappaB p65-MUC1-C complexes to NF-kappaB target genes, including the promoter of the MUC1 gene itself. We also show that an inhibitor of MUC1-C oligomerization blocks the interaction with NF-kappaB p65 in vitro and in cells. The MUC1-C inhibitor decreases MUC1-C and NF-kappaB p65 promoter occupancy and expression of NF-kappaB target genes. These findings indicate that MUC1-C is a direct activator of NF-kappaB p65 and that an inhibitor of MUC1 function is effective in blocking activation of the NF-kappaB pathway.