Structure-guided engineering of Lactococcus lactis alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA for improved conversion of isobutyraldehyde to isobutanol.
ABSTRACT: We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA from Lactococcus lactis and its laboratory-evolved variant LlAdhA(RE1) at 1.9? and 2.5? resolution, respectively. LlAdhA(RE1), which contains three amino acid mutations (Y50F, I212T, and L264V), was engineered to increase the microbial production of isobutanol (2-methylpropan-1-ol) from isobutyraldehyde (2-methylpropanal). Structural comparison of LlAdhA and LlAdhA(RE1) indicates that the enhanced activity on isobutyraldehyde stems from increases in the protein's active site size, hydrophobicity, and substrate access. Further structure-guided mutagenesis generated a quadruple mutant (Y50F/N110S/I212T/L264V), whose KM for isobutyraldehyde is ?17-fold lower and catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) is ?160-fold higher than wild-type LlAdhA. Combining detailed structural information and directed evolution, we have achieved significant improvements in non-native alcohol dehydrogenase activity that will facilitate the production of next-generation fuels such as isobutanol from renewable resources.
Project description:Isobutanol is a flammable compound that can be used as a biofuel due to its high energy density and suitable physical and chemical properties. In this study, we examined the capacity of engineered strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 containing the ?-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase from Lactococcus lactis and different heterologous and endogenous alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) for isobutanol production. A strain expressing an introduced kivd without any additional copy of ADH produced 3 mg L-1 OD750-1 isobutanol in 6 days. After the cultures were supplemented with external addition of isobutyraldehyde, the substrate for ADH, 60.8 mg L-1 isobutanol was produced after 24 h when OD750 was 0.8. The in vivo activities of four different ADHs, two heterologous and two putative endogenous in Synechocystis, were examined and the Synechocystis endogenous ADH encoded by slr1192 showed the highest efficiency for isobutanol production. Furthermore, the strain overexpressing the isobutanol pathway on a self-replicating vector with the strong Ptrc promoter showed significantly higher gene expression and isobutanol production compared to the corresponding strains expressing the same operon introduced on the genome. Hence, this study demonstrates that Synechocystis endogenous AHDs have a high capacity for isobutanol production, and identifies kivd encoded ?-ketoisovalerate decarboxylase as one of the likely bottlenecks for further isobutanol production.
Project description:A synthetic inducible operon (IbPSO) expressing alsS, ilvC, ilvD and kivD genes encoding a pathway capable to transform pyruvate into 2-isobutyraldehyde has been designed and two recombinant plasmids named pIZIbPSO and p424IbPSO were constructed. The IbPSO containing plasmids can generate in a single transformation event new recombinant isobutanol producer strains and are useful for testing as suitable hosts wild type bacteria in different culture media. In this way we found that Shimwellia blattae (p424IbPSO) was able to produce in flasks up to 6 g l(-1) of isobutanol using glucose as carbon source. Moreover, for the first time, we have demonstrated that isobutanol can be produced from sucrose using Escherichia coli W (ATCC9367) transformed with pIZIbPSO. These robust recombinant strains were also able to produce isobutanol from a raw carbon source like hydrolysed lignocellulosic biomass.
Project description:The production of isobutanol in microorganisms has recently been achieved by harnessing the highly active 2-keto acid pathways. Since these 2-keto acids are precursors of amino acids, we aimed to construct an isobutanol production platform in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a well-known amino-acid-producing microorganism. Analysis of this host's sensitivity to isobutanol toxicity revealed that C. glutamicum shows an increased tolerance to isobutanol relative to Escherichia coli. Overexpression of alsS of Bacillus subtilis, ilvC and ilvD of C. glutamicum, kivd of Lactococcus lactis, and a native alcohol dehydrogenase, adhA, led to the production of 2.6 g/L isobutanol and 0.4 g/L 3-methyl-1-butanol in 48 h. In addition, other higher chain alcohols such as 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 1-butanol, and 2-phenylethanol were also detected as byproducts. Using longer-term batch cultures, isobutanol titers reached 4.0 g/L after 96 h with wild-type C. glutamicum as a host. Upon the inactivation of several genes to direct more carbon through the isobutanol pathway, we increased production by approximately 25% to 4.9 g/L isobutanol in a pycldh background. These results show promise in engineering C. glutamicum for higher chain alcohol production using the 2-keto acid pathways.
Project description:Fermentation enables the production of reduced metabolites, such as the biofuels ethanol and butanol, from fermentable sugars. This work demonstrates a general approach for designing and constructing a production host that uses a heterologous pathway as an obligately fermentative pathway to produce reduced metabolites, specifically, the biofuel isobutanol. Elementary mode analysis was applied to design an Escherichia coli strain optimized for isobutanol production under strictly anaerobic conditions. The central metabolism of E. coli was decomposed into 38,219 functional, unique, and elementary modes (EMs). The model predictions revealed that during anaerobic growth E. coli cannot produce isobutanol as the sole fermentative product. By deleting 7 chromosomal genes, the total 38,219 EMs were constrained to 12 EMs, 6 of which can produce high yields of isobutanol in a range from 0.29 to 0.41 g isobutanol/g glucose under anaerobic conditions. The remaining 6 EMs rely primarily on the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC) and are typically inhibited under anaerobic conditions. The redesigned E. coli strain was constrained to employ the anaerobic isobutanol pathways through deletion of 7 chromosomal genes, addition of 2 heterologous genes, and overexpression of 5 genes. Here we present the design, construction, and characterization of an isobutanol-producing E. coli strain to illustrate the approach. The model predictions are evaluated in relation to experimental data and strategies proposed to improve anaerobic isobutanol production. We also show that the endogenous alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase AdhE is the key enzyme responsible for the production of isobutanol and ethanol under anaerobic conditions. The glycolytic flux can be controlled to regulate the ratio of isobutanol to ethanol production.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The branched chain alcohol isobutanol exhibits superior physicochemical properties as an alternative biofuel. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae naturally produces low amounts of isobutanol as a by-product during fermentations, resulting from the catabolism of valine. As S. cerevisiae is widely used in industrial applications and can easily be modified by genetic engineering, this microorganism is a promising host for the fermentative production of higher amounts of isobutanol. RESULTS: Isobutanol production could be improved by re-locating the valine biosynthesis enzymes Ilv2, Ilv5 and Ilv3 from the mitochondrial matrix into the cytosol. To prevent the import of the three enzymes into yeast mitochondria, N-terminally shortened Ilv2, Ilv5 and Ilv3 versions were constructed lacking their mitochondrial targeting sequences. SDS-PAGE and immunofluorescence analyses confirmed expression and re-localization of the truncated enzymes. Growth tests or enzyme assays confirmed enzymatic activities. Isobutanol production was only increased in the absence of valine and the simultaneous blockage of the mitochondrial valine synthesis pathway. Isobutanol production could be even more enhanced after adapting the codon usage of the truncated valine biosynthesis genes to the codon usage of highly expressed glycolytic genes. Finally, a suitable ketoisovalerate decarboxylase, Aro10, and alcohol dehydrogenase, Adh2, were selected and overexpressed. The highest isobutanol titer was 0.63?g/L at a yield of nearly 15?mg per g glucose. CONCLUSION: A cytosolic isobutanol production pathway was successfully established in yeast by re-localization and optimization of mitochondrial valine synthesis enzymes together with overexpression of Aro10 decarboxylase and Adh2 alcohol dehydrogenase. Driving forces were generated by blocking competition with the mitochondrial valine pathway and by omitting valine from the fermentation medium. Additional deletion of pyruvate decarboxylase genes and engineering of co-factor imbalances should lead to even higher isobutanol production.
Project description:It is theoretically possible to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in which isobutanol is the predominant catabolic product and high-yielding isobutanol-producing strains are already reported by industry. Conversely, isobutanol yields of engineered S. cerevisiae strains reported in the scientific literature typically remain far below 10% of the theoretical maximum. This study explores possible reasons for these suboptimal yields by a mass-balancing approach. A cytosolically located, cofactor-balanced isobutanol pathway, consisting of a mosaic of bacterial enzymes whose in vivo functionality was confirmed by complementation of null mutations in branched-chain amino acid metabolism, was expressed in S. cerevisiae. Product formation by the engineered strain was analysed in shake flasks and bioreactors. In aerobic cultures, the pathway intermediate isobutyraldehyde was oxidized to isobutyrate rather than reduced to isobutanol. Moreover, significant concentrations of the pathway intermediates 2,3-dihydroxyisovalerate and ?-ketoisovalerate, as well as diacetyl and acetoin, accumulated extracellularly. While the engineered strain could not grow anaerobically, micro-aerobic cultivation resulted in isobutanol formation at a yield of 0.018±0.003 mol/mol glucose. Simultaneously, 2,3-butanediol was produced at a yield of 0.649±0.067 mol/mol glucose. These results identify massive accumulation of pathway intermediates, as well as overflow metabolites derived from acetolactate, as an important, previously underestimated contributor to the suboptimal yields of 'academic' isobutanol strains. The observed patterns of by-product formation is consistent with the notion that in vivo activity of the iron-sulphur-cluster-requiring enzyme dihydroxyacid dehydratase is a key bottleneck in the present and previously described 'academic' isobutanol-producing yeast strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Isobutanol, a C4 branched-chain higher alcohol, is regarded as an attractive next-generation transport fuel. Metabolic engineering for efficient isobutanol production has been achieved in many studies. BmoR, an alcohol-regulated transcription factor, mediates a ?54-dependent promoter Pbmo of alkane monooxygenase in n-alkane metabolism of Thauera butanivorans and displays high sensitivity to C4-C6 linear alcohols and C3-C5 branched-chain alcohols. In this study, to achieve the high-level production of isobutanol, we established a screening system which relied on the combination of BmoR-based biosensor and isobutanol biosynthetic pathway and then employed it to screen isobutanol overproduction strains from an ARTP mutagenesis library. RESULTS:Firstly, we constructed and verified a GFP-based BmoR-Pbmo device responding to the isobutanol produced by the host. Then, this screening system was employed to select three mutants which exhibited higher GFP/OD600 values than that of wild type. Significantly, GFP/OD600 of mutant 10 was 190.7?±?4.8, a 1.4-fold higher value than that of wild type. Correspondingly, the isobutanol titer of that strain was 1597.6?±?129.6 mg/L, 2.0-fold higher than the wild type. With the overexpression of upstream pathway genes, the isobutanol production from mutant 10 reached 14.0?±?1.0 g/L after medium optimization in shake flask. The isobutanol titer reached 56.5?±?1.8 g/L in a fed-batch production experiment. CONCLUSIONS:This work screened out isobutanol overproduction strains from a mutagenesis library by using a screening system which depended on the combination of BmoR-based biosensor and isobutanol biosynthetic pathway. Optimizing fermentation condition and reinforcing upstream pathway could realize the increase of isobutanol production from the overproducer. Lastly, fed-batch fermentation of the mutant enhanced the isobutanol production to 56.5?±?1.8 g/L.
Project description:Escherichia coli has been engineered to produce isobutanol, with titers reaching greater than the toxicity level. However, the specific effects of isobutanol on the cell have never been fully understood. Here, we aim to identify genotype-phenotype relationships in isobutanol response. An isobutanol-tolerant mutant was isolated with serial transfers. Using whole-genome sequencing followed by gene repair and knockout, we identified five mutations (acrA, gatY, tnaA, yhbJ, and marCRAB) that were primarily responsible for the increased isobutanol tolerance. We successfully reconstructed the tolerance phenotype by combining deletions of these five loci, and identified glucosamine-6-phosphate as an important metabolite for isobutanol tolerance, which presumably enhanced membrane synthesis. The isobutanol-tolerant mutants also show increased tolerance to n-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol, but showed no improvement in ethanol tolerance and higher sensitivity to hexane and chloramphenicol than the parental strain. These results suggest that C4, C5 alcohol stress impacts the cell differently compared with the general solvent or antibiotic stresses. Interestingly, improved isobutanol tolerance did not increase the final titer of isobutanol production.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Decarboxylation of ?-ketoisovalerate to isobutyraldehyde is a key reaction in metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for isobutanol production with published studies relying on overexpression of either the native ARO10 gene or of the Lactococcus lactis kivD decarboxylase gene resulting in low enzymatic activities. Here, we compare relevant properties for isobutanol production of Aro10, KivD and an additional, less studied, L. lactis decarboxylase KdcA. RESULTS:To eliminate interference by native decarboxylases, each 2-oxo acid decarboxylase was overexpressed in a 'decarboxylase-negative' (pdc1? pdc5? pdc6? aro10?) S. cerevisiae background. Kinetic analyses in cell extracts revealed a superior V max/K m ratio of KdcA for ?-ketoisovalerate and a wide range of linear and branched-chain 2-oxo acids. However, KdcA also showed the highest activity with pyruvate which, in engineered strains, can contribute to formation of ethanol as a by-product. Removal of native decarboxylase genes eliminated growth on valine as sole nitrogen source and subsequent complementation of this growth impairment by expression of each decarboxylase indicated that based on the increased growth rate, the in vivo activity of KdcA with ?-ketoisovalerate was higher than that of KivD and Aro10. Moreover, during oxygen-limited incubation in the presence of glucose, strains expressing kdcA or kivD showed a ca. twofold higher in vivo rate of conversion of ?-ketoisovalerate into isobutanol than an ARO10-expressing strain. Finally, cell extracts from cultures grown on different nitrogen sources revealed increased activity of constitutively expressed KdcA after growth on both valine and phenylalanine, while KivD and Aro10 activity was only increased after growth on phenylalanine suggesting a difference in the regulation of these enzymes. CONCLUSIONS:This study illustrates important differences in substrate specificity, enzyme kinetics and functional expression between different decarboxylases in the context of isobutanol production and identifies KdcA as a promising alternative decarboxylase not only for isobutanol production but also for other branched-chain and linear alcohols.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Isobutanol is considered as a leading candidate for the replacement of current fossil fuels, and expected to be produced biotechnologically. Owing to the valuable features, Bacillus subtilis has been engineered as an isobutanol producer, whereas it needs to be further optimized for more efficient production. Since elementary mode analysis (EMA) is a powerful tool for systematical analysis of metabolic network structures and cell metabolism, it might be of great importance in the rational strain improvement. RESULTS: Metabolic network of the isobutanol-producing B. subtilis BSUL03 was first constructed for EMA. Considering the actual cellular physiological state, 239 elementary modes (EMs) were screened from total 11,342 EMs for potential target prediction. On this basis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) were predicted as the most promising inactivation candidates according to flux flexibility analysis and intracellular flux distribution simulation. Then, the in silico designed mutants were experimentally constructed. The maximal isobutanol yield of the LDH- and PDHC-deficient strain BSUL05 reached 61% of the theoretical value to 0.36 ± 0.02 C-mol isobutanol/C-mol glucose, which was 2.3-fold of BSUL03. Moreover, this mutant produced approximately 70 % more isobutanol to the maximal titer of 5.5 ± 0.3 g/L in fed-batch fermentations. CONCLUSIONS: EMA was employed as a guiding tool to direct rational improvement of the engineered isobutanol-producing B. subtilis. The consistency between model prediction and experimental results demonstrates the rationality and accuracy of this EMA-based approach for target identification. This network-based rational strain improvement strategy could serve as a promising concept to engineer efficient B. subtilis hosts for isobutanol, as well as other valuable products.