The efficacy and safety of a nicotine conjugate vaccine (NicVAX®) or placebo co-administered with varenicline (Champix®) for smoking cessation: study protocol of a phase IIb, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: A potential new treatment in smoking cessation and relapse prevention is nicotine vaccination which is based on active immunization against the nicotine molecule. This immunization will elicit the immune system to produce nicotine-specific antibodies that sequester nicotine in the blood stream, after inhaling tobacco products. The resulting antibody-antigen is too large to cross the blood-brain barrier and is therefore postulated to attenuate the rewarding effect of nicotine by preventing the latter from reaching its receptors in the brain and causing the release of dopamine. The aim of this paper is to describe the design of a phase IIb, multi-center, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial to assess the efficacy of the nicotine vaccine NicVAX® co-administered with varenicline (Champix®) and intensive counseling as an aid in smoking cessation and relapse prevention.Two centers will include a total of 600 smokers who are motivated to quit smoking. At week -2 these smokers will be randomized, in a 1:1 ratio, to either 6 injections of NicVAX® or placebo, both co-administered with 12-weeks of varenicline treatment, starting at week 0. The target quit day will be set after 7 days of varenicline treatment at week 1. Smokers will be followed up for 54 weeks. The primary outcome is defined as biochemically validated prolonged smoking abstinence from week 9 to 52. Secondary outcomes include safety, immunogenicity, smoking abstinence from week 37 to 52, abstinence from week 9 to 24, abstinence in the subset of subjects with the highest antibody response, and lapse/relapse rate.This is the first study to assess the efficacy of a nicotine conjugate vaccine in combination with an evidence-based smoking cessation pharmacotherapy (varenicline) to quit smoking. Although NicVAX® is primarily designed as an aid to smoking cessation, our study is designed to explore its potential to maintain abstinence and prevent relapse. The results of this trial will give a unique insight in the potential of nicotine vaccination for relapse prevention.ClinicalTrials.gov: (NCT00995033).
Project description:Smoking cessation medications are routinely used in health care; it is vital to identify medications that most effectively treat this leading cause of preventable mortality.To compare the efficacies of varenicline, combination nicotine replacement therapy (C-NRT), and the nicotine patch for 26-week quit rates.Three-group randomized intention-to-treat clinical trial occurring from May 2012 to November 2015 among smokers recruited in the Madison, Wisconsin, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, communities; 65.5% of smokers offered the study (2687/4102) refused participation prior to randomization.Participants were randomized to one of three 12-week open-label smoking cessation pharmacotherapy groups: (1) nicotine patch only (n?=?241); (2) varenicline only (including 1 prequit week; n?=?424); and (3) C-NRT (nicotine patch?+?nicotine lozenge; n?=?421). Six counseling sessions were offered.The primary outcome was carbon monoxide-confirmed self-reported 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at 26 weeks. Secondary outcomes were carbon monoxide-confirmed self-reported initial abstinence, prolonged abstinence at 26 weeks, and point-prevalence abstinence at weeks 4, 12, and 52.Among 1086 smokers randomized (52% women; 67% white; mean age, 48 years; mean of 17 cigarettes smoked per day), 917 (84%) provided 12-month follow-up data. Treatments did not differ on any abstinence outcome measure at 26 or 52 weeks, including point-prevalence abstinence at 26 weeks (nicotine patch, 22.8% [55/241]; varenicline, 23.6% [100/424]; and C-NRT, 26.8% [113/421]) or at 52 weeks (nicotine patch, 20.8% [50/241]; varenicline, 19.1% [81/424]; and C-NRT, 20.2% [85/421]). At 26 weeks, the risk differences for abstinence were, for patch vs varenicline, -0.76% (95% CI, -7.4% to 5.9%); for patch vs C-NRT, -4.0% (95% CI, -10.8% to 2.8%); and for varenicline vs C-NRT, -3.3% (95% CI, -9.1% to 2.6%). All medications were well tolerated, but varenicline produced more frequent adverse events than did the nicotine patch for vivid dreams, insomnia, nausea, constipation, sleepiness, and indigestion.Among adults motivated to quit smoking, 12 weeks of open-label treatment with nicotine patch, varenicline, or C-NRT produced no significant differences in biochemically confirmed rates of smoking abstinence at 26 weeks. The results raise questions about the relative effectiveness of intense smoking pharmacotherapies.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01553084.
Project description:OBJECTIVE The authors evaluated an adaptive smoking cessation treatment strategy in which nicotine patch treatment was initiated before a quit date, and then, depending on initial therapeutic response, either the nicotine patch was continued or alternative pharmacotherapies were provided. METHOD The study was a double-blind, parallel-arm adaptive treatment trial. A total of 606 cigarette smokers started open-label nicotine patch treatment 2 weeks before the quit date. Those whose ad lib smoking did not decrease by >50% after 1 week were randomly assigned to one of three double-blind treatments: nicotine patch alone (control condition); "rescue" treatment with bupropion augmentation of the patch; or rescue treatment with varenicline alone. Participants whose precessation smoking decreased >50% but who lapsed after the quit date were also randomly assigned to the two rescue treatments or to nicotine patch alone. Logistic regression analyses compared each rescue treatment against the control condition in terms of abstinence at the end of treatment (weeks 8-11) and at 6 months. RESULTS Smokers who did not respond adequately to precessation nicotine patch benefited from bupropion augmentation; abstinence rates at end of treatment were 16% with nicotine patch alone and 28% with bupropion augmentation (odds ratio=2.04, 95% CI=1.03-4.01). Switching to varenicline produced less robust effects, but point abstinence at 6 months was 6.6% with the patch alone and 16.5% with a switch to varenicline (odds ratio=2.80, 95% CI=1.11-7.06). Postquit adaptive changes in treatment had no significant effects on any abstinence outcome. CONCLUSIONS It is possible to rescue a significant portion of smokers who would have failed to achieve abstinence if left on nicotine patch alone by identifying these smokers before their quit date and implementing adaptive changes in treatment.
Project description:Smoking rates are higher in New Zealand (NZ) adults with mental illnesses and alcohol and other drug (AOD) addictions, compared to the overall population. Quit attempts using "gold standard" smoking cessation treatments often fail in people with these conditions, so more flexible treatment regimens that adapt to a person's responsiveness to treatment are worth investigating. The STATUS trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of combining varenicline with nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation among varenicline non-responders in treatment for mental health illnesses and/or AOD addictions.This is a pragmatic two-arm, open-label, randomised trial. Participants will be daily smokers using mental health and/or addiction services in Auckland, aged ?18 years, motivated to quit smoking, and eligible to access varenicline through the NZ special authority process. After 2 weeks of using varenicline plus behavioural support, participants who have not reduced their daily smoking by ?50% will be randomised (1:1) to either 10 weeks of continued varenicline use or 10 weeks of varenicline plus an 18 mg/mL nicotine e-cigarette. All participants will receive weekly withdrawal-orientated behavioural support calls for 6 weeks post-randomisation. The primary outcome is self-reported biochemically-verified (exhaled carbon monoxide) continuous abstinence at 24 weeks post-randomisation. Secondary outcomes, measured at six, 12 and 24 weeks post-randomisation include: self-reported continuous abstinence, 7-day point prevalence abstinence, smoking reduction, time to relapse, cross-over, use of other smoking cessation support, serious adverse events, treatment adherence, compliance, acceptability, dual use, continuation of treatment use, mental illness symptoms and AOD use, health-related quality of life, and cost-analysis. A sample size of 338 will confer 80% power (p?=?0.05) to detect a 15% absolute difference between the varenicline alone and varenicline plus e-cigarette groups.People with mental illness and/or AOD addictions are just as motivated as others to quit smoking, but are less likely to succeed. Adapting smoking cessation medication after a lack of responsiveness in the first 2 weeks of initial treatment in this priority population by adding a nicotine e-cigarette may be one way to increase long-term quit rates.Australian NZ Clinical Trial Registry: ACTRN12616001355460 (29 September 2016).
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Thirdhand smoke (THS) residue lingers for months in homes of former smokers and may play a role in relapse after smoking cessation. This study examined the association between THS pollution as measured by the level of nicotine in house dust and continued abstinence from smoking. METHODS:Participants were 65 cigarette smokers who reported they were enrolled in any type of smoking cessation program, had set a specific date to quit, and had biochemical verification of continuous abstinence at 1-week (W1), 1-month (M1), 3-months (M3), or 6-months (M6) after their quit date. House dust samples collected at baseline before quitting were analyzed for nicotine concentration (?g/g) and nicotine loading (?g/m2) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). RESULTS:Controlling for age, gender, overall and indoor smoking rates, and years lived in their home, dust nicotine concentration and loading predicted abstinence at W1, M1, M3, and M6. A 10-fold increase in dust nicotine loading and concentration were associated with approximately 50% lower odds of remaining abstinent. CONCLUSIONS:Findings suggest nicotine in house dust may play a role in facilitating relapse after smoking cessation. Additional research is warranted to investigate the causal role of THS residue in homes of former smokers on cravings and continued abstinence.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:This study examined relations of two affective vulnerabilities, high anxiety sensitivity (AS) and low distress tolerance (DT), with tobacco dependence, withdrawal, smoking cessation, and pharmacotherapy response. METHODS:Smokers interested in quitting (N = 1067; 52.2% female, 28.1% African American) were randomized to 12 weeks of nicotine patch, nicotine patch plus nicotine lozenge, or varenicline. Baseline questionnaires assessed AS, DT, negative affect, anxiety, and dependence. Withdrawal was assessed the first-week post-quit via ecological momentary assessment. RESULTS:DT, but not AS, predicted biochemically confirmed point-prevalence abstinence at multiple endpoints: weeks 4, 12, 26, and 52 post-quit (ps < .05); relations remained after controlling for pharmacotherapy treatment, AS, baseline negative affect, anxiety, and anxiety disorder history (ps < .05). Additional exploratory analyses examining week 4 abstinence showed DT predicted abstinence (p = .004) even after controlling for baseline dependence, post-quit withdrawal (craving and negative affect), and treatment. DT moderated treatment effects on abstinence in exploratory analyses (interaction p = .025); those with high DT were especially likely to be abstinent at week 4 with patch plus lozenge versus patch alone. CONCLUSIONS:DT, but not AS, predicted abstinence over 1 year post-quit (higher DT was associated with higher quit rates), with little overlap with other affective measures. DT also predicted early abstinence independent of dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Results suggest low DT may play a meaningful role in motivation to use tobacco and constitute an additional affective risk factor for tobacco cessation failure beyond negative affect or clinical affective disorders. IMPLICATIONS:People in a stop-smoking study who reported a greater ability to tolerate distress were more likely to quit smoking and remain smoke-free 1 year later. Smokers with high DT were more likely to be smoke-free 4 weeks after their target quit day if they received nicotine patch plus nicotine lozenge rather than nicotine patch alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01553084.
Project description:Smokers attempting to quit often attribute smoking relapse to negative affect, craving, and other nicotine withdrawal symptoms. In addition, there is evidence that smoking relapse can increase these symptoms, particularly negative affect. To address this issue, we analyzed data from an 11-week smoking cessation clinical trial in which smokers (n = 1,246) were randomized to receive either nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), varenicline, or placebo, combined with behavioral counseling. Using cross-lagged analyses, we examined the temporal bidirectional relationships between self-reported measures of affect, craving, and composite withdrawal symptoms and biochemically verified smoking abstinence. The relative strength of these temporal relationships was examined by comparing the explained variances of the models. The results showed that higher negative affect, craving, and composite withdrawal symptoms increased the likelihood of subsequent smoking relapse, and that smoking relapse led to subsequent increases in these same symptoms. A comparison of the explained variances found symptom predicting subsequent relapse models to be stronger than those where relapse predicted subsequent symptoms. Although the explained variance findings generally support a negative reinforcement conceptualization of nicotine dependence, the bidirectional relationship between symptoms and smoking relapse suggests that struggling with quitting smoking leads to significant negative affect, craving, and other withdrawal symptoms that do not quickly resolve. These findings highlight the importance of addressing specific symptoms within the context of smoking cessation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Greece has the highest proportion of smokers in the European Union with 42% of Greeks admitting that they smoke, based on a 2009 survey. This post-hoc analysis of a prospective, observational study evaluated the effectiveness and safety profile of the smoking cessation aid varenicline, as well as potential predictors of quit success in a Greek population. METHODS:Participants were prescribed varenicline according to the recommendations of the European Summary of Product Characteristics (1 mg twice daily). The 7-day point prevalence of abstinence at Week 12 was determined based on verbal reporting using a nicotine use inventory. Abstinence was confirmed by carbon monoxide measurements of exhaled air at the last visit of the study. The safety profile of varenicline was also assessed. RESULTS:At baseline, the Greek subsample (n = 196) had a mean age of 42.6 years, with 54.6% of them being men. Participants had a smoking history of 23.5 years and a Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence total score of 6.6. After 12 weeks of varenicline therapy, 70.4% (95% CI, 64.0-76.7) of all participants had quit smoking. This increased to 86.2% among participants who had taken the study medication for 80% of the planned number of treatment days. Age was a significant predictor of quit success. The most frequently observed treatment-emergent adverse event was nausea, occurring in 13.3% of participants. CONCLUSIONS:In this 'real-world' observational study, 70.4% of Greek smokers successfully quit smoking after 12 weeks of varenicline therapy, providing support that varenicline is an effective smoking cessation medication. Further studies with longer follow-up are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00669240.
Project description:Varenicline (Chantix) is a first-line treatment for smoking cessation but does not produce cessation in many individuals. It may be possible to improve abstinence by co-administering varenicline with other medications. Zonisamide (Zonegran) has a similar pharmacologic profile to topiramate, which has been shown to reduce smoking, but is better tolerated. This study evaluated whether combined zonisamide and varenicline reduced tobacco withdrawal and increased abstinence among smokers trying to quit, relative to varenicline and placebo.This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of zonisamide + varenicline versus placebo + varenicline for smoking cessation. Smokers received brief counseling and study medications, and completed weekly assessments for 10 consecutive weeks. The primary outcome was continuous abstinence rates (biochemically verified) during the final 4 weeks of treatment.Results are presented as intent-to-treat and completer analyses. Seventy-four individuals were enrolled; 45 completed the study. Overall, 14.9% (intent-to-treat) and 25.0% (completer) of participants maintained sustained abstinence during the final 4 weeks of treatment. There were no differences between groups for biochemically-verified smoking, but zonisamide + varenicline reduced self-reported smoking, nicotine withdrawal, and craving compared to placebo + varenicline.Zonisamide decreased nicotine withdrawal and craving, though not of sufficient magnitude to modify smoking behavior. The sample size was small and low rates of abstinence across groups suggest the study population was difficult to treat. Additional evaluation of zonisamide or other medications that increase GABA or decrease glutamate in larger or more diverse populations may yield positive clinical benefit for nicotine/tobacco cessation.This study provides support for layering novel medications with varenicline for smoking cessation, for investigating medications that target the GABA and glutamate system, and for assessing the contribution that reductions in nicotine withdrawal have on ultimate cessation outcomes.
Project description:This study replicated and extended results of a previous trial, which found that combination varenicline/bupropion treatment increased smoking abstinence in smokers who were male, highly dependent, and who did not respond to prequit nicotine patch treatment with a >50% reduction in expired-air carbon monoxide in the first week.One hundred and twenty-two male nicotine patch nonresponders and 52 responders were identified. Smokers in each group were randomized to receive 12 weeks of varenicline plus bupropion treatment versus varenicline plus placebo. The primary outcome was continuous smoking abstinence at weeks 8-11 after the target quit date.For smokers with a high level of dependence, judged by having a baseline Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score ? 6 and cigarette consumption ? 20/d, combination varenicline/bupropion treatment increased the abstinence rate relative to varenicline alone: 71.0% versus 43.8% (odds ratio = 3.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.11-8.92, p [one tailed] = .016). In contrast, less dependent smokers did not show a benefit of combination treatment relative to varenicline (abstinence rates of 32.1% vs. 45.6%, respectively); there was a significant interaction of treatment and dependence level. Patch nonresponders tended to benefit the most from combination treatment, which was well tolerated overall.Combination varenicline/bupropion treatment proved significantly more efficacious than varenicline alone among highly dependent male smokers. These results, together with prior studies, support an adaptive treatment paradigm that assigns smoking cessation treatment according to baseline smoker characteristics and initial response to nicotine patch treatment.This study replicated, in a prospective manner, an important and surprising retrospective finding from a previous clinical trial, which showed that a specific subpopulation of smokers benefited substantially from receiving a combination treatment of varenicline plus bupropion, relative to varenicline plus placebo. Specifically, male smokers having high baseline nicotine dependence (FTND score ? 6 and cigarette consumption ? 20/d), showed a marked increase in smoking abstinence rate on combination pharmacotherapy. The present study likewise found an enhancement in end-of-treatment abstinence rate in this subgroup, from 43.8% to 71.0%. The adaptive treatment paradigm, which classifies smokers based on initial dependence level and response to prequit nicotine patch treatment, may be used to identify target populations of smokers whose success can be enhanced by intervening with combination pharmacotherapy before the quit-smoking date.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01806779.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tobacco cessation methods employed by patients with head and neck cancer (HNSCC) are previously unstudied and have the potential to inform choice of cessation method and necessary abstinence support. METHODS:A total of 130 current smokers with HNSCC were queried regarding prior unsuccessful tobacco cessation techniques, product used (cold turkey, varenicline, and nicotine patch/gum), and maximum time abstained from smoking. RESULTS:One hundred six smokers retrospectively reported using one of the four main quit methods. Unassisted cessation ("cold turkey") was the most commonly used method (P < .001). A multiple ordinal logistic general estimating equation analysis revealed that cold turkey had increased odds [5.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2, 11.8) and 4.3 (95% CI: 1.5, 12.9)] of achieving a longer quit duration than the nicotine patch or varenicline, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Among smokers developing HNSCC, previous cessation attempts were most commonly unassisted. This method was associated with longest abstinence periods. These data suggest insufficient support and education regarding behavioral and pharmacologic cessation therapies.