What is the cost of diagnosis and management of drug resistant tuberculosis in South Africa?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is undermining TB control in South Africa. However, there are hardly any data about the cost of treating DR-TB in high burden settings despite such information being quintessential for the rational planning and allocation of resources by policy-makers, and to inform future cost-effectiveness analyses. METHODOLOGY: We analysed the comparative 2011 United States dollar ($) cost of diagnosis and treatment of drug sensitive TB (DS-TB), MDR-TB and XDR-TB, based on National South African TB guidelines, from the perspective of the National TB Program using published clinical outcome data. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Assuming adherence to national DR-TB management guidelines, the per patient cost of XDR-TB was $26,392, four times greater than MDR-TB ($6772), and 103 times greater than drug-sensitive TB ($257). Despite DR-TB comprising only 2.2% of the case burden, it consumed ~32% of the total estimated 2011 national TB budget of US $218 million. 45% and 25% of the DR-TB costs were attributed to anti-TB drugs and hospitalization, respectively. XDR-TB consumed 28% of the total DR-TB diagnosis and treatment costs. Laboratory testing and anti-TB drugs comprised the majority (71%) of MDR-TB costs while hospitalization and anti-TB drug costs comprised the majority (92%) of XDR-TB costs. A decentralized XDR-TB treatment programme could potentially reduce costs by $6930 (26%) per case and reduce the total amount spent on DR-TB by ~7%. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Although DR-TB forms a very small proportion of the total case burden it consumes a disproportionate and substantial amount of South Africa's total annual TB budget. These data inform rational resource allocation and selection of management strategies for DR-TB in high burden settings.
Project description:To describe factors associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR), including extensively-drug-resistant (XDR), tuberculosis (TB) in the United States, we abstracted inpatient, laboratory, and public health clinic records of a sample of MDR TB patients reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from California, New York City, and Texas during 2005-2007. At initial diagnosis, MDR TB was detected in 94% of 130 MDR TB patients and XDR TB in 80% of 5 XDR TB patients. Mutually exclusive resistance was 4% XDR, 17% pre-XDR, 24% total first-line resistance, 43% isoniazid/rifampin/rifabutin-plus-other resistance, and 13% isoniazid/rifampin/rifabutin-only resistance. Nearly three-quarters of patients were hospitalized, 78% completed treatment, and 9% died during treatment. Direct costs, mostly covered by the public sector, averaged $134,000 per MDR TB and $430,000 per XDR TB patient; in comparison, estimated cost per non-MDR TB patient is $17,000. Drug resistance was extensive, care was complex, treatment completion rates were high, and treatment was expensive.
Project description:<b>Objective:</b> To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of bedaquiline plus background drug regimens (BR) for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in Italy. <b>Methods</b>: A Markov model was adapted to the Italian setting to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of bedaquiline plus BR (BBR) versus BR in the treatment of MDR-TB and XDR-TB over 10 years, from both the National Health Service (NHS) and societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated in terms of life-years gained (LYG). Clinical data were sourced from trials; resource consumption for compared treatments was modelled according to advice from an expert clinicians panel. NHS tariffs for inpatient and outpatient resource consumption were retrieved from published Italian sources. Drug costs were provided by reference centres for disease treatment in Italy. A 3% annual discount was applied to both cost and effectiveness. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. <b>Results</b>: Over 10 years, BBR vs. BR alone is cost-effective, with ICERs of €16,639/LYG and €4081/LYG for the NHS and society, respectively. The sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results from both considered perspectives. <b>Conclusion</b>: In Italy, BBR vs. BR alone has proven to be cost-effective in the treatment of MDR-TB and XDR-TB under a range of scenarios.
Project description:Recurrence after successful treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is challenging because of limited retreatment options. This study aimed to determine rates and predictors of MDR-TB recurrence after successful treatment in Taiwan. Recurrence rates were analyzed by time from treatment completion in 295 M DR-TB patients in a national cohort. Factors associated with MDR-TB recurrence were examined using a multivariate Cox regression analysis. Ten (3%) patients experienced MDR-TB recurrence during a median follow-up of 4.8 years. The overall recurrence rate was 0.6 cases per 1000 person-months. Cavitation on chest radiography was an independent predictor of recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 6.3; 95% CI, 1.2-34). When the analysis was restricted to 215 patients (73%) tested for second-line drug susceptibility, cavitation (aHR = 10.2; 95% CI, 1.2-89) and resistance patterns of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) or pre-XDR-TB (aHR = 7.3; 95% CI, 1.2-44) were associated with increased risk of MDR-TB recurrence. In Taiwan, MDR-TB patients with cavitary lesions and resistance patterns of XDR-TB or pre-XDR-TB are at the highest risk of recurrence. These have important implications for MDR-TB programs aiming to optimize post-treatment follow-up and early detection of recurrent MDR-TB.
Project description:Novel tuberculosis (TB) drugs and the need to treat drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) are likely to bring about substantial transformations in TB treatment in coming years. An evidence base for cost and cost-effectiveness analyses of these developments is needed.Our objective was to perform a review of papers assessing provider-incurred as well as patient-incurred costs of treating both drug-susceptible (DS) and multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB.Five databases (EMBASE, Medline, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Services Literature) were searched for cost and economic evaluation full-text papers containing primary DS-TB and MDR-TB treatment cost data published in peer-reviewed journals between January 1990 and February 2015. No language restrictions were set. The search terms were a combination of 'tuberculosis', 'multidrug-resistant tuberculosis', 'cost', and 'treatment'. In the selected papers, study methods and characteristics, quality indicators and costs were extracted into summary tables according to pre-defined criteria. Results were analysed according to country income groups and for provider costs, patient costs and productivity losses. All values were converted to $US, year 2014 values, so that studies could be compared.We selected 71 treatment cost papers on DS-TB only, ten papers on MDR-TB only and nine papers that included both DS-TB and MDR-TB. These papers provided evidence on the costs of treating DS-TB and MDR-TB in 50 and 16 countries, respectively. In 31 % of the papers, only provider costs were included; 26 % included only patient-incurred costs, and the remaining 43 % estimated costs incurred by both. From the provider perspective, mean DS-TB treatment costs per patient were US$14,659 in high-income countries (HICs), US$840 in upper middle-income countries (UMICs), US$273 in lower middle-income (LMICs), and US$258 in low-income countries (LICs), showing a strong positive correlation. The respective costs for treating MDR-TB were US$83,365, US$5284, US$6313 and US$1218. Costs incurred by patients when seeking treatment for DS-TB accounted for an additional 3 % of the provider costs in HICs. A greater burden was seen in the other income groups, increasing the costs of DS-TB treatment by 72 % in UMICs, 60 % in LICs and 31 % in LMICs. When provider costs, patient costs and productivity losses were combined, productivity losses accounted for 16 % in HICs, 29 % in UMICs, 40 % in LMICs and 38 % in LICs.Cost data for MDR-TB treatment are limited, and the variation in delivery mechanisms, as well as the rapidly evolving diagnosis and treatment regimens, means that it is essential to increase the number of studies assessing the cost from both provider and patient perspectives. There is substantial evidence available on the costs of DS-TB treatment from all regions of the world. The patient-incurred costs illustrate that the financial burden of illness is relatively greater for patients in poorer countries without universal healthcare coverage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tuberculosis (TB) patients incur large costs for care seeking, diagnosis, and treatment. To understand the magnitude of this financial burden and its main cost drivers, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR) National TB Programme carried out the first national TB patient cost survey in 2018-2019. METHOD:A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted based on a nationally representative sample of TB patients from public health facilities across 12 provinces. A total of 848 TB patients including 30 drug resistant (DR)-TB and 123 TB-HIV coinfected patients were interviewed using a standardised questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization. Information on direct medical, direct non-medical and indirect costs, as well as coping mechanisms was collected. We estimated the percentage of TB-affected households facing catastrophic costs, which was defined as total TB-related costs accounting for more than 20% of annual household income. RESULT:The median total cost of TB care was US$ 755 (Interquartile range 351-1,454). The costs were driven by direct non-medical costs (46.6%) and income loss (37.6%). Nutritional supplements accounted for 74.7% of direct non-medical costs. Half of the patients used savings, borrowed money or sold household assets to cope with TB. The proportion of unemployment more than doubled from 16.8% to 35.4% during the TB episode, especially among those working in the informal sector. Of all participants, 62.6% of TB-affected households faced catastrophic costs. This proportion was higher among households with DR-TB (86.7%) and TB-HIV coinfected patients (81.1%). CONCLUSION:In Lao PDR, TB patients and their households faced a substantial financial burden due to TB, despite the availability of free TB services in public health facilities. As direct non-medical and indirect costs were major cost drivers, providing free TB services is not enough to ease this financial burden. Expansion of existing social protection schemes to accommodate the needs of TB patients is necessary.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) have emerged in high-HIV-prevalence settings, which generally lack laboratory infrastructure for diagnosing TB drug resistance. Even where available, inherent delays with current drug-susceptibility testing (DST) methods result in clinical deterioration and ongoing transmission of MDR and XDR-TB. Identifying clinical predictors of drug resistance may aid in risk stratification for earlier treatment and infection control. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case-control study of patients with MDR (cases), XDR (cases) and drug-susceptible (controls) TB in a high-HIV-prevalence setting in South Africa to identify clinical and demographic risk factors for drug-resistant TB. Controls were selected in a 1:1:1 ratio and were not matched. We calculated odds ratios (OR) and performed multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors. RESULTS: We enrolled 116, 123 and 139 patients with drug-susceptible, MDR, and XDR-TB. More than 85% in all three patient groups were HIV-infected. In multivariate analysis, MDR and XDR-TB were each strongly associated with history of TB treatment failure (adjusted OR 51.7 [CI 6.6-403.7] and 51.5 [CI 6.4-414.0], respectively) and hospitalization more than 14 days (aOR 3.8 [CI 1.1-13.3] and 6.1 [CI 1.8-21.0], respectively). Prior default from TB treatment was not a risk factor for MDR or XDR-TB. HIV was a risk factor for XDR (aOR 8.2, CI 1.3-52.6), but not MDR-TB. Comparing XDR with MDR-TB patients, the only significant risk factor for XDR-TB was HIV infection (aOR 5.3, CI 1.0-27.6). DISCUSSION: In this high-HIV-prevalence and drug-resistant TB setting, a history of prolonged hospitalization and previous TB treatment failure were strong risk factors for both MDR and XDR-TB. Given high mortality observed among patients with HIV and drug-resistant TB co-infection, previously treated and hospitalized patients should be considered for empiric second-line TB therapy while awaiting confirmatory DST results in settings with a high-burden of MDR/XDR-TB.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis are emerging worldwide. The Green Light Committee initiative supported programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis in 90 countries. We used estimates from the Preserving Effective TB Treatment Study to predict MDR and XDR tuberculosis trends in four countries with a high burden of MDR tuberculosis: India, the Philippines, Russia, and South Africa. METHODS:We calibrated a compartmental model to data from drug resistance surveys and WHO tuberculosis reports to forecast estimates of incident MDR and XDR tuberculosis and the percentage of incident MDR and XDR tuberculosis caused by acquired drug resistance, assuming no fitness cost of resistance from 2000 to 2040 in India, the Philippines, Russia, and South Africa. FINDINGS:The model forecasted the percentage of MDR tuberculosis among incident cases of tuberculosis to increase, reaching 12·4% (95% prediction interval 9·4-16·2) in India, 8·9% (4·5-11·7) in the Philippines, 32·5% (27·0-35·8) in Russia, and 5·7% (3·0-7·6) in South Africa in 2040. It also predicted the percentage of XDR tuberculosis among incident MDR tuberculosis to increase, reaching 8·9% (95% prediction interval 5·1-12·9) in India, 9·0% (4·0-14·7) in the Philippines, 9·0% (4·8-14·2) in Russia, and 8·5% (2·5-14·7) in South Africa in 2040. Acquired drug resistance would cause less than 30% of incident MDR tuberculosis during 2000-40. Acquired drug resistance caused 80% of incident XDR tuberculosis in 2000, but this estimate would decrease to less than 50% by 2040. INTERPRETATION:MDR and XDR tuberculosis were forecast to increase in all four countries despite improvements in acquired drug resistance shown by the Green Light Committee-supported programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Additional control efforts beyond improving acquired drug resistance rates are needed to stop the spread of MDR and XDR tuberculosis in countries with a high burden of MDR tuberculosis. FUNDING:US Agency for International Development and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study investigated the time to appropriate treatment and factors affecting late treatment initiation in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in South Korea.<h4>Methods</h4>Data from patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary MDR-TB who received treatment at Pusan National University Hospital (PNUH) between January 2010 and July 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to the first institution they visited [patients who were transferred to PNUH after diagnosis of MDR-TB (Group A) and patients who were initially diagnosed with TB at PNUH (Group B)].<h4>Results</h4>A total of 100 patients were included (53 in Group A and 47 in Group B). The percentage of patients in whom line probe assays (LPAs) for isoniazid and rifampin or Xpert MTB/RIF assays were performed was higher in Group B than in Group A [20.8 vs. 57.4% (P < 0.001) and 17.0 vs. 46.8% (P = 0.001), respectively]. The median time from the first visit to appropriate treatment initiation was longer in Group A (102.0 vs. 77.0 days, P = 0.002). However, a subgroup analysis of patients with pre-extensively or extensively drug-resistant TB (pre-XDR- or XDR-TB) revealed that the time to appropriate treatment did not differ between Groups A and B. Although the time to appropriate treatment decreased during the study period in both Groups A and B, this trend was not evident in patients with pre-XDR- or XDR-TB in Group B. Based on multivariate analyses, performance of LPAs for isoniazid and rifampin, performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assays, and the presence of uncomplicated MDR-TB were protective against delays in appropriate treatment initiation.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The time to appropriate treatment in patients with MDR-TB in South Korea was not acceptable, particularly for patients diagnosed outside of PNUH and for patients with pre-XDR- or XDR-TB. The use of rapid molecular drug susceptibility tests in various healthcare settings and introduction of second-line LPAs are required.
Project description:The emergence and spread of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) are critical global health issues. Eastern Europe has some of the highest incidences of DR-TB, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. To better understand the genetic composition and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in the region, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 138 M. tuberculosis isolates from 97 patients sampled between 2010 and 2013 in Minsk, Belarus. MDR and XDR-TB isolates were significantly more likely to belong to the Beijing lineage than to the Euro-American lineage, and known resistance-conferring loci accounted for the majority of phenotypic resistance to first- and second-line drugs in MDR and XDR-TB. Using a phylogenomic approach, we estimated that the majority of MDR-TB was due to the recent transmission of already-resistant M. tuberculosis strains rather than repeated de novo evolution of resistance within patients, while XDR-TB was acquired through both routes. Longitudinal sampling of M. tuberculosis from 34 patients with treatment failure showed that most strains persisted genetically unchanged during treatment or acquired resistance to fluoroquinolones. HIV+ patients were significantly more likely to have multiple infections over time than HIV- patients, highlighting a specific need for careful infection control in these patients. These data provide a better understanding of the genomic composition, transmission, and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in Belarus and will enable improved diagnostics, treatment protocols, and prognostic decision-making.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>South Africa shows one of the highest global burdens of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB). Since 2002, MDR-TB in South Africa has been treated by a standardized combination therapy, which until 2010 included ofloxacin, kanamycin, ethionamide, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Since 2010, ethambutol has been replaced by cycloserine or terizidone. The effect of standardized treatment on the acquisition of XDR-TB is not currently known.<h4>Methods</h4>We genetically characterized a random sample of 4,667 patient isolates of drug-sensitive, MDR and XDR-TB cases collected from three South African provinces, namely, the Western Cape, Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Drug resistance patterns of a subset of isolates were analyzed for the presence of commonly observed resistance mutations.<h4>Results</h4>Our analyses revealed a strong association between distinct strain genotypes and the emergence of XDR-TB in three neighbouring provinces of South Africa. Strains predominant in XDR-TB increased in proportion by more than 20-fold from drug-sensitive to XDR-TB and accounted for up to 95% of the XDR-TB cases. A high degree of clustering for drug resistance mutation patterns was detected. For example, the largest cluster of XDR-TB associated strains in the Eastern Cape, affecting more than 40% of all MDR patients in this province, harboured identical mutations concurrently conferring resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, streptomycin, ethionamide, kanamycin, amikacin and capreomycin.<h4>Conclusions</h4>XDR-TB associated genotypes in South Africa probably were programmatically selected as a result of the standard treatment regimen being ineffective in preventing their transmission. Our findings call for an immediate adaptation of standard treatment regimens for M/XDR-TB in South Africa.