Impaired autophagy and delayed autophagic clearance of transforming growth factor ?-induced protein (TGFBI) in granular corneal dystrophy type 2.
ABSTRACT: Granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by a progressive age-dependent extracellular accumulation of transforming growth factor ?-induced protein (TGFBI). Corneal fibroblasts from GCD2 patients also have progressive degenerative features, but the mechanism underlying this degeneration remains unknown. Here we observed that TGFBI was degraded by autophagy, but not by the ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway. We also found that GCD2 homozygous corneal fibroblasts displayed a greater number of fragmented mitochondria. Most notably, mutant TGFBI (mut-TGFBI) extensively colocalized with microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3? (MAP1LC3B, hereafter referred to as LC3)-enriched cytosolic vesicles and CTSD in primary cultured GCD2 corneal fibroblasts. Levels of LC3-II, a marker of autophagy activation, were significantly increased in GCD2 corneal fibroblasts. Nevertheless, levels of SQSTM1/p62 and of polyubiquitinated protein were also significantly increased in GCD2 corneal fibroblasts compared with wild-type (WT) cells. However, LC3-II levels did not differ significantly between WT and GCD2 cells, as assessed by the presence of bafilomycin A 1, the fusion blocker of autophagosomes and lysosomes. Likewise, bafilomycin A 1 caused a similar change in levels of SQSTM1. Thus, the increase in autophagosomes containing mut-TGFBI may be due to inefficient fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes. Rapamycin, an autophagy activator, decreased mut-TGFBI, whereas inhibition of autophagy increased active caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and reduced the viability of GCD2 corneal fibroblasts compared with WT controls. These data suggest that defective autophagy may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of GCD2.
Project description:Granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2) is the most common form of transforming growth factor ?-induced (TGFBI) gene-linked corneal dystrophy and is pathologically characterized by the corneal deposition of mutant-TGFBIp. The defective autophagic degradation of pathogenic mutant-TGFBIp has been shown in GCD2; however, its exact mechanisms are unknown. To address this, we investigated lysosomal functions using corneal fibroblasts. Levels of cathepsins K and L (CTSK and CTSL) were significantly decreased in GCD2 cells, but of cathepsins B and D (CTSB and CTSD) did not change. The maturation of the pro-enzymes to their active forms (CTSB, CTSK and CTSL) was inhibited in GCD2 cells. CTSL enzymes directly degraded both LC3 (autophagosomes marker) and mutant-TGFBIp. Exogenous CTSL expression dramatically reduced mutant-TGFBIp in GCD2 cells, but not TGFBIp in WT cells. An increased lysosomal pH and clustered lysosomal perinuclear position were found in GCD2 cells. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) levels were significantly reduced in GCD2 cells, compared to WT. Notably, exogenous TFEB expression improved mutant-TGFBIp clearance and lysosomal abnormalities in GCD2 cells. Taken together, lysosomal dysfunction in the corneal fibroblasts underlies the pathogenesis of GCD2, and TFEB has a therapeutic potential in the treatment of GCD2.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of various tissues and cell lines. Progressive accumulation of mutant TGFBIp is directly involved in the pathogenesis of TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophy. Recent studies reported that mutant TGFBIp accumulates in cells; however, the trafficking of TGFBIp is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated TGFBIp trafficking to determine the route of its internalization and secretion and to elucidate its roles in the pathogenesis of granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). Our data indicate that newly synthesized TGFBIp was secreted via the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi-dependent secretory pathway, and this secretion was delayed in the corneal fibroblasts of patients with GCD2. We also found that TGFBIp was internalized by caveolae-mediated endocytosis, and the internalized TGFBIp accumulated after treatment with bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of lysosomal degradation. In addition, the proteasome inhibitor MG132 inhibits the endocytosis of TGFBIp. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that TGFBIp interacted with integrin ?V?3. Moreover, treatment with arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) tripeptide suppressed the internalization of TGFBIp. These insights on TGFBIp trafficking could lead to the identification of novel targets and the development of new therapies for TGFBI-linked corneal dystrophy.
Project description:PURPOSE: To identify clinical features and mutations within the transforming growth factor-beta-induced (TGFBI) gene in three Chinese families with Granular corneal dystrophy, type 1 (GCD1) and Granular corneal dystrophy, type 2 (GCD2). METHODS: Clinical features of GCD1 and GCD2 in three Chinese families were studied with slit-lamp and in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM). Molecular genetic analysis was performed on nine patients and fifteen unaffected individuals from these families. All exons of TGFBI were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. RESULTS: Morphological changes in the cornea among affected individuals from three Chinese families examined by in vivo LSCM were almost the same. A heterozygous mutation C>T (R555W) was identified in exon 12 of TGFBI in patients of family A with GCD1. Another heterozygous mutation G>A (R124H) was found in exon 4 of TGFBI in affected members of family B and C with GCD2. CONCLUSIONS: Mutations R555W and R124H in TGFBI were identified in three Chinese families with GCD. Even though there are a variety of mutations in TGFBI of GCD, the different subtypes of GCD (GCD1, GCD2, and GCD3) are in fact the same disorder. Our work supports the hypothesis that corneal dystrophies with the common genetic basis in TGFBI should be grouped together as TGFBI corneal dystrophies.
Project description:We have previously shown that elevated expression of mitotic kinase aurora kinase A (AURKA) in cancer cells promotes the development of metastatic phenotypes and is associated clinically with adverse prognosis. Here, we first revealed a clinically positive correlation between AURKA and autophagy-associated protein SQSTM1 in breast cancer and further demonstrated that AURKA regulated SQSTM1 through autophagy. Indeed, depletion by siRNA or chemical inhibition of AURKA by the small molecule VX-680 increased both the level of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and the number of autophagosomes, along with decreased SQSTM1. Conversely, overexpression of AURKA inhibited autophagy, as assessed by decreased LC3-II and increased SQSTM1 either upon nutrient deprivation or normal conditions. In addition, phosphorylated forms of both RPS6KB1 and mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) were elevated by overexpression of AURKA whereas they were suppressed by depletion or inhibition of AURKA. Moreover, inhibition of MTOR by PP242, an inhibitor of MTOR complex1/2, abrogated the changes in both LC3-II and SQSTM1 in AURKA-overexpressing BT-549 cells, suggesting that AURKA-suppressed autophagy might be associated with MTOR activation. Lastly, repression of autophagy by depletion of either LC3 or ATG5, sensitized breast cancer cells to VX-680-induced apoptosis. Similar findings were observed in cells treated with the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine (CQ) and bafilomycin A 1 (BAF). Our data thus revealed a novel role of AURKA as a negative regulator of autophagy, showing that AURKA inhibition induced autophagy, which may represent a novel mechanism of drug resistance in apoptosis-aimed therapy for breast cancer.
Project description:Activation of TLR signaling has been shown to induce autophagy in antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Using high-resolution microscopy approaches, we show that in LPS-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), autophagosomes emerge from MHC class II compartments (MIICs) and harbor both the molecular machinery for antigen processing and the autophagosome markers LC3 and ATG16L1. This ENdosome-Mediated Autophagy (ENMA) appears to be the major type of autophagy in DCs, as similar structures were observed upon established autophagy-inducing conditions (nutrient deprivation, rapamycin) and under basal conditions in the presence of bafilomycin A1. Autophagosome formation was not significantly affected in DCs expressing ATG4B (C74A) mutant and atg4b (-/-) bone marrow DCs, but the degradation of the autophagy substrate SQSTM1/p62 was largely impaired. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the previously described DC aggresome-like LPS-induced structures (DALIS) contain vesicular membranes, and in addition to SQSTM1 and ubiquitin, they are positive for LC3. LC3 localization on DALIS is independent of its lipidation. MIIC-driven autophagosomes preferentially engulf the LPS-induced SQSTM1-positive DALIS, which become later degraded in autolysosomes. DALIS-associated membranes also contain ATG16L1, ATG9 and the Q-SNARE VTI1B, suggesting that they may represent (at least in part) a membrane reservoir for autophagosome expansion. We propose that ENMA constitutes an unconventional, APC-specific type of autophagy, which mediates the processing and presentation of cytosolic antigens by MHC class II machinery, and/or the selective clearance of toxic by-products of elevated ROS/RNS production in activated DCs, thereby promoting their survival.
Project description:We characterized the dynamics of autophagy in vitro using four different cell systems and analyzing markers widely used in this field, i.e. LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; protein recruited from the cytosol (LC3-I) to the autophagosomal membrane where it is lipidated (LC3-II)) and p62/SQSTM1 (adaptor protein that serves as a link between LC3 and ubiquitinated substrates), (Klionsky et al., 2016) . Data provided include analyses of protein levels of LC3 and p62 by Western-blotting and endogenous immunofluorescence experiments, but also p62 mRNA levels obtained by quantitative PCR (qPCR). To monitor the turnover of these autophagy markers and, thus, measure the flux of this pathway, cells were under starvation conditions and/or treated with bafilomycin A1 (Baf. A1) to block fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes.
Project description:PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical and genetic features of Korean patients with corneal dystrophies associated with mutations in the human transforming growth factor-β-induced (TGFBI) gene. METHODS: In this study, 387 subjects (71 families and 89 individuals - 268 patients having TGFBI corneal dystrophies and 119 normal relatives) were assessed. All subjects underwent a complete ophthalmologic evaluation, including biomicroscopic inspection and dilated fundus examination. As a control, 100 individuals without corneal disease were selected from the general population. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing were used to screen for mutations in TGFBI. RESULTS: All subjects recruited exhibited a range of corneal dystrophies, including Thiel-Behnke corneal dystrophy (TBCD, R555Q; 6 families and 4 individuals), granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2, R124H; 61 families and 80 individuals), lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD; 4 families and 5 individuals; 7 with type 1 [R124C], and 2 with a variant [L527R, P542R]). The disease showed an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern in all families. CONCLUSIONS: R124H in GCD2 was the most common mutation. GCD1 and Reis-Bucklers corneal dystrophy were not found. In the GCD2 patients there were a large number of laser refractive surgery-induced corneal opacities. A spontaneous R124H mutation was confirmed in an already mutated allele that resulted in a change from a heterozygous into a homozygous form. Also, a novel mutation, P527R, was identified in LCD.
Project description:We have previously reported that the mitochondria inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), induces the expression of DNA damage-regulated autophagy modulator1 (DRAM1) and activation of autophagy in rat striatum. Although the role of DRAM1 in autophagy has been previously characterized, the detailed mechanism by which DRAM1 regulates autophagy activity has not been fully understood. The present study investigated the role of DRAM1 in regulating autophagy flux. In A549 cells expressing wilt-type TP53, 3-NP increased the protein levels of DRAM1 and LC3-II, whereas decreased the levels of SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1). The increase in LC3-II and decrease in SQSTM1 were blocked by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl-adenine. Lack of TP53 or knock-down of TP53 in cells impaired the induction of DRAM1. Knock-down of DRAM1 with siRNA significantly reduced 3-NP-induced upregulation of LC3-II and downregulation of SQSTM1, indicating DRAM1 contributes to autophagy activation. Knock-down of DRAM1 robustly decreased rate of disappearance of induced autophagosomes, increased RFP-LC3 fluorescence dots and decreased the decline of LC3-II after withdraw of rapamycin, indicating DRAM1 promotes autophagy flux. DRAM1 siRNA inhibited lysosomal V-ATPase and acidification of lysosomes. As a result, DRAM1 siRNA reduced activation of lysosomal cathepsin D. Similar to DRAM1 siRNA, lysosomal inhibitors E64d and chloroquine also inhibited clearance of autophagosomes and activation of lysosomal cathapsin D after 3-NP treatment. These data suggest that DRAM1 plays important roles in autophagy activation induced by mitochondria dysfunction. DRAM1 affects autophagy through argument of lysosomal acidification, fusion of lysosomes with autophagosomes and clearance of autophagosomes.
Project description:Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7nAChR) has been reported to alleviate neuroinflammation. Here, we aimed to determine the role of autophagy in ?7nAChR-mediated inhibition of neuroinflammation and its underlying mechanism. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia were used as in vivo and in vitro models of neuroinflammation, respectively. The severity of EAE was evaluated with neurological scoring. Autophagy-related proteins (Beclin 1, LC3-II/I, p62/SQSTM1) were detected by immunoblot. Autophagosomes were observed using transmission electron microscopy and tandem fluorescent mRFP-GFP-LC3 plasmid was applied to test autophagy flux. The mRNA levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were detected by real-time PCR. We used 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and autophagy-related gene 5 small interfering RNA (Atg5 siRNA) to block autophagy in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Activating ?7nAChR with PNU282987 ameliorates EAE severity and spinal inflammatory infiltration in EAE mice. PNU282987 treatment also enhanced monocyte/microglia autophagy (Beclin 1, LC3-II/I ratio, p62/SQSTM1, colocalization of CD45- or CD68-positive cells with LC3) both in spinal cord and spleen from EAE mice. The beneficial effects of PNU282987 on EAE mice were partly abolished by 3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor. In vitro, PNU282987 treatment increased autophagy and promoted autophagy flux. Blockade of autophagy by Atg5 siRNA or bafilomycin A1 attenuated the inhibitory effect of PNU282987 on IL-6, IL-1?, IL-18, and TNF-? mRNA. Our results demonstrate for the first time that activating ?7nAChR enhances monocyte/microglia autophagy, which suppresses neuroinflammation and thus plays an alleviative role in EAE.
Project description:PURPOSE: To analyze human transforming growth factor b-induced (TGFBI) gene mutations in Chinese patients with corneal dystrophies (CDs). METHODS: Twenty-one families with corneal dystrophies were subjected to phenotypic and genotypic characterization. The corneal phenotypes of patients were documented by slit lamp photography. Mutation screening of the coding regions of TGFBI was performed by direct sequencing. An additional 43 families and 3 sporadic patients with TGFBI dystrophies from China reported in the literature were reviewed. RESULTS: Five mutations of TGFBI were identified in 21 families with CDs, including one novel small deletion mutation, c.delta1838-1849 (p.Delta613-616VAEP), responsible for one variant lattice CD (LCD) family and 4 known mutations, R555W mutation for 10 granular cornea dystrophy type I (GCD1) families, R124H for 5 GCD type II (GCD2), R124C for 4 LCD1, and H626R for one variant LCD. In a cohort of Chinese patients (n=355) with TGFBI dystrophies from 64 families and 3 sporadic cases, 19 distinct mutations were found in several different CD subtypes. The 3 most common phenotypes were ranked as follows: GCD1, GCD2, and LCD1. Mutation hot spots at R124 and R555 occurred in >80% of these families. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings extend the mutational spectrum of TFGBI, and this is also the first extensively delineated TGFBI mutation profile associated with the various corneal dystrophies in the Chinese population.