Cdc42 interacts with the exocyst complex to promote phagocytosis.
ABSTRACT: The process of phagocytosis in multicellular organisms is required for homeostasis, clearance of foreign particles, and establishment of long-term immunity, yet the molecular determinants of uptake are not well characterized. Cdc42, a Rho guanosine triphosphatase, is thought to orchestrate critical actin remodeling events needed for internalization. In this paper, we show that Cdc42 controls exocytic events during phagosome formation. Cdc42 inactivation led to a selective defect in large particle phagocytosis as well as a general decrease in the rate of membrane flow to the cell surface. Supporting the connection between Cdc42 and exocytic function, we found that the overproduction of a regulator of exocytosis, Rab11, rescued the large particle uptake defect in the absence of Cdc42. Additionally, we demonstrated a temporal interaction between Cdc42 and the exocyst complex during large particle uptake. Furthermore, disruption of exocyst function through Exo70 depletion led to a defect in large particle internalization, thereby establishing a functional role for the exocyst complex during phagocytosis.
Project description:The Rho3 and Cdc42 members of the Rho GTPase family are important regulators of exocytosis in yeast. However, the precise mechanism by which they regulate this process is controversial. Here, we present evidence that the Exo70 component of the exocyst complex is a direct effector of both Rho3 and Cdc42. We identify gain-of-function mutants in EXO70 that potently suppress mutants in RHO3 and CDC42 defective for exocytic function. We show that Exo70 has the biochemical properties expected of a direct effector for both Rho3 and Cdc42. Surprisingly, we find that C-terminal prenylation of these GTPases both promotes the interaction and influences the sites of binding within Exo70. Finally, we demonstrate that the phenotypes associated with novel loss-of-function mutants in EXO70, are entirely consistent with Exo70 as an effector for both Rho3 and Cdc42 function in secretion. These data suggest that interaction with the Exo70 component of the exocyst is a key event in spatial regulation of exocytosis by Rho GTPases.
Project description:The exocyst complex plays a critical role in determining both temporal and spatial dynamics of exocytic vesicle tethering and fusion with the plasma membrane. However, the mechanism by which the exocyst functions and how it is regulated remain poorly understood. Here we describe a novel biochemical assay for the examination of exocyst function in vesicle tethering. Importantly, the assay is stimulated by gain-of-function mutations in the Exo70 component of the exocyst, selected for their ability to bypass Rho/Cdc42 activation in vivo. Single-particle electron microscopy and 3D reconstructions of negatively stained exocyst complexes reveal a structural change in the mutant exocyst that exposes a binding site for the v-SNARE. We demonstrate a v-SNARE requirement in our tethering assay and increased v-SNARE binding to exocyst gain-of-function complexes. Together, these data suggest an allosteric mechanism for activation involving a conformational change in one subunit of the complex, which is relayed through the complex to regulate its biochemical activity in vitro, as well as overall function in vivo.
Project description:The exocyst is an octameric molecular complex that drives vesicle trafficking in adipocytes, a rate-limiting step in insulin-dependent glucose uptake. This study assessed the role of the exocyst complex in regulating free fatty acid (FFA) uptake by adipocytes. Upon differentiating into adipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells acquire the ability to incorporate extracellular FFAs in an insulin-dependent manner. A kinetic assay using fluoresceinated FFA (C12 dodecanoic acid) uptake allows the real-time monitoring of FFA internalization by adipocytes. The insulin-dependent uptake of C12 dodecanoic acid by 3T3-L1 adipocytes is mediated by Akt and phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase. Gene silencing of the exocyst components Exo70 and Sec8 significantly reduced insulin-dependent FFA uptake by adipocytes. Consistent with the roles played by Exo70 and Sec8 in FFA uptake, mCherry-tagged Exo70 and HA-tagged Sec8 partially colocalize with lipid droplets within adipocytes, suggesting their active roles in the development of lipid droplets. Tubulin polymerization was also found to regulate FFA uptake in collaboration with the exocyst complex. This study demonstrates a novel role played by the exocyst complex in the regulation of FFA uptake by adipocytes.
Project description:The exocyst is a eukaryotic tethering complex necessary for the fusion of exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane. Its function in vivo is tightly regulated by interactions with multiple small GTPases. Exo70, one of the eight subunits of the exocyst, is important for the localization of the exocyst to the plasma membrane. It interacts with TC10 and Rho3 GTPases in mammals and yeast, respectively, and has been shown recently to bind to the actin-polymerization complex Arp2/3. Here, we present the crystal structure of Mus musculus Exo70 at 2.25 A resolution. Exo70 is composed of alpha-helices in a series of right-handed helix-turn-helix motifs organized into a long rod of length 170 A and width 35 A. Although the alpha-helical organization of this molecule is similar to that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Exo70, major structural differences are observed on the surface of the molecule, at the domain boundaries, and in various loop structures. In particular, the C-terminal domain of M. musculus Exo70 adopts a new orientation relative to the N-terminal half not seen in S. cerevisiae Exo70 structures. Given the low level of sequence conservation within Exo70, this structure provides new insights into our understanding of many species-specific functions of the exocyst.
Project description:Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, meningitis, or abortion. Listeria induces its internalization (entry) into some human cells through interaction of the bacterial surface protein InlB with its host receptor, the Met tyrosine kinase. InlB and Met promote entry, in part, through stimulation of localized exocytosis. How exocytosis is upregulated during entry is not understood. Here, we show that the human signaling proteins mTOR, protein kinase C-? (PKC-?), and RalA promote exocytosis during entry by controlling the scaffolding protein Filamin A (FlnA). InlB-mediated uptake was accompanied by PKC-?-dependent phosphorylation of serine 2152 in FlnA. Depletion of FlnA by RNA interference (RNAi) or expression of a mutated FlnA protein defective in phosphorylation impaired InlB-dependent internalization. These findings indicate that phosphorylation of FlnA by PKC-? contributes to entry. mTOR and RalA were found to mediate the recruitment of FlnA to sites of InlB-mediated entry. Depletion of PKC-?, mTOR, or FlnA each reduced exocytosis during InlB-mediated uptake. Because the exocyst complex is known to mediate polarized exocytosis, we examined if PKC-?, mTOR, RalA, or FlnA affects this complex. Depletion of PKC-?, mTOR, RalA, or FlnA impaired recruitment of the exocyst component Exo70 to sites of InlB-mediated entry. Experiments involving knockdown of Exo70 or other exocyst proteins demonstrated an important role for the exocyst complex in uptake of Listeria Collectively, our results indicate that PKC-?, mTOR, RalA, and FlnA comprise a signaling pathway that mobilizes the exocyst complex to promote infection by Listeria.
Project description:Cell morphogenesis depends on polarized exocytosis. One widely held model posits that long-range transport and exocyst-dependent tethering of exocytic vesicles at the plasma membrane sequentially drive this process. Here, we describe that disruption of either actin-based long-range transport and microtubules or the exocyst did not abolish polarized growth in rod-shaped fission yeast cells. However, disruption of both actin cables and exocyst led to isotropic growth. Exocytic vesicles localized to cell tips in single mutants but were dispersed in double mutants. In contrast, a marker for active Cdc42, a major polarity landmark, localized to discreet cortical sites even in double mutants. Localization and photobleaching studies show that the exocyst subunits Sec6 and Sec8 localize to cell tips largely independently of the actin cytoskeleton, but in a cdc42 and phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP₂)-dependent manner. Thus in fission yeast long-range cytoskeletal transport and PIP₂-dependent exocyst represent parallel morphogenetic modules downstream of Cdc42, raising the possibility of similar mechanisms in other cell types.
Project description:Salmonella attachment to the intestinal epithelium triggers delivery of bacterial effector proteins into the host cytosol through a type III secretion system (T3SS), leading to pronounced membrane ruffling and macropinocytic uptake of attached bacteria. The tip of the T3SS is made up of two proteins, SipB and SipC, which insert into the host plasma membrane, forming a translocation pore. Both the N and C termini of SipC are exposed in the host cytosol and have been shown to directly modulate actin cytoskeleton assembly. We have identified a direct interaction between SipC and Exo70, a component of the exocyst complex, which mediates docking and fusion of exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane. Here, we show that exocyst components coprecipitate with SipC and accumulate at sites of invasion by Salmonella typhimurium. Exocyst assembly requires activation of the small GTPase RalA, which we show is triggered during Salmonella infection by the translocated effector, SopE. Knockdown of RalA or Sec5 results in reduced membrane ruffling at sites of attachment and impairs bacterial entry into host cells. These findings suggest that S. typhimurium enhances invasion efficiency by promoting localized membrane expansion, directly through SipC-dependent recruitment of the exocyst and indirectly via SopE-dependent activation of RalA.
Project description:Dynamic shape changes of the plasma membrane are fundamental to many processes, ranging from morphogenesis and cell migration to phagocytosis and viral propagation. Here, we demonstrate that Exo70, a component of the exocyst complex, induces tubular membrane invaginations toward the lumen of synthetic vesicles in vitro and generates protrusions on the surface of cells. Biochemical analyses using Exo70 mutants and independent molecular dynamics simulations based on Exo70 structure demonstrate that Exo70 generates negative membrane curvature through an oligomerization-based mechanism. In cells, the membrane-deformation function of Exo70 is required for protrusion formation and directional cell migration. Exo70 thus represents a membrane-bending protein that may couple actin dynamics and plasma membrane remodeling for morphogenesis.
Project description:NDR/LATS kinases regulate multiple aspects of cell polarity and morphogenesis from yeast to mammals. Fission yeast NDR/LATS kinase Orb6 has been proposed to control cell polarity by regulating the Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor Gef1. Here, we show that Orb6 regulates polarity largely independently of Gef1 and that Orb6 positively regulates exocytosis. Through Orb6 inhibition in vivo and quantitative global phosphoproteomics, we identify Orb6 targets, including proteins involved in membrane trafficking. We confirm Sec3 and Sec5, conserved components of the exocyst complex, as substrates of Orb6 both in vivo and in vitro, and we show that Orb6 kinase activity is important for exocyst localization to cell tips and for exocyst activity during septum dissolution after cytokinesis. We further find that Orb6 phosphorylation of Sec3 contributes to exocyst function in concert with exocyst protein Exo70. We propose that Orb6 contributes to polarized growth by regulating membrane trafficking at multiple levels.
Project description:The Cdc42 guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) plays a central role in polarity development in species ranging from yeast to humans. In budding yeast, a specific growth site is selected in the G1 phase. Rsr1, a Ras GTPase, interacts with Cdc42 and its associated proteins to promote polarized growth at the proper bud site. Yet how Rsr1 regulates cell polarization is not fully understood. Here, we show that Rsr1-GDP interacts with the scaffold protein Bem1 in early G1, likely hindering the role of Bem1 in Cdc42 polarization and polarized secretion. Consistent with these in vivo observations, mathematical modeling predicts that Bem1 is unable to promote Cdc42 polarization in early G1 in the presence of Rsr1-GDP. We find that a part of the Bem1 Phox homology domain, which overlaps with a region interacting with the exocyst component Exo70, is necessary for the association of Bem1 with Rsr1-GDP. Overexpression of the GDP-locked Rsr1 interferes with Bem1-dependent Exo70 polarization. We thus propose that Rsr1 functions in spatial and temporal regulation of polarity establishment by associating with distinct polarity factors in its GTP- and GDP-bound states.