Clomiphene citrate versus high doses of gonadotropins for in vitro fertilisation in women with compromised ovarian reserve: a randomised controlled non-inferiority trial.
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present randomised controlled non-inferiority trial is to test whether in women with compromised ovarian reserve requiring in vitro fertilisation, a protocol of ovarian stimulation using exclusively clomiphene citrate performs similarly to a regimen with high doses of gonadotropins.Women with day 3 serum FSH > 12 IU/ml on at least two occasions or previous poor response to hyper-stimulation were recruited at four Italian infertility units. Selected women were allocated to clomiphene citrate 150 mg/day from day 3 to day 7 of the cycle (n=145) or to a short protocol with GnRH agonist 0.1 mg and recombinant FSH 450 IU daily (n=146). They were randomised by means of a computer-generated list into two groups. The study was not blinded. The main outcome of the study was the delivery rate per started cycle.The study was interrupted after the scheduled two years of recruitment before reaching the sample size. 148 women were allocated to clomiphene citrate and 156 to the short protocol with high doses of gonadotropins; 124 and 125 participants were analysed in the groups, respectively. Women allocated to high doses of gonadotropins retrieved more oocytes and had a higher probability to perform embryo-transfer. However, the chances of success were similar. The delivery rate per started cycle in women receiving clomiphene citrate and high-dose gonadotropins was 3% (n=5) and 5% (n=7), respectively (p=0.77). The mean estimated cost per delivery in the two groups was 81,294 and 113,107 Euros, respectively. No side-effects or adverse events were observed.In women with compromised ovarian reserve selected for in vitro fertilisation, ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate or high-dose gonadotropins led to similar chances of pregnancy but the former is less expensive.Trial registered on http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01389713).
Project description:The aim of this study was to examine the effect of clomiphene citrate [CC] co-administration during the use of exogenous low-dose urinary FSH [uFSH] for induction of ovulation in CC-resistant infertile PCOS women.In a randomised controlled setting, 174 CC-resistant infertile PCOS women were randomized into two parallel groups; Group I received CC 100 mg/day for 5 days plus uFSH 37.5 IU/day while group II received only uFSH 37.5 IU /day. Subsequent increments of uFSH by 37.5 IU/day were made according to response. Primary outcome was ovulation rate. Secondary outcomes were clinical pregnancy rates, number of follicles, endometrial thickness, and gonadotropins consumption.Our results have demonstrated that group I compared to group II had significantly higher ovulation rate per intention to treat [ITT] [72.4 % vs. 34.2 %, p?<?0.001]. Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were comparable between the two groups. Group I consumed significantly lower total FSH dose and needed significantly shorter stimulation duration compared to group II.CC co-administered during low dose HP uFSH versus uFSH for CC-resistant PCOS yields significantly higher ovulation rate and less consumption of FSH.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To identify baseline characteristics of women with unexplained infertility to determine whether treatment with an aromatase inhibitor will result in a lower rate of multiple gestations than current standard ovulation induction medications. DESIGN:Randomized, prospective clinical trial. SETTING:Multicenter university-based clinical practices. PATIENT(S):A total of 900 couples with unexplained infertility. INTERVENTION(S):Collection of baseline demographics, blood samples, and ultrasonographic assessments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):Demographic, laboratory, imaging, and survey characteristics. RESULT(S):Demographic characteristics of women receiving clomiphene citrate (CC), letrozole, or gonadotropins for ovarian stimulation were very consistent. Their mean age was 32.2 ± 4.4 years and infertility duration was 34.7 ± 25.7 months, with 59% primary infertility. More than one-third of the women were current or past smokers. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 27 and mean antimüllerian hormone level was 2.6; only 11 women (1.3%) had antral follicle counts of <5. Similar observations were identified for hormonal profiles, ultrasound characterization of the ovaries, semen parameters, and quality of life assessments in both male and female partners. CONCLUSION(S):The cause of infertility in the couples recruited to this treatment trial is elusive, as the women were regularly ovulating and had evidence of good ovarian reserve both by basal FSH, antimüllerian hormone levels, and antral follicle counts; the male partners had normal semen parameters. The three treatment groups have common baseline characteristics, thereby providing comparable patient populations for testing the hypothesis that use of letrozole for ovarian stimulation can reduce the rates of multiples from that observed with gonadotropin and CC treatment. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT 01044862.
Project description:The comparative efficacies of ovulation-induction treatments in patients with clomiphene citrate-resistant (CCR) polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are not well known. Therefore, we conducted a network meta-analysis to rank the reproductive efficacies of these treatments. We ultimately included 26 randomized clinical trials with 2722 participants and 9 types of therapies: clomiphene citrate (CC), metformin, letrozole, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), unilateral laparoscopic ovarian drilling (ULOD), bilateral laparoscopic ovarian drilling (BLOD), the combination of metformin with letrozole (metformin+letrozole), and the combination of metformin with CC (metformin+CC). The network meta-analysis demonstrates that hMG therapy result in higher pregnancy rates than BLOD, ULOD and CC therapies. Pregnancy, live birth and ovulation rates are significantly higher in metformin+letrozole and FSH groups than CC group. The abortion rate in the metformin+letrozole group is significantly lower than that in the metformin+CC group. Ranking probabilities show that, apart from gonadotropin (FSH and hMG), metformin+letrozole is also potentially more effective in improving reproductive outcomes than other therapies. In conclusion, owing to the low quality of evidence and the wide confidence intervals, no recommendation could be made for the treatment of ovulation-induction in patients with CCR PCOS.
Project description:Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy affecting American women. The gonadotropins, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), have been implicated as growth factors in ovarian cancer. In the present study, pathways activated by FSH and LH in normal ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) grown in their microenvironment were investigated. Gonadotropins increased proliferation in both three-dimensional (3D) ovarian organ culture and in a two-dimensional (2D) normal mouse cell line. A mouse cancer pathway qPCR array using mRNA collected from 3D organ cultures identified Akt as a transcriptionally upregulated target following stimulation with FSH, LH and the combination of FSH and LH. Activation of additional pathways, such as Birc5, Cdk2, Cdk4, and Cdkn2a identified in the 3D organ cultures, were validated by western blot using the 2D cell line. Akt and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors blocked gonadotropin-induced cell proliferation in 3D organ and 2D cell culture. OSE isolated from 3D organ cultures stimulated with LH or hydrogen peroxide initiated growth in soft agar. Hydrogen peroxide stimulated colonies were further enhanced when supplemented with FSH. LH colony formation and FSH promotion were blocked by Akt and EGFR inhibitors. These data suggest that the gonadotropins stimulate some of the same proliferative pathways in normal OSE that are activated in ovarian cancers.
Project description:Luteinizing hormone (LH) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) act on the same receptor, activating different signal transduction pathways. The role of LH or hCG addition to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) as well as menopausal gonadotropins (human menopausal gonadotropin; hMG) in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) is debated.To compare FSH?+?LH, or FSH?+?hCG or hMG vs. FSH alone on COS outcomes.A meta-analysis according to PRISMA statement and Cochrane Collaboration was performed, including prospective, controlled clinical trials published until July 2016, enrolling women treated with FSH alone or combined with other gonadotropins. Trials enrolling women with polycystic ovarian syndrome were excluded (PROSPERO registration no. CRD42016048404).Considering 70 studies, the administration of FSH alone resulted in higher number of oocytes retrieved than FSH?+?LH or hMG. The MII oocytes number did not change when FSH alone was compared to FSH?+?LH, FSH?+?hCG, or hMG. Embryo number and implantation rate were higher when hMG was used instead of FSH alone. Pregnancy rate was significantly higher in FSH?+?LH-treated group vs. others. Only 12 studies reported live birth rate, not providing protocol-dependent differences. Patients' stratification by GnRH agonist/antagonist identified patient subgroups benefiting from specific drug combinations.In COS, FSH alone results in higher oocyte number. HMG improves the collection of mature oocytes, embryos, and increases implantation rate. On the other hand, LH addition leads to higher pregnancy rate. This study supports the concept of a different clinical action of gonadotropins in COS, reflecting previous in vitro data.
Project description:The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the efficacy of extended letrozole regimen with clomiphene citrate in women with unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and intrauterine insemination (IUI).Two hundred and fourteen patients with unexplained infertility were randomized into two equal groups using computer generated list and were treated by either letrozole 2.5 mg/day from cycle day 1 to 9 (extended letrozole group, 211 cycles) or clomiphene citrate 100 mg/day from cycle day 3 to 7 (clomiphene citrate group,210 cycles). Intrauterine insemination was performed 36 to 40 hours after HCG administration.Both groups were comparable with regard to number of mature follicles (2.24 +/- 0.80 Vs 2.13 +/- 0.76) and the day of HCG administration. Serum estradiol was significantly greater in clomiphene citrate group (356 +/- 151 Vs 822 +/- 302 pg/ml, P = < 0.001) and the endometrial thickness was significantly greater in extended letrozole group (9.10 +/- 1.84 Vs 8.18 +/- 1.93 mm, P = < 0.001).The pregnancy rate per cycle and cumulative pregnancy rate were significantly greater in extended letrozole group (18.96% Vs 11.43% and 37.73% Vs 22.86%, respectively).The extended letrozole regimen had a superior efficacy as compared with clomiphene citrate in patients of unexplained infertility undergoing superovulation and IUI.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01232075.
Project description:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in women of reproductive age. Lifestyle change is considered the first line treatment for the management of infertile anovulatory women with PCOS, and weight loss for those who are overweight or obese. First line medical ovulation induction therapy to improve fertility outcomes is letrozole, whilst other less efficacious ovulation induction agents, such as clomiphene citrate, metformin, and metformin combined with clomiphene citrate, may also be considered. Metformin combined with clomiphene citrate is more effective than clomiphene citrate alone. In obese women with PCOS, clomiphene citrate could be used in preference to metformin alone whilst clomiphene citrate could be added to metformin alone in order to improve reproductive outcome in all women with PCOS. Gonadotrophins, which are more effective than clomiphene citrate in therapy naïve women with PCOS, can be considered a first line therapy in the presence of ultrasound monitoring, following counselling on the cost and the potential risk of multiple pregnancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The standard therapy for women with unexplained infertility is gonadotropin or clomiphene citrate. Ovarian stimulation with letrozole has been proposed to reduce multiple gestations while maintaining live birth rates. METHODS:We enrolled couples with unexplained infertility in a multicenter, randomized trial. Ovulatory women 18 to 40 years of age with at least one patent fallopian tube were randomly assigned to ovarian stimulation (up to four cycles) with gonadotropin (301 women), clomiphene (300), or letrozole (299). The primary outcome was the rate of multiple gestations among women with clinical pregnancies. RESULTS:After treatment with gonadotropin, clomiphene, or letrozole, clinical pregnancies occurred in 35.5%, 28.3%, and 22.4% of cycles, and live birth in 32.2%, 23.3%, and 18.7%, respectively; pregnancy rates with letrozole were significantly lower than the rates with standard therapy (gonadotropin or clomiphene) (P=0.003) or gonadotropin alone (P<0.001) but not with clomiphene alone (P=0.10). Among ongoing pregnancies with fetal heart activity, the multiple gestation rate with letrozole (9 of 67 pregnancies, 13%) did not differ significantly from the rate with gonadotropin or clomiphene (42 of 192, 22%; P=0.15) or clomiphene alone (8 of 85, 9%; P=0.44) but was lower than the rate with gonadotropin alone (34 of 107, 32%; P=0.006). All multiple gestations in the clomiphene and letrozole groups were twins, whereas gonadotropin treatment resulted in 24 twin and 10 triplet gestations. There were no significant differences among groups in the frequencies of congenital anomalies or major fetal and neonatal complications. CONCLUSIONS:In women with unexplained infertility, ovarian stimulation with letrozole resulted in a significantly lower frequency of multiple gestation but also a lower frequency of live birth, as compared with gonadotropin but not as compared with clomiphene. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01044862.).
Project description:To investigate the association of non-cavity-distorting uterine fibroids and pregnancy outcomes after ovarian stimulation-intrauterine insemination (OS-IUI) in couples with unexplained infertility.Secondary analysis from a prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial investigating fertility outcomes after OS-IUI.Reproductive Medicine Network clinical sites.Nine hundred couples with unexplained infertility who participated in the Assessment of Multiple Intrauterine Gestations from Ovarian Stimulation (AMIGOS) clinical trial.Participants were randomized to one of three arms (clomiphene citrate, letrozole, or gonadotropins), and treatment was continued for up to four cycles or until pregnancy was achieved.Conception (serum hCG increase), clinical pregnancy (fetal cardiac activity), and live birth rates.A total of 102/900 participants (11.3%) had at least one documented fibroid and a normal uterine cavity. Women with fibroids were older, more likely to be African American, had a greater uterine volume, lower serum antimüllerian hormone levels, and fewer antral follicles than women without fibroids. In conception cycles, clinical pregnancy rates were significantly lower in participants with fibroids than in those without uterine fibroids. Pregnancy loss before 12 weeks was more likely in African American women with fibroids compared with non-African American women with fibroids. There was no difference in conception and live birth rates in subjects with and without fibroids.No differences were observed in conception and live birth rates in women with non-cavity-distorting fibroids and those without fibroids. These findings provide reassurance that pregnancy success is not impacted in couples with non-cavity-distorting fibroids undergoing OS-IUI for unexplained infertility.NCT01044862.