Kdm2b promotes induced pluripotent stem cell generation by facilitating gene activation early in reprogramming.
ABSTRACT: Transcription-factor-directed reprogramming from somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is by nature an epigenetic process of cell fate change. Previous studies have demonstrated that this inefficient process can be facilitated by the inclusion of additional factors. To gain insight into the reprogramming mechanism, we aimed to identify epigenetic enzymes capable of promoting iPSC generation. Here we show that Kdm2b, a histone H3 Lys 36 dimethyl (H3K36me2)-specific demethylase, has the capacity to promote iPSC generation. This capacity depends on its demethylase and DNA-binding activities, but is largely independent of its role in antagonizing senescence. Kdm2b functions at the beginning of the reprogramming process and enhances activation of early responsive genes in reprogramming. Kdm2b contributes to gene activation by binding to and demethylating the gene promoters. Our studies not only identify an important epigenetic factor for iPSC generation, but also reveal the molecular mechanism underlying how Kdm2b contributes to reprogramming.
Project description:Epigenetic mechanisms mediate heritable control of cell identity in normal cells and cancer. We sought to identify epigenetic regulators driving the pathogenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most lethal human cancers. We found that KDM2B (also known as Ndy1, FBXL10, and JHDM1B), an H3K36 histone demethylase implicated in bypass of cellular senescence and somatic cell reprogramming, is markedly overexpressed in human PDAC, with levels increasing with disease grade and stage, and highest expression in metastases. KDM2B silencing abrogated tumorigenicity of PDAC cell lines exhibiting loss of epithelial differentiation, whereas KDM2B overexpression cooperated with KrasG12D to promote PDAC formation in mouse models. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments coupled to genome-wide gene expression and ChIP studies revealed that KDM2B drives tumorigenicity through 2 different transcriptional mechanisms. KDM2B repressed developmental genes through cobinding with Polycomb group (PcG) proteins at transcriptional start sites, whereas it activated a module of metabolic genes, including mediators of protein synthesis and mitochondrial function, cobound by the MYC oncogene and the histone demethylase KDM5A. These results defined epigenetic programs through which KDM2B subverts cellular differentiation and drives the pathogenesis of an aggressive subset of PDAC.
Project description:Aberrant histone methylation contributes to the progression and development of many tumors. Histone methylation is a dynamic process regulated by both histone demethylase and histone methyltransferase, which ultimately alters the levels of gene transcription. However, the relationship between histone demethylase and histone methyltransferase, as well as their regulatory mechanisms in ovarian cancer development, is still unclear. Lysine-specific demethylase 2B (KDM2B) is a key demethylase of H3K36me3 and H3K4me3 that regulates gene expression and plays a role in tumorigenesis via epigenetic mechanisms. To determine the expression pattern of KDM2B in ovarian neoplasms, we analyzed the mRNA and protein levels of KDM2B and the histone methyltransferase enhancer of zester homolog 2 (EZH2) in normal, benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian tissue samples. We found that KDM2B expression was gradually increased in ovarian tumors, with the highest expression found in the malignant ovarian tissues, and the differences in KDM2B expression among the different International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages and pathological grades/types were statistically significant. Moreover, KDM2B expression was positively correlated with EZH2 expression in ovarian tissues. To determine the role of KDM2B in tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo, we silenced KDM2B expression in ovarian cancer cells using the KDM2B short hairpin RNA expression lentivirus and established a nude mouse xenograft model. Downregulation of endogenous KDM2B decreased the expression of EZH2 and reduced the proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells. Loss of KDM2B suppressed ovarian tumor formation in vivo. Our results suggest that KDM2B plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of ovarian cancer, with a possible mechanism of increasing the expression of the oncogene EZH2; this indicates that certain histone methyltransferase may be positively regulated by certain histone demethylase in the epigenetic regulation of ovarian tumors. KDM2B may be a novel therapeutic target for the clinical treatment of ovarian cancer.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) ranks among the most lethal cancers, with current therapies offering only palliation. Inter- and intrapatient heterogeneity is a hallmark of GBM, with epigenetically distinct cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) at the apex. Targeting GSCs remains a challenging task because of their unique biology, resemblance to normal neural stem/progenitor cells, and resistance to standard cytotoxic therapy. Here, we find that the chromatin regulator, JmjC domain histone H3K36me2/me1 demethylase KDM2B, is highly expressed in glioblastoma surgical specimens compared to normal brain. Targeting KDM2B function genetically or pharmacologically impaired the survival of patient-derived primary glioblastoma cells through the induction of DNA damage and apoptosis, sensitizing them to chemotherapy. KDM2B loss decreased the GSC pool, which was potentiated by coadministration of chemotherapy. Collectively, our results demonstrate KDM2B is crucial for glioblastoma maintenance, with inhibition causing loss of GSC survival, genomic stability, and chemoresistance.
Project description:The development of the hematopoietic system is a dynamic process that is controlled by the interplay between transcriptional and epigenetic networks to determine cellular identity. These networks are critical for lineage specification and are frequently dysregulated in leukemias. Here, we identified histone demethylase KDM2B as a critical regulator of definitive hematopoiesis and lineage commitment of murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). RNA sequencing of Kdm2b-null HSPCs and genome-wide ChIP studies in human leukemias revealed that KDM2B cooperates with polycomb and trithorax complexes to regulate differentiation, lineage choice, cytokine signaling, and cell cycle. Furthermore, we demonstrated that KDM2B exhibits a dichotomous role in hematopoietic malignancies. Specifically, we determined that KDM2B maintains lymphoid leukemias, but restrains RAS-driven myeloid transformation. Our study reveals that KDM2B is an important mediator of hematopoietic cell development and has opposing roles in tumor progression that are dependent on cellular context.
Project description:The histone H3 demethylase Not dead yet-1 (Ndy1/KDM2B) is a physiological inhibitor of senescence. Here, we show that Ndy1 is down-regulated during senescence in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and that it represses the Ink4a/Arf locus. Ndy1 counteracts the senescence-associated down-regulation of Ezh2, a component of polycomb-repressive complex (PRC) 2, via a JmjC domain-dependent process leading to the global and Ink4a/Arf locus-specific up-regulation of histone H3K27 trimethylation. The latter promotes the Ink4a/Arf locus-specific binding of Bmi1, a component of PRC1. Ndy1, which interacts with Ezh2, also binds the Ink4a/Arf locus and demethylates the locus-associated histone H3K36me2 and histone H3K4me3. The combination of histone modifications driven by Ndy1 interferes with the binding of RNA Polymerase II, resulting in the transcriptional silencing of the Ink4a/Arf locus and contributing to the Ndy1 immortalization phenotype. Other studies show that, in addition to inhibiting replicative senescence, Ndy1 inhibits Ras oncogene-induced senescence via a similar molecular mechanism.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can selectively kill tumor cells. TRAIL resistance in cancers is associated with aberrant expression of the key components of the apoptotic program. However, how these components are regulated at the epigenetic level is not understood. In this study, we investigated novel epigenetic mechanisms regulating TRAIL response in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells by a short-hairpin RNA loss-of-function screen. We interrogated 48 genes in DNA and histone modification pathways and identified KDM2B, an H3K36-specific demethylase, as a novel regulator of TRAIL response. Accordingly, silencing of KDM2B significantly enhanced TRAIL sensitivity, the activation of caspase-8, -3 and -7 and PARP cleavage. KDM2B knockdown also accelerated the apoptosis, as revealed by live-cell imaging experiments. To decipher the downstream molecular pathways regulated by KDM2B, levels of apoptosis-related genes were examined by RNA-sequencing upon KDM2B loss, which revealed derepression of proapoptotic genes Harakiri (HRK), caspase-7 and death receptor 4 (DR4) and repression of antiapoptotic genes. The apoptosis phenotype was partly dependent on HRK upregulation, as HRK knockdown significantly abrogated the sensitization. KDM2B-silenced tumors exhibited slower growth in vivo. Taken together, our findings suggest a novel mechanism, where the key apoptosis components are under epigenetic control of KDM2B in GBM cells.
Project description:A precisely balanced activity of canonical Wnt signaling is essential for a number of biological processes and its perturbation leads to developmental defects or diseases. Here, we demonstrate that alternative isoforms of the KDM2A and KDM2B lysine demethylases have the ability to negatively regulate canonical Wnt signaling. These KDM2A and KDM2B isoforms (KDM2A-SF and KDM2B-SF) lack the N-terminal demethylase domain, but they still have the ability to bind to CpG islands in promoters and to interact with their protein partners via their other functional domains. We have observed that KDM2A-SF and KDM2B-SF bind to the promoters of axin 2 and cyclin D1, two canonical Wnt signaling target genes, and repress their activity. Moreover, KDM2A-SF and KDM2B-SF are both able to strongly repress a Wnt-responsive luciferase reporter. The transcriptional repression mediated by KDM2A-SF and KDM2B-SF, but also by KDM2A-LF, is dependent on their DNA binding domain, while the N-terminal demethylase domain is dispensable for this process. Surprisingly, KDM2B-LF is unable to repress both the endogenous promoters and the luciferase reporter. Finally, we show that both KDM2A-SF and KDM2B-SF are able to interact with TCF7L1, one of the transcriptional mediators of canonical Wnt signaling. KDM2A-SF and KDM2B-SF are thus likely to negatively affect the transcription of canonical Wnt signaling target genes by binding to their promoters and by interacting with TCF7L1 and other co-repressors.
Project description:Pluripotent stem cells, like embryonic stem cells (ESCs), have specialized epigenetic landscapes, which are important for pluripotency maintenance. Transcription factor-mediated generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) requires global change of somatic cell epigenetic status into an ESC-like state. Accumulating evidence indicates that epigenetic mechanisms not only play important roles in the iPSC generation process, but also affect the properties of reprogrammed iPSCs. Understanding the roles of various epigenetic factors in iPSC generation contributes to our knowledge of the reprogramming mechanisms.
Project description:Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by defined factors. The low efficiency of reprogramming and genomic integration of oncogenes and viral vectors limited the potential application of iPSCs. Here we report that Lithium (Li), a drug used to treat mood disorders, greatly enhances iPSC generation from both mouse embryonic fibroblast and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Li facilitates iPSC generation with one (Oct4) or two factors (OS or OK). The effect of Li on promoting reprogramming only partially depends on its major target GSK3?. Unlike other GSK3? inhibitors, Li not only increases the expression of Nanog, but also enhances the transcriptional activity of Nanog. We also found that Li exerts its effect by promoting epigenetic modifications via downregulation of LSD1, a H3K4-specific histone demethylase. Knocking down LSD1 partially mimics Li's effect in enhancing reprogramming. Our results not only provide a straightforward method to improve the iPSC generation efficiency, but also identified a histone demethylase as a critical modulator for somatic cell reprogramming.
Project description:The JmjC domain histone H3K36me2/me1 demethylase NDY1/KDM2B is overexpressed in various types of cancer. Here we show that knocking down NDY1 in a set of 10 cell lines derived from a broad range of human tumors inhibited their anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth by inducing senescence and/or apoptosis in some and by inhibiting G1 progression in all. We further show that the knockdown of NDY1 in mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines decreased the number, size, and replating efficiency of mammospheres and downregulated the stem cell markers ALDH and CD44, while upregulating CD24. Together, these findings suggest that NDY1 is required for the self-renewal of cancer stem cells and are in agreement with additional findings showing that tumor cells in which NDY1 was knocked down undergo differentiation and a higher number of them is required to induce mammary adenocarcinomas, upon orthotopic injection in animals. Mechanistically, NDY1 functions as a master regulator of a set of miRNAs that target several members of the polycomb complexes PRC1 and PRC2, and its knockdown results in the de-repression of these miRNAs and the downregulation of their polycomb targets. Consistent with these observations, NDY1/KDM2B is expressed at higher levels in basal-like triple-negative breast cancers, and its overexpression is associated with higher rates of relapse after treatment. In addition, NDY1-regulated miRNAs are downregulated in both normal and cancer mammary stem cells. Finally, in primary human breast cancer, NDY1/KDM2B expression correlates negatively with the expression of the NDY1-regulated miRNAs and positively with the expression of their PRC targets.