Mandelalides A-D, cytotoxic macrolides from a new Lissoclinum species of South African tunicate.
ABSTRACT: Mandelalides A-D are variously glycosylated, unusual polyketide macrolides isolated from a new species of Lissoclinum ascidian collected from South Africa, Algoa Bay near Port Elizabeth and the surrounding Nelson Mandela Metropole. Their planar structures were elucidated on submilligram samples by comprehensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data, supported by mass spectrometry. The assignment of relative configuration was accomplished by consideration of homonuclear and heteronuclear coupling constants in tandem with ROESY data. The absolute configuration was assigned for mandelalide A after chiral GC-MS analysis of the hydrolyzed monosaccharide (2-O-methyl-?-L-rhamnose) and consideration of ROESY correlations between the monosaccharide and aglycone in the intact natural product. The resultant absolute configuration of the mandelalide A macrolide was extrapolated to propose the absolute configurations of mandelalides B-D. Remarkably, mandelalide B contained the C-4' epimeric 2-O-methyl-6-dehydro-?-L-talose. Mandelalides A and B showed potent cytotoxicity to human NCI-H460 lung cancer cells (IC(50), 12 and 44 nM, respectively) and mouse Neuro-2A neuroblastoma cells (IC(50), 29 and 84 nM, respectively).
Project description:The mandelalides comprise a family of structurally complex marine macrolides that display significant cytotoxicity against several human cancer cell lines. Presented here is a full account on the development of an Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC) strategy for the total synthesis of (-)-mandelalides A and L, the two most potent members of the mandelalide family. The design and implementation of a three-component type II ARC/cross-coupling protocol and a four-component type I ARC union permits rapid access respectively to the key tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydropyran structural motifs of these natural products. Other highlights of the synthesis include an osmium-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of an allylic 1,3-diol, a mild Yamaguchi esterification to unite the northern and southern hemispheres, and a late-stage Heck macrocyclization. Synthetic mandelalides A and L displayed potent cytotoxicity against human HeLa cervical cancer cells (EC50, 1.3 and 3.1 nM, respectively). This synthetic approach also provides access to several highly potent non-natural mandelalide analogs, including a biotin-tagged mandelalide probe for future biological investigation.
Project description:Mandelalides A-D (1-4) are macrocyclic polyketides known to have an unusual bioactivity profile influenced by compound glycosylation and growth phase of cultured cells. The isolation and characterization of additional natural congeners, mandelalides E-L (5-12), and the supply of synthetic compounds 1 and 12, as well as seco-mandelalide A methyl ester (13), have now facilitated mechanism of action and structure-activity relationship studies. Glycosylated mandelalides are effective inhibitors of aerobic respiration in living cells. Macrolides 1 and 2 inhibit mitochondrial function similar to oligomycin A and apoptolidin A, selective inhibitors of the mammalian ATP synthase (complex V). 1 inhibits ATP synthase activity from isolated mitochondria and triggers caspase-dependent apoptosis in HeLa cells, which are more sensitive to inhibition by 1 in the presence of the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose. Thus, mandelalide cytotoxicity depends on basal metabolic phenotype; cells with an oxidative phenotype are most likely to be inhibited by the mandelalides.
Project description:Bouillomides A (1) and B (2) are two depsipeptide analogues of dolastatin 13. Isolated from a Guamanian sample of Lyngbya bouillonii, the planar structures were elucidated on the basis of HR-ESI-MS and NMR data, while the absolute configurations were determined by employing functional group conversions, modified Marfey's analysis, and detailed analyses of ROESY correlations. Compounds 1 and 2 selectively inhibited serine proteases elastase (IC(50) = 1.9 ?M for both) and chymotrypsin (IC(50) = 0.17 and 9.3 ?M, respectively) while showing no inhibition of trypsin (IC(50) > 100 ?M).
Project description:The emergence of antibiotic resistance necessitates not only the identification of new compounds with antimicrobial properties, but also new strategies and combination therapies to circumvent this growing problem. Here, we report synergistic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of the ?-lactam antibiotic oxacillin combined with 7,8-dideoxygriseorhodin C in vitro. Ongoing efforts to identify antibiotics from marine mollusk-associated bacteria resulted in the isolation of 7,8-dideoxygriseorhodin C from a Streptomyces sp. strain cultivated from a marine gastropod tissue homogenate. Despite the long history of 7,8-dideoxygriseorhodin C in the literature, the absolute configuration has never been previously reported. A comparison of measured and calculated ECD spectra resolved the configuration of the spiroketal carbon C6, and 2D ROESY NMR spectroscopy established the absolute configuration as 6s,6aS. The compound is selective against Gram-positive bacteria including MRSA and Enterococcus faecium with an MIC range of 0.125-0.5??g?ml<sup>-1</sup>. Moreover, the compound synergizes with oxacillin against MRSA as observed in the antimicrobial microdilution and time-kill assays. Simultaneous treatment of the compound with oxacillin resulted in an approximately tenfold decrease in MIC with a combination index of <0.5, indicating synergistic anti-MRSA activity.
Project description:A chemical investigation on the cultures of led to the isolation of one known cyclopeptide cyclo(Nmethyl-l-Phe-l-Pro-l-Leu-d-Ile-l-Val) (), five new sesquiterpenes, named as xylcarpins A–E (–), and another known compound (). The structures were determined by extensive NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configuration of was established by use of Marfey’s method and ROESY spectroscopic data. All compounds were tested for their cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines. Compound showed week inhibitory activity.Electronic Supplementary MaterialSupplementary material is available for this article at 10.1007/s13659-011-0011-y and is accessible for authorized users.
Project description:The environment of Lake Baikal is a well-known source of microbial diversity. The strain Streptomyces sp. IB2014/011-12, isolated from samples collected at Lake Baikal, was found to exhibit potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Here, we report isolation and characterization of linear polyketide alpiniamide A (1) and its new derivatives B-D (2-5). The structures of alpiniamides A-D were established and their relative configuration was determined by combination of partial Murata's method and ROESY experiment. The absolute configuration of alpiniamide A was established through Mosher's method. The gene cluster, responsible for the biosynthesis of alpiniamides (alp) has been identified by genome mining and gene deletion experiments. The successful expression of the cloned alp gene cluster in a heterologous host supports these findings. Analysis of the architecture of the alp gene cluster and the feeding of labeled precursors elucidated the alpiniamide biosynthetic pathway. The biosynthesis of alpiniamides is an example of a rather simple polyketide assembly line generating unusual chemical diversity through the combination of domain/module skipping and double bond migration events.
Project description:The ethyl acetate fraction of the methanolic extract of Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies bark exhibited moderate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity (IC50 47.44 and 47.40 µg mL-1, respectively). Gel filtration on Sephadex LH-20 and further RP-C18 preparative HPLC of EtOAc fraction afforded 15 known and 3 new compounds, stereoisomers of larixinol. The structures of the isolated spirobiflavonoids 15, 26, and 29 were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques. The relative configuration of isolated compounds was assigned based on coupling constants and ROESY (rotating-frame Overhauser spectroscopy) correlations along with applying the DP4+ probability method in case of ambiguous chiral centers. Determination of absolute configuration was performed by comparing calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra with experimental ones. Compounds 26 and 29, obtained in sufficient amounts, were evaluated for activities against AChE and BChE, and they showed a weak inhibition only towards AChE (IC50 294.18 µM for 26, and 655.18 µM for 29). Furthermore, molecular docking simulations were performed to investigate the possible binding modes of 26 and 29 with AChE.
Project description:The cyclic tetrapeptide 1-alaninechlamydocin was purified from a Great Lakes-derived fungal isolate identified as a Tolypocladium sp. Although the planar structure was previously described, a detailed analysis of its spectroscopic data and biological activity are reported here for the first time. Its absolute configuration was determined using a combination of spectroscopic ((1)H-(1)H ROESY, ECD, and X-ray diffraction) and chemical (Marfey's analysis) methods. 1-Alaninechlamydocin showed potent antiproliferative/cytotoxic activities in a human pancreatic cancer cell line (MIA PaCa-2) at low-nanomolar concentrations (GI50 5.3 nM, TGI 8.8 nM, LC50 22 nM). Further analysis revealed that 1-alaninechlamydocin induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Similar to other cyclic epoxytetrapeptides, the inhibitory effects of 1-alaninechlamydocin are proposed to be produced primarily via inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity.
Project description:Two novel oxazole-thiazole containing cyclic hexapeptides, bistratamides M (1) and N (2) have been isolated from the marine ascidian Lissoclinum bistratum (L. bistratum) collected in Raja Ampat (Papua Bar, Indonesia). The planar structure of 1 and 2 was assigned on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The absolute configuration of the amino acid residues in 1 and 2 was determined by the application of the Marfey's and advanced Marfey's methods after ozonolysis followed by acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. The interaction between zinc (II) and the naturally known bistratamide K (3), a cyclic hexapeptide isolated from a different specimen of Lissoclinum bistratum, was monitored by ¹H and 13C NMR. The results obtained are consistent with the proposal that these peptides are biosynthesized for binding to metal ions. Compounds 1 and 2 display moderate cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines with GI50 values in the micromolar range.
Project description:Four new compounds, (+)-(2<i>S</i>)-desmosdumosone (<b>1</b>), (+)-(2<i>R</i>)-7,8-dimethoxy-5-hydroxyflavanone (<b>7</b>), (+)-(2<i>R</i>)-7-methoxychamanetin (<b>9</b>), and (+)-(1'<i>R</i>,2'<i>R</i>)-phebalosin (<b>18</b>), and 25 known compounds were isolated from the twig and leaf extracts of <i>Desmos dumosus</i>. Compounds (±)-<b>7</b> and (±)-<b>9</b> were isolated as racemates and their enantiomers were separated by chiral HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods as well as comparisons made from the literature. The absolute configuration of (+)-(1'<i>R</i>,2'<i>R</i>)-<b>18</b> was established by X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu K<i>?</i> radiation and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectoscopy. In contrast, the absolute configuration of compounds (+)-(2<i>S</i>)-<b>1</b>, (+)-(2<i>R</i>)-<b>7</b>, and (+)-(2<i>R</i>)-<b>9</b> were identified by comparing their ECD spectra and specific rotations with those of reported known compounds. Compounds <b>9</b>, <b>11</b>, <b>13</b>, <b>14</b>, <b>22</b>, <b>25</b>, and <b>28</b> showed <i>?</i>-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC<sub>50</sub> values ranging from 5.3-52.7 ?M, much better than that of standard control (acarbose, IC<sub>50</sub> value 83.5 ?M). Compound <b>13</b> was the most active with an IC<sub>50</sub> value of 5.3 ?M.