Control of human endometrial stromal cell motility by PDGF-BB, HB-EGF and trophoblast-secreted factors.
ABSTRACT: Human implantation involves extensive tissue remodeling at the fetal-maternal interface. It is becoming increasingly evident that not only trophoblast, but also decidualizing endometrial stromal cells are inherently motile and invasive, and likely contribute to the highly dynamic processes at the implantation site. The present study was undertaken to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the regulation of endometrial stromal cell motility and to identify trophoblast-derived factors that modulate migration. Among local growth factors known to be present at the time of implantation, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) triggered chemotaxis (directed locomotion), whereas platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB elicited both chemotaxis and chemokinesis (non-directed locomotion) of endometrial stromal cells. Supernatants of the trophoblast cell line AC-1M88 and of first trimester villous explant cultures stimulated chemotaxis but not chemokinesis. Proteome profiling for cytokines and angiogenesis factors revealed neither PDGF-BB nor HB-EGF in conditioned media from trophoblast cells or villous explants, while placental growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor and PDGF-AA were identified as prominent secretory products. Among these, only PDGF-AA triggered endometrial stromal cell chemotaxis. Neutralization of PDGF-AA in trophoblast conditioned media, however, did not diminish chemoattractant activity, suggesting the presence of additional trophoblast-derived chemotactic factors. Pathway inhibitor studies revealed ERK1/2, PI3 kinase/Akt and p38 signaling as relevant for chemotactic motility, whereas chemokinesis depended primarily on PI3 kinase/Akt activation. Both chemotaxis and chemokinesis were stimulated upon inhibition of Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase. The chemotactic response to trophoblast secretions was not blunted by inhibition of isolated signaling cascades, indicating activation of overlapping pathways in trophoblast-endometrial communication. In conclusion, trophoblast signals attract endometrial stromal cells, while PDGF-BB and HB-EGF, although not identified as trophoblast-derived, are local growth factors that may serve to fine-tune directed and non-directed migration at the implantation site.
Project description:Bone remodeling relies on the tightly regulated interplay between bone forming osteoblasts and bone digesting osteoclasts. Several studies have now described the molecular mechanisms by which osteoblasts control osteoclastogenesis and bone degradation. It is currently unclear whether osteoclasts can influence bone rebuilding.Using in vitro cell systems, we show here that mature osteoclasts, but not their precursors, secrete chemotactic factors recognized by both mature osteoblasts and their precursors. Several growth factors whose expression is upregulated during osteoclastogenesis were identified by DNA microarrays as candidates mediating osteoblast chemotaxis. Our subsequent functional analyses demonstrate that mature osteoclasts, whose platelet-derived growth factor bb (PDGF-bb) expression is reduced by siRNAs, exhibit a reduced capability of attracting osteoblasts. Conversely, osteoblasts whose platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR-beta) expression is reduced by siRNAs exhibit a lower capability of responding to chemotactic factors secreted by osteoclasts.We conclude that, in vitro mature osteoclasts control osteoblast chemotaxis via PDGF-bb/PDGFR-beta signaling. This may provide one key mechanism by which osteoclasts control bone formation in vivo.
Project description:Failure of the human embryo to implant into the uterine wall during the early stages of pregnancy is a major cause of infertility. Implantation involves embryo apposition and adhesion to the endometrial epithelium followed by penetration through the epithelium and invasion of the embryonic trophoblast through the endometrial stroma. Although gene-knockdown studies have highlighted several molecules that are important for implantation in the mouse, the molecular mechanisms controlling implantation in the human are unknown. Here, we demonstrate in an in vitro model for human implantation that the Rho GTPases Rac1 and RhoA in human endometrial stromal cells modulate invasion of the human embryo through the endometrial stroma. We show that knockdown of Rac1 expression in human endometrial stromal cells inhibits human embryonic trophoblast invasion into stromal cell monolayers, whereas inhibition of RhoA activity promotes embryo invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rac1 is required for human endometrial stromal cell migration and that the motility of the stromal cells increases at implantation sites. This increased motility correlates with a localized increase in Rac1 activation and a reciprocal decrease in RacGAP1 levels. These results reveal embryo-induced and localized endometrial responses that may govern implantation of the human embryo.
Project description:Biologics containing growth factors are frequently used to enhance healing after musculoskeletal injuries. One mechanism of action is thought to be though the ability of biologics to induce homing and migration of endogenous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to a target tissue. However, the ability of biologics to stimulate chemotaxis (directed migration of cells) and chemokinesis (increase rate of cell migration) of MSCs is unknown.The aim of this study was to directly compare the ability of biologics including platelet rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow concentrate (BMC) to induce MSC migration. The hypothesis was that leukocyte-low platelet rich plasma (Llo PRP) would induce migration to a greater extent than leukocyte-high platelet rich plasma (Lhi PRP) or BMC.Bone marrow-derived MSCs were isolated from 8 horses. Migration of MSCs toward a biologic (BMC, Llo PRP, and Lhi PRP) or the positive control platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) was continuously traced and measured for 24hrs using time-lapse microscopy and a microfluidics device. Cell migration, chemotaxis and chemokinesis were determined by measurements of displacement, number of cells migrated, and cell flux.All biologics resulted in a significantly greater percentage of MSCs migrated compared to the positive control (PDGF). MSCs migrated further toward BMC compared to Llo PRP. Cell migration, measured as cell flux, was greater toward BMC and Lhi PRP than Llo PRP.The biologics BMC and Lhi PRP elicit greater chemotaxis and chemokinesis of MSCs than Llo PRP. However, all biologics recruited the same number of MSCs suggesting that differences in other regenerative effects, such as growth factor concentration, between biologics should be strongly considered when choosing a biologic for treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. The results of this study have the potential to reduce the need, risks, and costs associated with MSC culture and delivery.
Project description:The endometrium is the lining of the uterus and site of blastocyst implantation. Each menstrual cycle, the endometrium cycles through rapid phases of growth, remodelling and breakdown. Significant vascular remodelling is also driven by trophoblast cells that form the outer layer of the blastocyst. Trophoblast invasion and remodelling enhance blood flow to the embryo ahead of placentation. Understanding the mechanisms of endometrial vascular remodelling and trophoblast invasion would provide key insights into endometrial physiology and cellular interactions critical for establishment of pregnancy. The objective of this study was to develop a tissue engineering platform to investigate the processes of endometrial angiogenesis and trophoblast invasion in a three-dimensional environment. We report adaptation of a methacrylamide-functionalized gelatin hydrogel that presents matrix stiffness in the range of the native tissue, supports the formation of endometrial endothelial cell networks with human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human endometrial stromal cells as an artificial endometrial perivascular niche and the culture of an endometrial epithelial cell layer, enables culture of a hormone-responsive stromal compartment and provides the capacity to monitor the kinetics of trophoblast invasion. With these studies, we provide a series of techniques that will instruct researchers in the development of endometrial models of increasing complexity.
Project description:Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant pediatric brain tumor known for its aggressive metastatic potential. Despite the well-documented migration of MB cells to other parts of the brain and spinal column, MB chemotaxis is poorly understood. Herein, we examined the in vitro migratory and cellular responses of MB-derived cells to external signaling of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), and the stromal cell-derived factors 1-alpha (SDF-1). Experiments utilized transwell assays and immunocytochemistry to identify receptor activation in MB migration, and used a microfluidic platform to examine directionality, trajectory, and gradient-dependence of motile cells. Data illustrates that MB-derived cells respond strongly to EGF in a dosage and gradient-dependent manner with increased EGF-R activation, and show that high EGF gradient fields cause an increased number of cells to migrate longer directed distances. Our results provide evidence that EGF and its receptor play an important role than previously documented in MB chemotactic migration than previously documented and should be considered for developing migration-target therapies against MB metastasis.
Project description:Cell chemotaxis is an important characteristic of cellular migration, which takes part in crucial aspects of life and development. In this work, we propose a novel in silico model of mesenchymal 3D migration with competing protrusions under a chemotactic gradient. Based on recent experimental observations, we identify three main stages that can regulate mesenchymal chemotaxis: chemosensing, dendritic protrusion dynamics and cell-matrix interactions. Therefore, each of these features is considered as a different module of the main regulatory computational algorithm. The numerical model was particularized for the case of fibroblast chemotaxis under a PDGF-bb gradient. Fibroblasts migration was simulated embedded in two different 3D matrices - collagen and fibrin - and under several PDGF-bb concentrations. Validation of the model results was provided through qualitative and quantitative comparison with in vitro studies. Our numerical predictions of cell trajectories and speeds were within the measured in vitro ranges in both collagen and fibrin matrices. Although in fibrin, the migration speed of fibroblasts is very low, because fibrin is a stiffer and more entangling matrix. Testing PDGF-bb concentrations, we noticed that an increment of this factor produces a speed increment. At 1 ng mL-1 a speed peak is reached after which the migration speed diminishes again. Moreover, we observed that fibrin exerts a dampening behavior on migration, significantly affecting the migration efficiency.
Project description:The fibroblast mitogen platelet-derived growth factor -BB (PDGF-BB) induces a transient expression of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 (also named Nur77, TR3 or NGFIB). The aim of the present study was to investigate the pathways through which NR4A1 is induced by PDGF-BB and its functional role. We demonstrate that in PDGF-BB stimulated NIH3T3 cells, the MEK1/2 inhibitor CI-1040 strongly represses NR4A1 expression, whereas Erk5 downregulation delays the expression, but does not block it. Moreover, we report that treatment with the NF-?B inhibitor BAY11-7082 suppresses NR4A1 mRNA and protein expression. The majority of NR4A1 in NIH3T3 was found to be localized in the cytoplasm and only a fraction was translocated to the nucleus after continued PDGF-BB treatment. Silencing NR4A1 slightly increased the proliferation rate of NIH3T3 cells; however, it did not affect the chemotactic or survival abilities conferred by PDGF-BB. Moreover, overexpression of NR4A1 promoted anchorage-independent growth of NIH3T3 cells and the glioblastoma cell lines U-105MG and U-251MG. Thus, whereas NR4A1, induced by PDGF-BB, suppresses cell growth on a solid surface, it increases anchorage-independent growth.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Several studies have indicated that human pre-implantation embryo-derived chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) may influence the implantation process by its action on human endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. Despite reports indicating that hCG acts on these cells to affect the production of several cytokines and growth factors (e.g., MIF, IGF-I, VEGF, LIF, IL-11, GMCSF, CXL10 and FGF2), our understanding of the integral influence of hCG on paracrine interactions between endometrial stromal and epithelial cells during implantation is very limited. METHODS: In the present study, we examined the profile of 48 cytokines in the conditioned media of primary cell cultures of human implantation stage endometrium. Endometrial epithelial cells (group 1; n?=?20), stromal cells (group 2; n?=?20), and epithelial plus stromal cells (group 3; n?=?20) obtained from mid-secretory stage endometrial samples (n?=?60) were grown on collagen and exposed to different doses (0, 1, 10 and 100 IU/ml) of rhCG for 24 h in vitro. Immunochemical and qRT-PCR methods were used to determine cytokine profiles. Enrichment and process networks analyses were implemented using a list of cytokines showing differential secretion in response to hCG. RESULTS: Under basal conditions, endometrial epithelial and stromal cells exhibited cell type-specific profiles of secreted cytokines. Administration of hCG (100 IU) resulted in significantly (P?<?0.05) different cytokine secretion profiles indicative of macropinocytic transport (HGF, MCSF) in epithelial cells, signal transduction (CCL4, FGF2, IL-1b, IL-6, IL-17, VEGF) in stromal cells, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (FGF2, HGF, IL-1b, TNF) in mixed cells. Overall, the administration of hCG affected cytokines involved in the immune response, chemotaxis, inflammatory changes, proliferation, cell adhesion and apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS: CG can influence the function of the endometrium during blastocyst implantation via its differential action on endometrial epithelial and stromal cells. CG may also affect complex paracrine processes in the different endometrial cell types.
Project description:Tissue engineering approaches using growth factor-functionalized acellular scaffolds to support and guide repair driven by endogenous cells are thought to require a careful balance between cell recruitment and growth factor release kinetics. The objective of this study was to identify a growth factor combination that accelerates progenitor cell migration into self-assembling peptide hydrogels in the context of cartilage defect repair. A novel 3D gel-to-gel migration assay enabled quantification of the chemotactic impact of platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), heparin-binding insulin-like growth factor-1 (HB-IGF-1), and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) on progenitor cells derived from subchondral bovine trabecular bone (bone-marrow progenitor cells, BM-PCs) encapsulated in the peptide hydrogel [KLDL]3. Only the combination of PDGF-BB and TGF-?1 stimulated significant migration of BM-PCs over a 4-day period, measured by confocal microscopy. Both PDGF-BB and TGF-?1 were slowly released from the gel, as measured using their (125)I-labeled forms, and they remained significantly present in the gel at 4 days. In the context of augmenting microfracture surgery for cartilage repair, our strategy of delivering chemotactic and proanabolic growth factors in KLD may provide the necessary local stimulus to help increase defect cellularity, providing more cells to generate repair tissue.
Project description:Tissue engineering using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) holds great promise for regenerating critically sized bone defects. While the bone marrow-derived MSC is the most widely studied stromal/stem cell type for this application, its rarity within bone marrow and painful isolation procedure have motivated investigation of alternative cell sources. Adipose-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are more abundant and more easily procured; furthermore, they also possess robust osteogenic potency. While these two cell types are widely considered very similar, there is a growing appreciation of possible innate differences in their biology and response to growth factors. In particular, reports indicate that their osteogenic response to platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB) is markedly different: MSCs responded negatively or not at all to PDGF-BB while ASCs exhibited enhanced mineralization in response to physiological concentrations of PDGF-BB. In this study, we directly tested whether a fundamental difference existed between the osteogenic responses of MSCs and ASCs to PDGF-BB. MSCs and ASCs cultured under identical osteogenic conditions responded disparately to 20 ng/ml of PDGF-BB: MSCs exhibited no difference in mineralization while ASCs produced more calcium per cell. siRNA-mediated knockdown of PDGFR? within ASCs abolished their ability to respond to PDGF-BB. Gene expression was also different; MSCs generally downregulated and ASCs generally upregulated osteogenic genes in response to PDGF-BB. ASCs transduced to produce PDGF-BB resulted in more regenerated bone within a critically sized murine calvarial defect compared to control ASCs, indicating PDGF-BB used specifically in conjunction with ASCs might enhance tissue engineering approaches for bone regeneration.