Post-transplantation B cell function in different molecular types of SCID.
ABSTRACT: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome of diverse genetic cause characterized by profound deficiencies of T, B and sometimes NK cell function. Non-ablative HLA-identical or rigorously T cell-depleted haploidentical parental bone marrow transplantation (BMT) results in thymus-dependent genetically donor T cell development in the recipients, leading to a high rate of long-term survival. However, the development of B cell function has been more problematic. We report here results of analyses of B cell function in 125 SCID recipients prior to and long-term after non-ablative BMT, according to their molecular type.Studies included blood immunoglobulin measurements; antibody titers to standard vaccines, blood group antigens and bacteriophage ? X 174; flow cytometry to examine for markers of immaturity, memory, switched memory B cells and BAFF receptor expression; B cell chimerism; B cell spectratyping; and B cell proliferation.The results showed that B cell chimerism was not required for normal B cell function in IL7R?-Def, ADA-Def and CD3-Def SCIDs. In X-linked-SCID, Jak3-Def SCID and those with V-D-J recombination defects, donor B cell chimerism was necessary for B cell function to develop.The most important factor determining whether B cell function develops in SCID T cell chimeras is the underlying molecular defect. In some types, host B cells function normally. In those molecular types where host B cell function did not develop, donor B cell chimerism was necessary to achieve B cell function. 236 words.
Project description:SCID is a fatal syndrome caused by mutations in at least 13 different genes. It is characterized by the absence of T cells. Immune reconstitution can be achieved through nonablative related donor BMT. However, the first transplant may not provide sufficient immunity. In these cases, booster transplants may be helpful. A prospective/retrospective study was conducted of 49 SCID patients (28.7% of 171 SCIDs transplanted over 30 years) who had received booster transplants to define the long-term outcome, factors contributing to a need for a booster and factors that predicted success. Of the 49 patients, 31 (63%) are alive for up to 28 years. Age at initial transplantation was found to have a significant effect on outcome (mean of 194 days old for patients currently alive, versus a mean of 273 days old for those now deceased, P=0.0401). Persistent viral infection was present in most deceased booster patients. In several patients, the use of two parents as sequential donors resulted in striking T-and B-cell immune reconstitution. A majority of the patients alive today have normal or adequate T-cell function and are healthy. Nonablative booster BMT can be lifesaving for SCID.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infusion of recipient regulatory T (Treg) cells promotes durable mixed hematopoietic chimerism and allograft tolerance in mice receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) with minimal conditioning. We applied this strategy in a Cynomolgus macaque model. METHODS:CD4 CD25 Treg cells that were polyclonally expanded in culture were highly suppressive in vitro and maintained high expression of FoxP3. Eight monkeys underwent nonmyeloablative conditioning and major histocompatibility complex mismatched BMT with or without Treg cell infusion. Renal transplantation (from the same BMT donor) was performed 4 months post-BMT without immunosuppression to assess for robust donor-specific tolerance. RESULTS:Transient mixed chimerism, without significant T cell chimerism, was achieved in the animals that received BMT without Treg cells (N = 3). In contrast, 2 of 5 recipients of Treg cell BMT that were evaluable displayed chimerism in all lineages, including T cells, for up to 335 days post-BMT. Importantly, in the animal that survived long-term, greater than 90% of donor T cells were CD45RA CD31, suggesting they were new thymic emigrants. In this animal, the delayed (to 4 months) donor kidney graft was accepted more than 294 days without immunosuppression, whereas non-Treg cell BMT recipients rejected delayed donor kidneys within 3 to 4 weeks. Early CMV reactivation and treatment was associated with early failure of chimerism, regardless of Treg cell administration. CONCLUSIONS:Our studies provide proof-of-principle that, in the absence of early CMV reactivation (and BM-toxic antiviral therapy), cotransplantation of host Treg cell can promote prolonged and high levels of multilineage allogeneic chimerism and robust tolerance to the donor.
Project description:Transplantation of whole bone marrow (BMT) leads to engraftment of both osteoprogenitor cells and hematopoietic cells; however, the robust osteopoietic chimerism seen early after BMT decreases with time. Using our established murine model, we demonstrate that a post-BMT regimen of either granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, growth hormone, parathyroid hormone, or stem cell factor each stimulates greater donor osteoblast chimerism at 4 months posttransplantation than saline-treated controls and approximates the robust osteopoietic chimerism seen early after BMT; however, only growth hormone led to significantly more donor-derived osteocytes than controls. Importantly, there were no adverse hematologic consequences of the different treatments. Our data demonstrate that these cytokines can stimulate the differentiation of transplanted donor marrow cells into the osteopoietic lineage after BMT. Post-BMT cytokine therapy may generate durable osteopoietic engraftment, which should lead to sustained clinical benefit and render BMT more applicable to bone disorders.
Project description:Establishing mixed chimerism is a promising approach for inducing donor-specific transplant tolerance. The establishment and maintenance of mixed chimerism may enable long-term engraftment of organ transplants while minimizing the use of immunosuppressants. Several protocols for inducing mixed chimerism have been reported; however, the exact mechanism underlying the development of immune tolerance remains to be elucidated. Therefore, understanding the kinetics of engraftment during early post-transplant period may provide insight into establishing long-term mixed chimerism and permanent transplant tolerance. In this study, we intentionally induced allogeneic mixed chimerism using a nonmyeloablative regimen by host natural killer (NK) cell depletion and T cell-depleted bone marrow (BM) grafts in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched murine model and analyzed the kinetics of donor (C57BL/6) and recipient (BALB/c) engraftment in the weeks following transplantation. Donor BM cells were well engrafted and stabilized without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) as early as one week post-bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Donor-derived thymic T cells were reconstituted four weeks after BMT; however, the emergence of newly developed T cells was more obvious at the periphery as early as two weeks after BMT. Also, the emergence and changes in ratio of recipient- and donor-derived NKT cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs) including dendritic cells (DCs) and B cells were noted after BMT. Here, we report a longitudinal analysis of the development of donor- and recipient-originated hematopoietic cells in various lymphatic tissues of intentionally induced mixed chimerism mouse model during early post-transplant period. Through the understanding of immune reconstitution at early time points after nonmyeloablative BMT, we suggest guidelines on intentionally inducing durable mixed chimerism.
Project description:Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a syndrome of diverse genetic cause characterized by profound deficiencies of T, B, and sometimes NK-cell function. Nonablative human leukocyte antigen-identical or rigorously T cell-depleted haploidentical parental bone marrow transplantation (BMT) results in thymus-dependent genetically donor T-cell development in the recipients, leading to long-term survival. We reported previously that normal T-cell numbers, function, and repertoire developed by 3 to 4 months after transplantation in SCID patients, and the repertoire remained highly diverse for the first 10 years after BMT. The T-cell receptor diversity positively correlated with T-cell receptor excision circle levels, a reflection of thymic output. However, the fate of thymic function in SCID patients beyond 10 to 12 years after BMT remained to be determined. In this greater than 25-year follow-up study of 128 patients with 11 different molecular types of SCID after nonconditioned BMT, we provide evidence that T-cell function, thymic output, and T-cell clonal diversity are maintained long-term.
Project description:Presensitization to HLA antigens limits the success of organ transplantation. The achievement of donor-specific tolerance via mixed chimerism could improve outcomes of transplantation in presensitized patients. In presensitized B-cell-deficient ?MT B6 mice, we developed nonmyeloablative bone marrow transplantation (BMT) regimens that successfully tolerized presensitized T cells, achieving long-term (LT) multilineage chimerism and tolerance to donor-type skin. To apply these regimens in wild-type (WT) animals while avoiding antibody-mediated destruction of donor bone marrow cells, presensitized WT B6 mice were rested >2 years to allow alloantibody clearance. However, chimerism and tolerance were not reliably achieved in LT presensitized WT B6 mice in which alloantibody had declined to minimal or undetectable levels before BMT. Strong antidonor memory T-cell responses were detected in LT presensitized WT B6 mice after rejection of donor bone marrow (BM) occurred, whereas levels of alloantibody remained consistently low. In contrast, presensitized ?MT B6 mice had diminished memory T-cell responses compared to WT B6 mice. These data implicate T-cell memory, but not alloantibody, in rejection of donor BM in LT presensitized WT mice.
Project description:Transfer of recipient regulatory T cells (Tregs) induces mixed chimerism and tolerance in an irradiation-free bone marrow (BM) transplantation (BMT) model involving short-course co-stimulation blockade and mTOR inhibition. Boosting endogenous Tregs pharmacologically in vivo would be an attractive alternative avoiding the current limitations of performing adoptive cell therapy in the routine clinical setting. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) potently inhibits Treg differentiation and its blockade was shown to increase Treg numbers in vivo. Therefore, we investigated whether IL-6 blockade can replace adoptive Treg transfer in irradiation-free allogeneic BMT. Treatment with anti-IL-6 instead of Treg transfer led to multi-lineage chimerism (persisting for ~12 weeks) in recipients of fully mismatched BM and significantly prolonged donor skin (MST 58 days) and heart (MST > 100 days) graft survival. Endogenous Foxp3+ Tregs expanded in anti-IL-6-treated BMT recipients, while dendritic cell (DC) activation and memory CD8+ T cell development were inhibited. Adding anti-IL-17 to anti-IL-6 treatment increased Treg frequencies, but did not further prolong donor skin graft survival significantly. These results demonstrate that IL-6 blockade promotes BM engraftment and donor graft survival in non-irradiated recipients and might provide an alternative to Treg cell therapy in the clinical setting.
Project description:Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells (BMDCs) contribute to endometrial regeneration. Our objective was to develop a nongonadotoxic mouse BM transplant (BMT) model using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for investigating BMDCs trafficking in reproduction. Female C57BL/6J mice received either single (CTX-1) or paired (CTX-2) 5-FU (150 mg/kg) dose, or single (CTX-1+SCF) or paired-dose (CTX-3+SCF) 5-FU with stem cell factor (SCF). Control mice received BMT only or saline. BM cells (20 × 106) from transgenic green-fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were injected iv. For fertility experiment, mice were mated on day 28 after BMT. Alternatively, mice were killed 1 month after BMT and BMDCs recruitment to the uterus was determined. Mice receiving 5-FU ± SCF showed intact ovarian function and fertility. CTX-3+SCF resulted in greatest BM donor chimerism at 1 month (?45%). Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that 6.6% of total uterine cells in CTX-3+SCF mice were GFP+ BMDCs. Remarkably, this was about 40- and 80-fold greater than BMDCs in uterus of CTX-1 or BMT only mice (6.6% vs 0.16% vs 0.08%, respectively, P < .001). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that BMDCs in the uterus were mostly localized to the endometrial stroma (71.8%). The majority of endometrial BMDCs colocalized with the pan-leuokocyte CD45 marker (58.5%), but 41.5% were CD45-negative. Cytokeratin and CD31 staining showed that the GFP+CD45- cells were not epithelial or endothelial, confirming their stromal identity. We demonstrate that paired-dose 5-FU regimen results in efficient BM donor chimerism while maintaining ovarian function and fertility. This model could be used for studying BMDCs trafficking to the uterus in various reproductive physiological and pathological conditions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) can be cured by using allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and the absence of host immunity often obviates the need for preconditioning. Depending on the underlying genetic defect and when blocks in differentiation occur during lymphocyte ontogeny, infants with SCID have absent or greatly reduced numbers of functional T cells. Natural killer (NK) cell populations are usually absent in the SCID-X1 and Janus kinase 3 forms of SCID and greatly reduced in adenosine deaminase deficiency SCID but often present in other forms of the disorder.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine if SCID phenotypes indicate host permissiveness to donor cell engraftment.<h4>Methods</h4>A retrospective data analysis considered whether host NK cells influenced donor T-cell engraftment, immune reconstitution, and long-term outcomes in children who had undergone nonconditioned allogeneic stem cell transplantation between 1990 and 2011 in the United Kingdom. Detailed analysis of T- and B-cell immune reconstitution and donor chimerism was compared between the NK(+) (n = 24) and NK(-) (n = 53) forms of SCID.<h4>Results</h4>Overall, 77 children underwent transplantation, with survival of 90% in matched sibling donor/matched family donor transplants compared with 60% when alternative donors were used. Infants with NK(-)SCID were more likely to survive than NK(+) recipients (87% vs 62%, P < .01) and had high-level donor T-cell chimerism with superior long-term recovery of CD4 T-cell immunity. Notably, 33% of children with NK(+)SCID required additional transplantation procedures compared with only 8% of children with NK(-)SCID (P < .005).<h4>Conclusions</h4>NK(-)SCID disorders are highly permissive for donor T-cell engraftment without preconditioning, whereas the presence of NK cells is a strong indicator that preparative conditioning is required for engraftment of T-cell precursors capable of supporting robust T-cell reconstitution.
Project description:The induction of donor-specific transplant tolerance is one of the main goals of modern immunology. Establishment of a mixed chimerism state in the transplant recipient has proven to be a suitable strategy for the induction of long-term allograft tolerance; however, current experimental recipient preconditioning protocols have many side effects, and are not feasible for use in future therapies. In order to improve the current mixed chimerism induction protocols, we developed a non-myeloablative bone-marrow transplant (NM-BMT) protocol using retinoic acid (RA)-induced alloantigen-specific Tregs, clinically available immunosuppressive drugs, and lower doses of irradiation. We demonstrate that RA-induced alloantigen-specific Tregs in addition to a NM-BMT protocol generates stable mixed chimerism and induces tolerance to allogeneic secondary skin allografts in mice. Therefore, the establishment of mixed chimerism through the use of donor-specific Tregs rather than non-specific immunosuppression could have a potential use in organ transplantation.