The repertoire of glycosphingolipids recognized by Vibrio cholerae.
ABSTRACT: The binding of cholera toxin to the ganglioside GM1 as the initial step in the process leading to diarrhea is nowadays textbook knowledge. In contrast, the knowledge about the mechanisms for attachment of Vibrio cholerae bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium is limited. In order to clarify this issue, a large number of glycosphingolipid mixtures were screened for binding of El Tor V. cholerae. Several specific interactions with minor complex non-acid glycosphingolipids were thereby detected. After isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids, characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, and comparative binding studies, three distinct glycosphingolipid binding patterns were defined. Firstly, V. cholerae bound to complex lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids with the GlcNAc?3Gal?4GlcNAc sequence as the minimal binding epitope. Secondly, glycosphingolipids with a terminal Gal?3Gal?3Gal moiety were recognized, and the third specificity was the binding to lactosylceramide and related compounds. V. cholerae binding to lacto/neolacto glycosphingolipids, and to the other classes of binding-active compounds, remained after deletion of the chitin binding protein GbpA. Thus, the binding of V. cholerae to chitin and to lacto/neolacto containing glycosphingolipids represents two separate binding specificities.
Project description:The FORS histo-blood group system is the most recently discovered carbohydrate-based human blood group system. FORS is a rare blood group system, and most individuals have naturally occurring anti-FORS1 antibodies in plasma. Screening for anti-FORS1 antibodies is often done by hemagglutination assays using FORS1-expressing sheep erythrocytes, since FORS1-positive human erythrocytes are most often not available. Here, we have characterized the non-acid glycosphingolipids from sheep erythrocytes and isolated subfractions, with mass spectrometry, binding of antibodies and lectins, and by enzymatic hydrolysis. This demonstrated the presence of Forssman and Galili pentaosylceramides, and a Galili heptaosylceramide. Two complex glycosphingolipids recognized by human anti-FORS1 antibodies were characterized as a Forssman neolacto hybrid hexaosylceramide (GalNAc?3GalNAc?3Gal?4GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer) and a Forssman Galili hybrid heptaosylceramide (GalNAc?3GalNAc?3Gal?3Gal?4GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer). These are novel glycosphingolipid structures, and to our knowledge, the first case of an elongated Galili antigen. Thus, the anti-Forssman antibodies in human serum bind not only to the classical Forssman pentaosylceramide (GalNAc?3GalNAc?3Gal?4Gal?4Glc?1Cer), but also when the GalNAc?3GalNAc?3 sequence is presented on a neolacto core chain and even on a Galili carbohydrate sequence.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen associated with hospital-acquired infections, including pneumonia, meningitis, bacteremia, urinary tract infection, and wound infections. Recognition of host cell surface carbohydrates plays a crucial role in adhesion and enables microbes to colonize different host niches. Here the potential glycosphingolipid receptors of A. baumannii were examined by binding of 35S-labeled bacteria to glycosphingolipids on thin-layer chromatograms. Thereby a selective interaction with two non-acid glycosphingolipids of human and rabbit small intestine was found. The binding-active glycosphingolipids were isolated and, on the basis of mass spectrometry, identified as neolactotetraosylceramide (Gal?4GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer) and lactotetraosylceramide (Gal?3GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer). Further binding assays using reference glycosphingolipids showed that A. baumannii also bound to lactotriaosylceramide (GlcNAc?3Gal?4Glc?1Cer) demonstrating that GlcNAc was the basic element recognized. In addition, the bacteria occasionally bound to galactosylceramide, lactosylceramide with phytosphingosine and/or hydroxy fatty acids, isoglobotriaosylceramide, gangliotriaosylceramide, and gangliotetraosylceramide, in analogy with binding patterns that previously have been described for other bacteria classified as "lactosylceramide-binding". Finally, by isolation and characterization of glycosphingolipids from human skin, the presence of neolactotetraosylceramide was demonstrated in this A. baumannii target tissue.
Project description:Glycosphingolipids are a diverse family of biologically important glycolipids. In addition to variations on the lipid component, more than 300 glycosphingolipid glycans have been characterized. These glycans are directly involved in various molecular recognition events. Several naturally occurring sialic acid forms have been found in sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, namely gangliosides. However, ganglioside glycans containing less common sialic acid forms are currently not available. Herein, highly effective one-pot multienzyme (OPME) systems are used in sequential for high-yield and cost-effective production of glycosphingolipid glycans, including those containing different sialic acid forms such as N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-glycero-d-galacto-nononic acid (Kdn), and 8-O-methyl-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac8OMe). A library of 64 structurally distinct glycosphingolipid glycans belonging to ganglio-series, lacto-/neolacto-series, and globo-/isoglobo-series glycosphingolipid glycans is constructed. These glycans are essential standards and invaluable probes for bioassays and biomedical studies.
Project description:In a previous study, we demonstrated that beta1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 5 (B3gnt5) is a lactotriaosylceramide (Lc(3)Cer) synthase that synthesizes a precursor structure for lacto/neolacto-series glycosphingolipids (GSLs) in in vitro experiments. Here, we generated B3gnt5-deficient (B3gnt5(-/-)) mice to investigate the in vivo biological functions of lacto/neolacto-series GSLs. In biochemical analyses, lacto/neolacto-series GSLs were confirmed to be absent and no Lc(3)Cer synthase activity was detected in the tissues of these mice. These results demonstrate that beta3GnT5 is the sole enzyme synthesizing Lc(3)Cer in vivo. Ganglioside GM1, known as a glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain (GEM) marker, was found to be up-regulated in B3gnt5(-/-) B cells by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. However, no difference in the amount of GM1 was observed by TLC-immunoblotting analysis. The GEM-stained puncta on the surface of B3gnt5(-/-) resting B cells were brighter and larger than those of WT cells. These results suggest that structural alteration of GEM occurs in B3gnt5(-/-) B cells. We next examined whether BCR signaling-related proteins, such as BCR, CD19, and the signaling molecule Lyn, had moved into or out of the GEM fraction. In B3gnt5(-/-) B cells, these molecules were enriched in the GEM fraction or adjacent fraction. Moreover, B3gnt5(-/-) B cells were more sensitive to the induction of intracellular phosphorylation signals on BCR stimulation and proliferated more vigorously than WT B cells. Together, these results suggest that lacto/neolacto-series GSLs play an important role in clustering of GEMs and tether-specific proteins, such as BCR, CD19, and related signaling molecules to the GEMs.
Project description:Vibrio cholerae is a bacterial pathogen that colonizes the chitinous exoskeleton of zooplankton as well as the human gastrointestinal tract. Colonization of these different niches involves an N-acetylglucosamine binding protein (GbpA) that has been reported to mediate bacterial attachment to both marine chitin and mammalian intestinal mucin through an unknown molecular mechanism. We report structural studies that reveal that GbpA possesses an unusual, elongated, four-domain structure, with domains 1 and 4 showing structural homology to chitin binding domains. A glycan screen revealed that GbpA binds to GlcNAc oligosaccharides. Structure-guided GbpA truncation mutants show that domains 1 and 4 of GbpA interact with chitin in vitro, whereas in vivo complementation studies reveal that domain 1 is also crucial for mucin binding and intestinal colonization. Bacterial binding studies show that domains 2 and 3 bind to the V. cholerae surface. Finally, mouse virulence assays show that only the first three domains of GbpA are required for colonization. These results explain how GbpA provides structural/functional modular interactions between V. cholerae, intestinal epithelium and chitinous exoskeletons.
Project description:The chitin-binding protein GbpA of Vibrio cholerae has been recently described as a common adherence factor for chitin and intestinal surface. Using an isogenic in-frame gbpA deletion mutant, we first show that V. cholerae O1 El Tor interacts with mouse intestinal mucus quickly, using GbpA in a specific manner. The gbpA mutant strain showed a significant decrease in intestinal adherence, leading to less colonization and fluid accumulation in a mouse in vivo model. Purified recombinant GbpA (rGbpA) specifically bound to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues of intestinal mucin in a dose-dependent, saturable manner with a dissociation constant of 11.2 microM. Histopathology results from infected mouse intestine indicated that GbpA binding resulted in a time-dependent increase in mucus secretion. We found that rGbpA increased the production of intestinal secretory mucins (MUC2, MUC3, and MUC5AC) in HT-29 cells through upregulation of corresponding genes. The upregulation of MUC2 and MUC5AC genes was dependent on NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. Interestingly, mucin could also increase GbpA expression in V. cholerae in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we propose that there is a coordinated interaction between GbpA and mucin to upregulate each other in a cooperative manner, leading to increased levels of expression of both of these interactive factors and ultimately allowing successful intestinal colonization and pathogenesis by V. cholerae.
Project description:Glycosphingolipids are ubiquitous cell surface molecules undertaking fundamental cellular processes. Lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) are the representative core structures for lacto- and neolacto-series glycosphingolipids. These glycolipids are the carriers to the blood group antigen and human natural killer antigens mainly found on blood cells, and are also principal components in human milk, contributing to infant health. The ?-galactoside recognising galectins mediate various cellular functions of these glycosphingolipids. We report crystallographic structures of the galectin-8 N-terminal domain (galectin-8N) in complex with LNT and LNnT. We reveal the first example in which the non-reducing end of LNT binds to the primary binding site of a galectin, and provide a structure-based rationale for the significant ten-fold difference in binding affinities of galectin-8N toward LNT compared to LNnT, such a magnitude of difference not being observed for any other galectin. In addition, the LNnT complex showed that the unique Arg59 has ability to adopt a new orientation, and comparison of glycerol- and lactose-bound galectin-8N structures reveals a minimum atomic framework for ligand recognition. Overall, these results enhance our understanding of glycosphingolipids interactions with galectin-8N, and highlight a structure-based rationale for its significantly different affinity for components of biologically relevant glycosphingolipids.
Project description:The Vibrio cholerae N-acetyl glucosamine-binding protein A (GbpA) is a chitin-binding protein involved in V. cholerae attachment to environmental chitin surfaces and human intestinal cells. We previously investigated the distribution and genetic variations of gbpA in a large collection of V. cholerae strains and found that the gene is consistently present and highly conserved in this species. Primers and probe were designed from the gbpA sequence of V. cholerae and a new Taq-based qPCR protocol was developed for diagnostic detection and quantification of the bacterium in environmental and stool samples. In addition, the positions of primers targeting the gbpA gene region were selected to obtain a short amplified fragment of 206 bp and the protocol was optimized for the analysis of formalin-fixed samples, such as historical Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) samples. Overall, the method is sensitive (50 gene copies), highly specific for V. cholerae and failed to amplify strains of the closely-related species Vibrio mimicus. The sensitivity of the assay applied to environmental and stool samples spiked with V. cholerae ATCC 39315 was comparable to that of pure cultures and was of 102 genomic units/l for drinking and seawater samples, 101 genomic units/g for sediment and 102 genomic units/g for bivalve and stool samples. The method also performs well when tested on artificially formalin-fixed and degraded genomic samples and was able to amplify V. cholerae DNA in historical CPR samples, the earliest of which date back to August 1966. The detection of V. cholerae in CPR samples collected in cholera endemic areas such as the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) is of particular significance and represents a proof of concept for the possible use of the CPR technology and the developed qPCR assay in cholera studies.
Project description:Chicken egg yolk was found to contain a unique glycosphingolipid pattern not seen in other types of tissue or cell. These glycosphingolipids were isolated in pure form and their structures established by sequential enzymic hydrolysis and permethylation analysis. The major gangliosides in chicken egg yolk are N-acetylneuraminosylgalactosylceramide, N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide and di-N-acetylneuraminosyl-lactosylceramide. The only neutral glycosphingolipid found in chicken egg yolk is galactosylceramide.
Project description:Bacterial adherence to mucosal surfaces is an important virulence trait of pathogenic bacteria. Adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to the intestine is mediated by a number of antigenically distinct colonization factors (CFs). One of the most common CFs is CFA/I. This has a fimbrial structure composed of a major repeating subunit, CfaB, and a single tip subunit, CfaE. The potential carbohydrate recognition by CFA/I was investigated by binding CFA/I-fimbriated bacteria and purified CFA/I fimbriae to a large number of variant glycosphingolipids separated on thin-layer chromatograms. For both fimbriated bacteria and purified fimbriae, specific interactions could be identified with a number of nonacid glycosphingolipids. These included glucosylceramide, lactosylceramide with phytosphingosine and/or hydroxy fatty acids, neolactotetraosylceramide, gangliotriaosylceramide, gangliotetraosylceramide, the H5 type 2 pentaglycosylceramide, the Lea-5 glycosphingolipid, the Lex-5 glycosphingolipid, and the Ley-6 glycosphingolipid. These glycosphingolipids were also recognized by recombinant E. coli expressing CFA/I in the absence of tip protein CfaE, as well as by purified fimbriae from the same strain. This demonstrates that the glycosphingolipid-binding capacity of CFA/I resides in the major CfaB subunit.