CADM1 is expressed as multiple alternatively spliced functional and dysfunctional isoforms in human mast cells.
ABSTRACT: Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases and is responsible for adhesion and survival of mast cells (MCs). Differential expression of CADM1 isoforms was found in different species. We previously cloned SP4, SP1, SP6 and a dysfunctional isoform from human lung MCs (HLMCs) and the MC line HMC-1. The aim of this study was to identify all isoforms expressed in human MCs. The functional isoforms SP4, SP1, SP6 and SP3, with alternative splicing between exons 7/11, were detected in human MCs by RT-PCR. Two dysfunctional isoforms with alternative splicing of cryptic exons A and B between exons 1/2, leading to premature termination of translation, were found in ?40% of MC specimens. Sequencing of genomic DNA showed that splicing of cryptic exon B did not result from specific SNPs within this exon or its putative splice branch point. Highly glycosylated CADM1 (?105 kDa) was detected by western blotting, but an extracellular domain (?95 kDa) was found only in the culture medium from HLMCs, but not HMC-1 cells, indicating differential protein expression. Transfection of SP1 and SP6, but not SP4, reduced adhesion of HMC-1 cells to human lung fibroblasts but not airway smooth muscle cells. Hence, dysfunctional and functional CADM1 isoforms are found in human MCs. The longer SP1 and SP6 were most evident in differentiated HLMCs and displayed differential adhesion compared to SP4. These multiple isoforms are likely to contribute to MC function in both health and disease.
Project description:Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), expressed by human lung mast cells (HLMCs), mediates their adhesion to airway smooth muscle (ASM), and contributes to ASM-dependent HLMC proliferation and survival. CADM1 is expressed in alternatively spliced isoforms, but those present in HLMCs and their function are not known. We cloned three functional and one cryptic non-functional isoform with alternative splicing between exons 7/11 and 1/2, respectively, from HLMCs and human MC lines (HMC-1 and LAD2). Differentiated HLMCs and LAD2 cells expressed the functional isoform SP4 containing exons 7/8/11 (~80% of clones), as well as SP1 (exons 7/8/9/11) and a novel SP6 (exons 7/8/9/10/11). In contrast, immature HMC-1 cells expressed only functional SP4. SP4 overexpression in HMC-1 cells and HLMCs augmented homotypic adhesion to a greater extent than SP1 in various conditions. In contrast, CADM1 downregulation abolished homotypic adhesion, indicating that CADM1 is the sole receptor mediating mast cell aggregation. CADM1-mediated adhesion was enhanced by the presence of cell survival factors. SP1 overexpression in HMC-1 cells compromised survival compared to SP4 overexpression or control. CADM1 downregulation resulted in reduced viability and decreased expression of the pro-survival protein Mcl-1(L), but not Blc-2 or Bcl-X(L), and increased caspase-3/7 activity in both HMC-1 cells and HLMCs. This coincided with decreased basal Kit levels in HLMCs. In summary, human MCs express multiple CADM1 isoforms which exhibit differential regulation of survival and homotypic adhesion. The most highly expressed SP4 isoform is likely to contribute to MC aggregation and longevity in mastocytosis, and augment the pathophysiology of allergic diseases.
Project description:CADM1 is a major receptor for the adhesion of mast cells (MCs) to fibroblasts, human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and neurons. It also regulates E-cadherin and alpha6beta4 integrin in other cell types. Here we investigated a role for CADM1 in MC adhesion to both cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Downregulation of CADM1 in the human MC line HMC-1 resulted not only in reduced adhesion to HASMCs, but also reduced adhesion to their ECM. Time-course studies in the presence of EDTA to inhibit integrins demonstrated that CADM1 provided fast initial adhesion to HASMCs and assisted with slower adhesion to ECM. CADM1 downregulation, but not antibody-dependent CADM1 inhibition, reduced MC adhesion to ECM, suggesting indirect regulation of ECM adhesion. To investigate potential mechanisms, phosphotyrosine signalling and polymerisation of actin filaments, essential for integrin-mediated adhesion, were examined. Modulation of CADM1 expression positively correlated with surface KIT levels and polymerisation of cortical F-actin in HMC-1 cells. It also influenced phosphotyrosine signalling and KIT tyrosine autophosphorylation. CADM1 accounted for 46% of surface KIT levels and 31% of F-actin in HMC-1 cells. CADM1 downregulation resulted in elongation of cortical actin filaments in both HMC-1 cells and human lung MCs and increased cell rigidity of HMC-1 cells. Collectively these data suggest that CADM1 is a key adhesion receptor, which regulates MC net adhesion, both directly through CADM1-dependent adhesion, and indirectly through the regulation of other adhesion receptors. The latter is likely to occur via docking of KIT and polymerisation of cortical F-actin. Here we propose a stepwise model of adhesion with CADM1 as a driving force for net MC adhesion.
Project description:Mast cells (MCs) are important cellular components of the tumor microenvironment and are significantly associated with poor patient outcomes in prostate cancer and other solid cancers. The promotion of tumor progression partly involves heterotypic interactions between MCs and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) which combine to potentiate a pro-tumor extracellular matrix and promote epithelial cell invasion and migration. Thus far, the interactions between MCs and CAFs remains poorly understood. To identify molecular changes that may alter resident MC function in the prostate tumor microenvironment, we profiled the transcriptome of human prostate MCs, isolated from patient-matched non-tumor and tumor-associated regions of fresh radical prostatectomy tissue. Transcriptomic profiling revealed a distinct gene expression profile of MCs isolated from prostate tumor regions, including the downregulation of SAMD14, a putative tumor suppressor gene. Proteomic profiling revealed overexpression of SAMD14 in HMC-1 MCs altered the secretion of proteins associated with immune regulation and extracellular matrix processes. To assess MC biological function within a model of the prostate tumor microenvironment, HMC-1-SAMD14+ conditioned media was added to co-cultures of primary prostatic CAFs and prostate epithelium. HMC-1-SAMD14+ secretions were shown to reduce the deposition and alignment of matrix produced by CAFs and suppress pro-tumorigenic prostate epithelial morphology. Overall, our data presents the first profile of human MCs derived from patient prostate cancer specimens and identifies MC-derived SAMD14 as an important mediator of MC phenotype and function within the prostate tumor microenvironment.
Project description:Human lung mast cells (HLMCs) play a central role in asthma pathogenesis through their relocation to the airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles. ?2 adrenoceptor (?2-AR)-agonists are used to relieve bronchoconstriction in asthma, but may reduce asthma control, particularly when used as monotherapy. We hypothesized that HLMC and human ASM cell (HASMC) responsiveness to ?2-AR agonists would be attenuated when HLMCs are in contact with HASMCs. Cells were cultured in the presence of the short-acting ?2-agonist albuterol, and the long-acting ?2-agonists formoterol and olodaterol. Constitutive and Fc?RI-dependent HLMC histamine release, HASMC contraction, and ?2-AR phosphorylation at Tyr(350) were assessed. Constitutive HLMC histamine release was increased in HLMC-HASMC coculture and this was enhanced by ?2-AR agonists. Inhibition of Fc?RI-dependent HLMC mediator release by ?2-agonists was greatly reduced in HLMC-HASMC coculture. These effects were reversed by neutralization of stem cell factor (SCF) or cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1). ?2-AR agonists did not prevent HASMC contraction when HLMCs were present, but this was reversed by fluticasone. ?2-AR phosphorylation at Tyr(350) occurred within 5 min in both HLMCs and HASMCs when the cells were cocultured, and was inhibited by neutralizing SCF or CADM1. HLMC interactions with HASMCs via CADM1 and Kit inhibit the potentially beneficial effects of ?2-AR agonists on these cells via phosphorylation of the ?2-AR. These results may explain the potentially adverse effects of ?2-ARs agonists when used for asthma therapy. Targeting SCF and CADM1 may enhance ?2-AR efficacy, particularly in corticosteroid-resistant patients.
Project description:The Hermes receptor CD44 is a multifunctional adhesion molecule that plays an essential role in the homing and invasion of neoplastic stem cells in various myeloid malignancies. Although mast cells (MCs) reportedly express CD44, little is known about the regulation and function of this receptor in neoplastic cells in systemic mastocytosis (SM). We found that clonal CD34+/CD38- stem cells, CD34+/CD38+ progenitor cells, and CD117++/CD34- MCs invariably express CD44 in patients with indolent SM (ISM), SM with an associated hematologic neoplasm, aggressive SM, and MC leukemia (MCL). In addition, all human MCL-like cell lines examined (HMC-1, ROSA, and MCPV-1) displayed cytoplasmic and cell-surface CD44. We also found that expression of CD44 in neoplastic MCs depends on RAS-MEK and STAT5 signaling and increases with the aggressiveness of SM. Correspondingly, higher levels of soluble CD44 were measured in the sera of patients with advanced SM compared with ISM or cutaneous mastocytosis and were found to correlate with overall and progression-free survival. To investigate the functional role of CD44, a xenotransplantation model was employed using severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, HMC-1.2 cells, and a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against CD44. In this model, the shRNA-mediated knockdown of CD44 resulted in reduced MC expansion and tumor formation and prolonged survival in SCID mice compared with HMC-1.2 cells transduced with control shRNA. Together, our data show that CD44 is a RAS-MEK/STAT5-driven MC invasion receptor that correlates with the aggressiveness of SM. Whether CD44 can serve as therapeutic target in advanced SM remains to be determined in forthcoming studies.
Project description:Multiple mechanisms contribute to progressive cardiac dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI) and inflammation is an important mediator. Mast cells (MCs) trigger inflammation after MI by releasing bio-active factors that contribute to healing. c-Kit-deficient (Kit(W/W-v) ) mice have dysfunctional MCs and develop severe ventricular dilatation post-MI. We explored the role of MCs in post-MI repair. Mouse wild-type (WT) and Kit(W/W-v) MCs were obtained from bone marrow (BM). MC effects on fibroblasts were examined in vitro by proliferation and gel contraction assays. MCs were implanted into infarcted mouse hearts and their effects were evaluated using molecular, cellular and cardiac functional analyses. In contrast to WT, Kit(W/W-v) MC transplantation into Kit(W/W-v) mice did not improve cardiac function or scar size post-MI. Kit(W/W-v) MCs induced significantly reduced fibroblast proliferation and contraction compared to WT MCs. MC influence on fibroblast proliferation was Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-dependent and MC-induced fibroblast contractility functioned through transforming growth factor (TGF)-?. WT MCs transiently rescue cardiac function early post-MI, but the benefits of BM cell implantation lasted longer. MCs induced increased inflammation compared to the BM-injected mice, with increased neutrophil infiltration and infarct tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) concentration. This augmented inflammation was followed by increased angiogenesis and myofibroblast formation and reduced scar size at early time-points. Similar to the functional data, these beneficial effects were transient, largely vanishing by day 28. Dysfunctional Kit(W/W-v) MCs were unable to rescue cardiac function post-MI. WT MC implantation transiently enhanced angiogenesis and cardiac function. These data suggest that increased inflammation is beneficial to cardiac repair, but these effects are not persistent.
Project description:Interleukin-16 (IL-16) induces the chemotaxis and activation of mast cells (MCs) and other cell types. While it has been concluded that CD4 is the primary IL-16 receptor on T cells, at least one other IL-16 receptor exists. We now show that the IL-16-responsive human MC line HMC-1 lacks CD4, and that the IL-16-mediated chemotactic and Ca2+ mobilization responses of this cell can be blocked by anti-CD9 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) but not by mAbs directed against CD4 or other tetraspanins. Anti-CD9 mAbs also inhibited the IL-16-mediated activation of nontransformed human cord blood-derived MCs and mouse bone marrow-derived MCs by 50% to 60%. The chemotactic response of HMC-1 cells to IL-16, as well as the binding of the cytokine to the cell's plasma membrane, was inhibited by CD9-specific antisense oligonucleotides. CD9 is therefore essential for the IL-16-mediated chemotaxis and activation of the HMC-1 cell line. In support of this conclusion, IL-16 bound to CD9-expressing CHO cell transfectants. The ability of wortmannin and xestopongin C to inhibit the IL-16-mediated chemotactic response of these cells suggests that the cytokine activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/inositol trisphosphate-dependent signaling pathway in MCs. This is the first report of a tetraspanin that plays a prominent role in a cytokine-mediated chemotactic response of human MCs.
Project description:Advanced systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a life-threatening neoplasm characterized by uncontrolled growth and accumulation of neoplastic mast cells (MCs) in various organs and a poor survival. So far, no curative treatment concept has been developed for these patients. We identified the epigenetic reader bromodomain-containing protein-4 (BRD4) as novel drug target in aggressive SM (ASM) and MC leukemia (MCL). As assessed by immunohistochemistry and PCR, neoplastic MCs expressed substantial amounts of BRD4 in ASM and MCL. The human MCL lines HMC-1 and ROSA also expressed BRD4, and their proliferation was blocked by a BRD4-specific short hairpin RNA. Correspondingly, the BRD4-targeting drug JQ1 induced dose-dependent growth inhibition and apoptosis in HMC-1 and ROSA cells, regardless of the presence or absence of KIT D816V. In addition, JQ1 suppressed the proliferation of primary neoplastic MCs obtained from patients with ASM or MCL (IC50: 100-500?nm). In drug combination experiments, midostaurin (PKC412) and all-trans retinoic acid were found to cooperate with JQ1 in producing synergistic effects on survival in HMC-1 and ROSA cells. Taken together, we have identified BRD4 as a promising drug target in advanced SM. Whether JQ1 or other BET-bromodomain inhibitors are effective in vivo in patients with advanced SM remains to be elucidated.
Project description:Mastocytosis is a disorder resulting from an abnormal mast cell (MC) accumulation in tissues that is often associated with the D816V mutation in KIT, the tyrosine kinase receptor for stem cell factor. Therapies available to treat aggressive presentations of mastocytosis are limited, thus exploration of novel pharmacological targets that reduce MC burden is desirable. Since increased generation of the lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) by sphingosine kinase (SPHK) has been linked to oncogenesis, we studied the involvement of the two SPHK isoforms (SPHK1 and SPHK2) in the regulation of neoplastic human MC growth. While SPHK2 inhibition prevented entry into the cell cycle in normal and neoplastic human MCs with minimal effect on cell survival, SPHK1 inhibition caused cell cycle arrest in G2/M and apoptosis, particularly in D816V-KIT MCs. This was mediated via activation of the DNA damage response cascade, including phosphorylation of the checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2), CHK2-mediated CDC25c depletion and p53 activation. Combination treatment of SPHK inhibitors with KIT inhibitors showed greater growth inhibition of D816V-KIT MCs than either inhibitor alone. Furthermore, inhibition of SPHK reduced the number of malignant bone marrow MCs from patients with mastocytosis and the growth of D816V-KIT MCs in a xenograft mouse model. Our results reveal a role for SPHK isoforms in the regulation of growth and survival in normal and neoplastic MCs and suggest a regulatory function for SPHK1 in the DNA damage response in MCs with KIT mutations. The findings also suggest that targeting the SPHK/S1P axis may provide an alternative to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, alone or in combination, for treatment of aggressive mastocytosis and other hematological malignancies associated with the D816V-KIT mutation. Overall design: HMC-1.2 cells cultured with vehicle, SPHK1 inhibitor (SPHK1-I) or SPHK2 inhibitor (SPHK2-I) for 24 h. Each treatment was done in duplicate for a tottal number of 6 samples
Project description:The capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type -1 (TRPV1) directs complex roles in signal transduction including the detection of noxious stimuli arising from cellular injury and inflammation. Under pathophysiologic conditions, TRPV1 mRNA and receptor protein expression are elevated in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons for weeks to months and is associated with hyperalgesia. Building on our previous isolation of a promoter system for the rat TRPV1 gene, we investigated the proximal TRPV1 P2-promoter by first identifying candidate Sp1-like transcription factors bound in vivo to the P2-promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. We then performed deletion analysis of GC-box binding sites, and quantified promoter activity under conditions of Sp1 / Sp4 over-expression versus inhibition/knockdown. mRNA encoding Sp1, Sp4 and TRPV1 were quantified by qRT-PCR under conditions of Sp1/Sp4 over-expression or siRNA mediated knockdown in cultured DRG neurons.Using ChIP analysis of DRG tissue, we demonstrated that Sp1 and Sp4 are bound to the candidate GC-box site region within the endogenous TRPV1 P2-promoter. Deletion of GC-box "a" or "a + b" within the P2- promoter resulted in a complete loss of transcriptional activity indicating that GC-box "a" was the critical site for promoter activation. Co-transfection of Sp1 increased P2-promoter activity in cultured DRG neurons whereas mithramycin-a, an inhibitor of Sp1-like function, dose dependently blocked NGF and Sp1-dependent promoter activity in PC12 cells. Co-transfection of siRNA directed against Sp1 or Sp4 decreased promoter activity in DRG neurons and NGF treated PC12 cells. Finally, electroporation of Sp1 or Sp4 cDNA into cultures of DRG neurons directed an increase in Sp1/Sp4 mRNA and importantly an increase in TRPV1 mRNA. Conversely, combined si-RNA directed knockdown of Sp1/Sp4 resulted in a decrease in TRPV1 mRNA.Based on these studies, we now propose a model of TRPV1 expression that is dependent on Sp1-like transcription factors with Sp4 playing a predominant role in activating TRPV1 RNA transcription in DRG neurons. Given that increases of TRPV1 expression have been implicated in a wide range of pathophysiologic states including persistent painful conditions, blockade of Sp1-like transcription factors represents a novel direction in therapeutic strategies.