Efficacy and tolerability of fixed-dose amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil with or without hydrochlorothiazide in Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients whose blood pressure is uncontrolled on antihypertensive monotherapy.
ABSTRACT: This is a prespecified subgroup analysis in Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients of a study that evaluated blood pressure (BP) control with fixed-dose amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil (AML/OM)-based therapy in patients whose condition was uncontrolled on prior monotherapy.In this prospective, open-label, dose-titration study, patients with uncontrolled BP after at least 1 month of antihypertensive monotherapy were switched to fixed-dose AML/OM 5/20 mg. Patients were uptitrated to AML/OM 5/40 and 10/40 mg, with uptitration to AML/OM + hydrochlorothiazide 10/40 + 12.5 mg and 10/40 + 25 mg to achieve target BP. The primary efficacy endpoint was the cumulative proportion of patients achieving seated cuff systolic BP (SeSBP) less than 140 mmHg (<130 mmHg in patients with diabetes mellitus) at 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints included SeBP goal rates, ambulatory BP (ABP) target rates, and mean change from baseline in seated cuff BP (SeBP) and ABP at weeks 12 and 20.Mean baseline BP was similar in Hispanics (153.6/92.8 mmHg; n = 105) and non-Hispanics (153.7/91.8 mmHg; n = 894). At 12 weeks, 72.0% of Hispanics and 76.3% of non-Hispanics achieved the primary endpoint. At week 12, goal rates for cumulative SeBP (<140/90 mmHg or <130/80 mmHg in patients with diabetes) were 69.0% and 71.5% in Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients, respectively. Mean change in SeBP in Hispanics ranged from -15.3/-7.3 mmHg for AML/OM 5/20 mg to -23.2/-13.8 mmHg for AML/OM 10/40 mg + hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg, and in non-Hispanics from -14.1/-7.8 mmHg to -25.4/-13.7 mmHg (all p < 0.0001 versus baseline). A majority of patients achieved mean 24 h, daytime, and nighttime ABP targets in both subgroups. Greater proportions of Hispanics achieved ABP targets versus non-Hispanics at week 12; however, this trend was reversed at week 20. Treatment was well tolerated.Switching to a fixed-dose combination of AML/OM ± hydrochlorothiazide provided significant BP lowering and effectively controlled BP in a large proportion of Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients with hypertension uncontrolled on previous monotherapy.
Project description:Patients with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or chronic kidney disease (CKD) usually require two or more antihypertensive agents to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals.The efficacy/safety of olmesartan (OM) 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML) 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg versus the component dual-combinations (OM 40/AML 10 mg, OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg) was evaluated in participants with diabetes, CKD, or chronic CVD in the Triple Therapy with Olmesartan Medoxomil, Amlodipine, and Hydrochlorothiazide in Hypertensive Patients Study (TRINITY). The primary efficacy end point was least squares (LS) mean reduction from baseline in seated diastolic BP (SeDBP) at week 12. Secondary end points included LS mean reduction in SeSBP and proportion of participants achieving BP goal (<130/80 mm Hg) at week 12 (double-blind randomized period), and LS mean reduction in SeBP and BP goal achievement at week 52/early termination (open-label period).At week 12, OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg resulted in significantly greater SeBP reductions in participants with diabetes (-37.9/22.0 mm Hg vs -28.0/17.6 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, -26.4/14.7 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and -27.6/14.8 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg), CKD (-44.3/25.5 mm Hg vs -39.5/23.8 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, -25.3/17.0 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and -33.4/20.6 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg), and chronic CVD (-37.8/20.6 mm Hg vs -31.7/18.2 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, -30.9/17.1 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and -27.5/16.1 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg) (P<0.05 for all subgroups vs dual-component treatments). BP goal achievement was greater for participants receiving triple-combination treatment compared with the dual-combination treatments, and was achieved in 41.1%, 55.0%, and 38.9% of participants with diabetes, CKD, and chronic CVD on OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg, respectively. At week 52, there was sustained BP lowering with the OM/AML/HCTZ regimen. Overall, the triple combination was well tolerated.In patients with diabetes, CKD, or chronic CVD, short-term (12 weeks) and long-term treatment with OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg was well tolerated, lowered BP more effectively, and enabled more participants to reach BP goal than the corresponding 2-component regimens. TRIAL IDENTIFICATION NUMBER: NCT00649389.
Project description:Hypertension is often inadequately controlled in older people.This prespecified subgroup analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of an olmesartan medoxomil (OM) 40 mg/amlodipine besylate (AML) 10 mg/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg triple-combination treatment compared with the 3 components as dual-combination treatments in participants with hypertension who were <65 and ≥ 65 years of age. Within the ≥ 65 years of age subgroup, efficacy and safety were also summarized for participants ≥ 75 years of age.12-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study.317 ambulatory care sites in the US and Puerto Rico.Individuals ≥ 18 years of age with mean seated blood pressure (SeBP) ≥ 140/100 or ≥ 160/90 mmHg off antihypertensive medication on 2 consecutive clinic visits with no recent history of significant cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, heart failure (New York Heart Association class III or IV), severe renal insufficiency, or uncontrolled diabetes (HbA1c >9 %).Participants were randomized, stratified by age, diabetes status, and race to one of four treatment assignments: OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg, OM 40/AML 10 mg, OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, or AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg.Least squares (LS) mean change from baseline in seated diastolic blood pressure (SeDBP) at week 12 (last observation carried forward) in each age subgroup (prespecified analysis).Of the 2492 randomized participants in the study (total cohort), 2021 (81.1 %) were <65 and 471 (18.9 %) were ≥ 65 years of age, including 79 (3.2 %) who were ≥ 75 years of age. OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg triple-combination treatment resulted in a significantly greater reduction in LS mean SeDBP at week 12 than dual-combination component treatments in participants in both cohorts: <65 years (21.0 vs. 14.2-17.2 mmHg; p < 0.0001) and ≥ 65 years (23.7 vs. 17.3-20.0 mmHg; p ≤ 0.002). Similarly, triple-combination treatment resulted in a greater reduction in LS mean seated systolic blood pressure (SeSBP) at week 12 than dual-combination component treatments: <65 years (38.2 vs. 28.3-31.4 mmHg; p < 0.0001) and ≥ 65 years (39.2 vs. 29.3-31.1 mmHg; p < 0.0001). Triple-combination treatment was more effective than dual-combination treatments in enabling participants to reach SeBP goal (<140/90 mmHg [<130/80 mmHg in participants with diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or chronic cardiovascular disease]) in both age subgroups (<65 years: 65 vs. 34-50 %, respectively, p < 0.0001 and ≥ 65 years: 63 vs. 32-39 %; p ≤ 0.0004). All 4 treatments were safe and well tolerated with low discontinuation rates in both age subgroups. There were no clinically relevant differences in the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events between participants <65 and ≥ 65 years of age receiving triple-combination treatment.Triple-combination treatment with OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg was well tolerated and more effective in lowering BP than the component dual-combination treatments in elderly and non-elderly subgroups.
Project description:Hypertension is a common co-morbidity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and well tolerated, effective therapies are needed to achieve guideline-recommended blood pressure (BP) goals in these patients.The aim of this study was to present the results of a prespecified analysis of key secondary endpoints from a 12-week, open-label, single-arm study evaluating the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes.After a placebo run-in period, 192 patients received olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day for 3 weeks. If BP remained ? 120/70 mmHg, patients were uptitrated at 3-week intervals to olmesartan medoxomil 40 mg/day, olmesartan medoxomil/HCTZ 40/12.5 mg/day, and olmesartan medoxomil/HCTZ 40/25 mg/day.Endpoints evaluated in this analysis were the change from baseline in mean seated cuff BP (SeBP), proportions of patients achieving SeBP goals, and distribution of SeBP reductions.Mean SeBP was 158.1/90.0 mmHg at baseline. The mean?±?standard error of BP reductions at 12 weeks for systolic and diastolic BP were 21.3 ± 1.1 mmHg and 9.8 ± 0.6 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.0001 for each). At the end of the study, the proportion of patients with diabetes achieving the recommended SeBP goal of <130/80 mmHg was 41.1%.An olmesartan medoxomil ± HCTZ treatment regimen significantly reduced BP from baseline in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00403481.
Project description:This study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of triple fixed-dose combination (FDC) therapy with olmesartan medoxomil (OM) 20 mg, amlodipine (AML) 5 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg (OM/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5) in Korean patients with moderate hypertension not controlled with dual FDC therapy (OM/HCTZ 20/12.5).In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study, Korean patients aged 20 to 75 years with stage 2 hypertension who had a mean seated diastolic blood pressure (msDBP) ?100 mmHg were enrolled when their BP was uncontrolled [mean seated systolic BP (msSBP)/msDBP >140/90 mmHg or msSBP/msDBP >130/80 mmHg with diabetes or chronic kidney disease] with 4-week dual FDC therapy (OM/HCTZ 20/12.5). The patients were randomized to receive either OM/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5 or OM/HCTZ 20/12.5 once daily for 8 weeks. At the end of 8 weeks, patients with uncontrolled BP were assigned to receive either OM/AML/HCTZ 40/5/12.5 or OM/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5 in an additional 8-week open-label extension period.A total of 623 patients received a 4-week run-in treatment with OM/HCTZ, 341 patients were randomized, and finally, 167 patients in the OM/AML/HCTZ group and 171 patients in the OM/HCTZ group were analyzed for the full analysis set. Non-responders after the 8 weeks of double-blind treatment continued the 8-week open-label treatment with OM/AML/HCTZ 40/5/12.5 mg (n = 32) or OM/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5 mg (n = 71). After 8 weeks of double-blind treatment, the changes in msDBP were -9.50 (8.46) mmHg in the OM/AML/HCTZ group and -4.23 (7.41) mmHg in the OM/HCTZ group (both p < 0.0001 vs. baseline; p < 0.0001 between groups). The response rates for both msSBP and msDBP at week 8 were 65.27 % in the OM/AML/HCTZ group and 37.43 % in the OM/HCTZ group (p < 0.0001 between groups). The response rates for both msSBP and msDBP at week 16 after open-label treatment were 18.75 % in the OM/AML/HCTZ 40/5/12.5 group and 46.48 % in the OM/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5 group (p = 0.0073 between groups). All medications were well tolerated.In Korean patients with moderate hypertension not controlled with dual FDC therapy (OM/HCTZ 20/12.5) as first-line therapy, switching to triple FDC therapy (OM/AML/HCTZ 20/5/12.5) was associated with significant BP reductions and greater achievement of BP goals, and was well tolerated (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01838850).
Project description:This randomized, parallel-group study in patients inadequately controlled on olmesartan medoxomil/amlodipine (OLM/AML) 40/10 mg assessed the effects of adding hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg and 25 mg, using seated blood pressure (SeBP) measurements and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring. Enrolled patients were screened and tapered off of therapy if required. All patients received OLM/AML 40/10 mg and those with mean seated BP (SeBP) ?140/90 mm Hg after 8 weeks (n=808) were randomized (1:1:1) to continue with OLM/AML 40/10 mg or receive OLM/AML/HCTZ 40/10/12.5 or 40/10/25 mg for a further 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in seated diastolic BP (SeDBP) from the start to the end of the randomized treatment period. The addition of HCTZ 25 mg significantly reduced SeDBP (-2.8 mm Hg; P<.0001), lowered seated systolic BP (SeSBP) and ambulatory DBP and SBP, and improved BP goal rates. In patients uncontrolled on OLM/AML 40/10 mg, adding HCTZ led to further BP reductions, particularly in ambulatory BP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Elevated systolic blood pressure is more difficult to control than elevated diastolic blood pressure. The objective of this prespecified analysis of the Triple Therapy with Olmesartan Medoxomil, Amlodipine, and Hydrochlorothiazide in Hypertensive Patients Study (TRINITY) was to compare the efficacy of olmesartan medoxomil (OM) 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML) 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg triple-combination treatment with the component dual-combination treatments in reducing elevated seated systolic blood pressure (SeSBP). METHODS:The 12-week TRINITY study randomized participants to either one of the three component dual-combination treatments (OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg, OM 40 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, or AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg) or the triple-combination treatment. The primary outcome of this analysis was the categorical distribution of SeSBP reductions at week 12 from baseline with OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg versus the dual-combination treatments. RESULTS:SeSBP reductions >50 mmHg were seen in 24.4% of participants receiving triple-combination treatment versus 8.1%-15.8% receiving dual-combination treatment. More participants receiving triple-combination treatment achieved the SeSBP target of <140 mmHg (73.6% versus 51.3%-58.8%; P < 0.001) and the seated blood pressure target of <140/90 mmHg (69.9% versus 41.1%-53.4%; P < 0.001). Prevalence and severity of adverse events were similar in all treatment groups. CONCLUSION:Treatment with OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg was well tolerated and more effective in reducing SeSBP than the dual-combination treatments.
Project description:The objective of this prespecified TRINITY study subgroup analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of triple-combination treatment with olmesartan medoxomil (OM) 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML) 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg vs the component dual-combination treatments in obese (body mass index [BMI] ?30 kg/m(2) ) and nonobese (BMI <30 kg/m(2) ) hypertensive participants. The double-blind treatment period primary end point was the least-squares (LS) mean reduction in seated diastolic BP (SeDBP) at week 12 (end of the double-blind period). Of the 2492 randomized participants, 1555 (62.4%) had BMI ?30 kg/m(2) . Irrespective of BMI, triple-combination treatment resulted in greater LS mean reductions in seated BP (SeBP) (?30 kg/m(2) , 6.7-10.5/4.5-7.3 mm Hg; <30 kg/m(2) , 5.1-8.6/2.5-6.0 mm Hg [P<.005] vs dual-combination treatments for both subgroups) at week 12. Furthermore, triple-combination treatment enabled a greater proportion of participants to reach BP goal vs the dual-combination treatments (?30 kg/m(2) , 62% vs 31%-46% [P<.0001]; <30 kg/m(2) , 69% vs 41%-55% [P<.005]) at week 12. SeBP reduction and goal attainment (?30 kg/m(2) , 63%; <30 kg/m(2) , 67%) was maintained through week 52/early termination. Triple-combination treatment was well tolerated in both BMI subgroups.
Project description:To compare the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of once-daily triple therapy with amlodipine (Aml) 10 mg, valsartan (Val) 320 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg versus dual-therapy combinations of these components in patients with moderate to severe hypertension.Subgroup analysis of a multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled trial.After antihypertensive washout and a placebo run-in of up to 4 weeks, 2271 patients were randomly allocated in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive Aml/Val/HCTZ triple therapy or dual therapy with Val/HCTZ, Aml/Val, or Aml/HCTZ for 8 weeks. Forced titration to the full dose was done over the first 2 weeks of treatment. Efficacy and safety parameters were determined by age group (<65 vs. ?65 years), gender, race (White vs. Black), ethnicity (Hispanic/Latino vs. non-Hispanic/Latino), and body mass index (BMI, <30 vs. ?30 kg/m²).Change from baseline to endpoint in mean sitting systolic blood pressure (MSSBP) and mean sitting diastolic blood pressure (MSDBP); blood pressure (BP) control rate <140/90 mmHg.Triple therapy was numerically superior and, for the majority of comparisons, statistically superior to each dual therapy in reducing MSSBP and MSDBP and in improving BP control rates in all subgroups. Across subgroups, triple therapy reduced MSSBP by 5.7-10.7 mmHg more than Val/HCTZ, 3.4-8.3 mmHg more than Aml/Val, and 4.4-9.4 mmHg more than Aml/HCTZ. Triple therapy was well tolerated across all subgroups. Limitations of our analysis included the lack of stratification of patients by subgroup at randomization and the small sample size of some subgroups (e.g., Blacks, elderly).Triple therapy with Aml/Val/HCTZ is effective and well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe hypertension regardless of age, gender, race, ethnicity, or BMI.NCT00327587.
Project description:Central blood pressure (BP), an important measure of cardiovascular risk, has been shown to be effectively reduced by calcium channel blockade with amlodipine (AML) plus renin-angiotensin system blockade by the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, perindopril (PER). The aim of the SEVITENSION study was to compare the central effects of PER/AML against renin-angiotensin system blockade with the angiotensin II receptor blocker olmesartan (OLM) plus AML.In this multicenter, parallel group, non-inferiority study, patients received AML 10 mg during a 2- to 4-week run-in before randomization to 24 weeks of double-blind treatment with the fixed-dose combination of OLM/AML 40/10 mg or PER/AML 8/10 mg. Hydrochlorothiazide was added at Weeks 4, 8, or 12 in patients with inadequate BP control. The primary efficacy variable was the absolute change in central systolic BP (CSBP) from baseline to the final examination, measured by radial artery applanation tonometry and analyzed by parametric analysis of covariance. Secondary variables included 24-h ambulatory and seated BP measurements as well as BP normalization.Of 600 patients enrolled, 486 were randomized (244 to OLM/AML 40/10 mg, 242 to PER/AML 8/10 mg). The reduction in CSBP was larger with OLM/AML (14.5 ± 0.83 mmHg) than with PER/AML (10.4 ± 0.84 mmHg). The between-group difference was -4.2 ± 1.18 mmHg with 95% confidence intervals (-6.48 to -1.83 mmHg) within the predefined non-inferiority margin (2 mmHg). An integrated superiority test confirmed that OLM/AML was superior to PER/AML (p < 0.0001) in reducing CSBP. The superiority of OLM/AML over PER/AML was also established for the majority of secondary efficacy variables; at the final examination, 75.6% of OLM/AML recipients achieved BP normalization (mean seated systolic BP/diastolic BP <140/90 mmHg) compared with 57.5% of PER/AML recipients (p < 0.0001).The combination of OLM/AML was superior to PER/AML in reducing CSBP and other efficacy measures, including a significantly higher rate of BP normalization.
Project description:To determine the effectiveness and safety of once-daily combination therapy with amlodipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide for reducing ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in patients with moderate to severe hypertension, a multicenter, double-blind study was performed (N=2271) that included ABP monitoring in a 283-patient subset. After a single-blind, placebo run-in period, patients were randomized to receive amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (10/320/25?mg), valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (320/25?mg), amlodipine/valsartan (10/320?mg) or amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide (10/25?mg) each morning for 8 weeks. Efficacy assessments included change from baseline in 24-h, daytime and night time mean ambulatory systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). Statistically significant and clinically relevant reductions from baseline in all these parameters occurred in all treatment groups (P<0.0001, all comparisons versus baseline). At week 8, least squares mean reductions from baseline in 24-h, daytime and night time mean ambulatory SBP/DBP were 30.3/19.7, 31.2/20.5 and 28.0/17.8?mm?Hg, respectively, with amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide; corresponding reductions with dual therapies ranged from 18.8-24.1/11.7-15.5, 19.0-25.1/12.0-16.0 and 18.3-22.6/11.1-14.3?mm?Hg (P?0.01, all comparisons of triple versus dual therapy). Treatment with amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide maintained full 24-h effectiveness, including during the morning hours; all hourly mean ambulatory SBP and mean ambulatory DBP measurements were ?130/85?mm?Hg at end point. Amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide combination therapy was well tolerated. Once-daily treatment with amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide (10/320/25?mg) reduces ABP to a significantly greater extent than component-based dual therapy and maintains its effectiveness over the entire 24-h dosing period.