Nucleolar trafficking of the mouse mammary tumor virus gag protein induced by interaction with ribosomal protein L9.
ABSTRACT: The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Gag protein directs the assembly in the cytoplasm of immature viral capsids, which subsequently bud from the plasma membranes of infected cells. MMTV Gag localizes to discrete cytoplasmic foci in mouse mammary epithelial cells, consistent with the formation of cytosolic capsids. Unexpectedly, we also observed an accumulation of Gag in the nucleoli of infected cells derived from mammary gland tumors. To detect Gag-interacting proteins that might influence its subcellular localization, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed. Ribosomal protein L9 (RPL9 or L9), an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit and a putative tumor suppressor, was identified as a Gag binding partner. Overexpression of L9 in cells expressing the MMTV(C3H) provirus resulted in specific, robust accumulation of Gag in nucleoli. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and coimmunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that Gag and L9 interact within the nucleolus, and the CA domain was the major site of interaction. In addition, the isolated NC domain of Gag localized to the nucleolus, suggesting that it contains a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS). To determine whether L9 plays a role in virus assembly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown was performed. Although Gag expression was not reduced with L9 knockdown, virus production was significantly impaired. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that efficient MMTV particle assembly is dependent upon the interaction of Gag and L9 in the nucleoli of infected cells.
Project description:The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Pr77Gag polypeptide is an essential retroviral structural protein without which infectious viral particles cannot be formed. This process requires specific recognition and packaging of dimerized genomic RNA (gRNA) by Gag during virus assembly. Most of the previous work on retroviral assembly has used either the nucleocapsid portion of Gag, or other truncated Gag derivatives—not the natural substrate for virus assembly. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of MMTV gRNA packaging process, we expressed and purified full-length recombinant Pr77Gag-His?-tag fusion protein from soluble fractions of bacterial cultures. We show that the purified Pr77Gag-His?-tag protein retained the ability to assemble virus-like particles (VLPs) in vitro with morphologically similar immature intracellular particles. The recombinant proteins (with and without His?-tag) could both be expressed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and had the ability to form VLPs in vivo. Most importantly, the recombinant Pr77Gag-His?-tag fusion proteins capable of making VLPs in eukaryotic cells were competent for packaging sub-genomic MMTV RNAs. The successful expression and purification of a biologically active, full-length MMTV Pr77Gag should lay down the foundation towards performing RNA–protein interaction(s), especially for structure-function studies and towards understanding molecular intricacies during MMTV gRNA packaging and assembly processes.
Project description:Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) has been classified as a simple retrovirus with two accessory genes, dut and sag. Cloned MMTV proviruses carrying a trimethoprim (trim) cassette in the envelope gene were defective for Gag protein production and the nuclear export of unspliced gag-pol RNA. Complementation experiments indicated that a trans-acting product was responsible for the Gag defect of such mutants. Analysis of MMTV-infected cells revealed the presence of a novel, doubly spliced RNA that encodes a putative product of 301 amino acids. Overexpression of cDNA from this RNA increased Gag levels from env mutant proviruses or reporter gene expression from unspliced mRNAs and allowed detection of a 33-kDa protein product, which has been named regulator of export of MMTV mRNA, or Rem. The Rem N terminus has motifs similar to the Rev-like export proteins of complex retroviruses, and mutation of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) abolished RNA export and detection within the nucleus. The Rem C terminus has few identifiable features, but removal of this domain increased Rem-mediated export, suggesting an autoregulatory function. A reporter vector developed from the 3' end of the MMTV provirus was Rem responsive and required both the presence of the MMTV env-U3 junction and a functional Crm1 pathway. The identification of a third accessory protein from a doubly spliced transcript suggests that MMTV is the first murine complex retrovirus to be documented. Manipulation of the MMTV genome may provide mouse models for human retroviral diseases, such as AIDS.
Project description:Retroviruses are believed to induce tumors by acting as insertional mutagens that activate expression of cellular protooncogenes. Indeed, almost 90% of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-induced mammary tumors in C3H/He mice show upregulation of Int protooncogenes. We have analyzed three different MMTV variants [MMTV(C3H), MMTV(HeJ), and a genetically engineered MMTV hybrid provirus (HP)] for tumorigenicity in mice from two distinct genetic backgrounds. All three viruses were tumor causing in BALB/cJ mice. However, only MMTV(C3H), but not MMTV(HeJ) or HP, induced mammary tumors in C3H/He mice. All of the viruses were infectious on either background and up-regulated expression of Int genes in tumors they induced. Like HP, MMTV(HeJ) was found to be a genetic recombinant between endogenous Mtv1 provirus and exogenous MMTV(C3H). Sequence comparison of MMTV variants linked the tumorigenicity of MMTV(C3H) to the gag region of the retrovirus.
Project description:To produce progeny virus, human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) Gag assembles into capsids that package the viral genome and bud from the infected cell. During assembly of immature capsids, Gag traffics through a pathway of assembly intermediates (AIs) that contain the cellular adenosine triphosphatase ABCE1 (ATP-binding cassette protein E1). In this paper, we showed by coimmunoprecipitation and immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) that these Gag-containing AIs also contain endogenous processing body (PB)-related proteins, including AGO2 and the ribonucleic acid (RNA) helicase DDX6. Moreover, we found a similar complex containing ABCE1 and PB proteins in uninfected cells. Additionally, knockdown and rescue studies demonstrated that the RNA helicase DDX6 acts enzymatically to facilitate capsid assembly independent of RNA packaging. Using IEM, we localized the defect in DDX6-depleted cells to Gag multimerization at the plasma membrane. We also confirmed that DDX6 depletion reduces production of infectious HIV-1 from primary human T cells. Thus, we propose that assembling HIV-1 co-opts a preexisting host complex containing cellular facilitators such as DDX6, which the virus uses to catalyze capsid assembly.
Project description:The late (L) domain sequence used by mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) remains undefined. Similar to other L domain-containing proteins, MMTV p8 and p14NC proteins are monoubiquitinated, suggesting L domain function. Site-directed mutagenesis of p8, PLPPV, and p14NC, PLPPL, sequences in MMTV Gag revealed a requirement only for the PLPPV sequence in virion release in a position-dependent manner. Electron microscopy of a defective Gag mutant confirmed an L domain budding defect morphology. The equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) YPDL core L domain sequence and PLPPV provided L domain function in reciprocal MMTV and EIAV Gag exchange mutants, respectively. Alanine scanning of the PLPPV sequence revealed a strict requirement for the valine residue but only minor requirements for any one of the other residues. Thus, PLPPV provides MMTV L domain function, representing a fourth type of retroviral L domain that enables MMTV Gag proteins to co-opt cellular budding pathways for release.
Project description:Ribosomal protein L9 is a component of all eubacterial ribosomes, yet deletion strains display only subtle growth defects. Although L9 has been implicated in helping ribosomes maintain translation reading frame and in regulating translation bypass, no portion of the ribosome-bound protein seems capable of contacting either the peptidyltransferase center or the decoding center, so it is a mystery how L9 can influence these important processes. To reveal the physiological roles of L9 that have maintained it in evolution, we identified mutants of Escherichia coli that depend on L9 for fitness. In this report, we describe a class of L9-dependent mutants in the ribosome biogenesis GTPase Der (EngA/YphC). Purified mutant proteins were severely compromised in their GTPase activities, despite the fact that the mutations are not present in GTP hydrolysis sites. Moreover, although L9 and YihI complemented the slow-growth der phenotypes, neither factor could rescue the GTPase activities in vitro. Complementation studies revealed that the N-terminal domain of L9 is necessary and sufficient to improve the fitness of these Der mutants, suggesting that this domain may help stabilize compromised ribosomes that accumulate when Der is defective. Finally, we employed a targeted degradation system to rapidly deplete L9 from a highly compromised der mutant strain and show that the L9-dependent phenotype coincides with a cell division defect.
Project description:The building of nuclear bodies after mitosis is a coordinated event crucial for nuclear organization and function. The nucleolus is assembled during early G(1) phase. Here, two periods (early G1a and early G1b) have been defined. During these periods, the nucleolar compartments (DFC, GC) corresponding to different steps of ribosome biogenesis are progressively assembled. In telophase, rDNA transcription is first activated and PNBs (reservoirs of nucleolar processing proteins) are formed. The traffic of the processing proteins between incipient nucleoli and PNBs was analyzed using photoactivation. We demonstrate that the DFC protein fibrillarin passes from one incipient nucleolus to other nucleoli but not to PNBs, and that the GC proteins, B23/NPM and Nop52, shuttle between PNBs and incipient nucleoli. This difference in traffic suggests a way of regulating assembly first of DFC and then of GC. The time of residency of GC proteins is high in incipient nucleoli compared to interphase nuclei, it decreases in LMB-treated early G1a cells impairing the assembly of GC. Because the assembly of the nucleolus and that of the Cajal body at the exit from mitosis are both sensitive to CRM1 activity, we discuss the fact that assembly of GC and/or its interaction with DFC in early G1a depends on shuttling between PNBs and NORs in a manner dependent on Cajal body assembly.
Project description:Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors have made great progress in their use for gene therapy; however, fundamental aspects of AAV's capsid assembly remain poorly characterized. In this regard, the discovery of assembly-activating protein (AAP) sheds new light on this crucial part of AAV biology and vector production. Previous studies have shown that AAP is essential for assembly; however, how its mechanistic roles in assembly might differ among AAV serotypes remains uncharacterized. Here, we show that biological properties of AAPs and capsid assembly processes are surprisingly distinct among AAV serotypes 1 to 12. In the study, we investigated subcellular localizations and assembly-promoting functions of AAP1 to -12 (i.e., AAPs derived from AAV1 to -12, respectively) and examined the AAP dependence of capsid assembly processes of these 12 serotypes using combinatorial approaches that involved immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy, barcode-Seq (i. e., a high-throughput quantitative method using DNA barcodes and a next-generation sequencing technology), and quantitative dot blot assays. This study revealed that AAP1 to -12 are all localized in the nucleus with serotype-specific differential patterns of nucleolar association; AAPs and assembled capsids do not necessarily colocalize; AAPs are promiscuous in promoting capsid assembly of other serotypes, with the exception of AAP4, -5, -11, and -12; assembled AAV5, -8, and -9 capsids are excluded from the nucleolus, in contrast to the nucleolar enrichment of assembled AAV2 capsids; and, surprisingly, AAV4, -5, and -11 capsids are not dependent on AAP for assembly. These observations highlight the serotype-dependent heterogeneity of the capsid assembly process and challenge current notions about the role of AAP and the nucleolus in capsid assembly. IMPORTANCE:Assembly-activating protein (AAP) is a recently discovered adeno-associated virus (AAV) protein that promotes capsid assembly and provides new opportunities for research in assembly. Previous studies on AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) showed that assembly takes place in the nucleolus and is dependent on AAP and that capsids colocalize with AAP in the nucleolus during the assembly process. However, through the investigation of 12 different AAV serotypes (AAV1 to -12), we find that AAP is not an essential requirement for capsid assembly of AAV4, -5, and -11, and AAP, assembled capsids, and the nucleolus do not colocalize for all the serotypes. In addition, we find that there are both serotype-restricted and serotype-promiscuous AAPs in their assembly roles. These findings challenge widely held beliefs about the importance of the nucleolus and AAP in AAV assembly and show the heterogeneous nature of the assembly process within the AAV family.
Project description:During HIV-1 assembly, Gag polypeptides multimerize to form an immature capsid and also package HIV-1 genomic RNA. Assembling Gag forms immature capsids by progressing through a stepwise pathway of assembly intermediates containing the cellular ATPase ABCE1, which facilitates capsid formation. The NC domain of Gag is required for ABCE1 binding, acting either directly or indirectly. NC is also critical for Gag multimerization and RNA binding. Previous studies of GagZip chimeric proteins in which NC was replaced with a heterologous leucine zipper that promotes protein dimerization but not RNA binding established that the RNA binding properties of NC are dispensable for capsid formation per se. Here we utilized GagZip proteins to address the question of whether the RNA binding properties of NC are required for ABCE1 binding and for the formation of ABCE1-containing capsid assembly intermediates. We found that assembly-competent HIV-1 GagZip proteins formed ABCE1-containing intermediates, while assembly-incompetent HIV-1 GagZip proteins harboring mutations in residues critical for leucine zipper dimerization did not. Thus, these data suggest that ABCE1 does not bind to NC directly or through an RNA bridge, and they support a model in which dimerization of Gag, mediated by NC or a zipper, results in exposure of an ABCE1-binding domain located elsewhere in Gag, outside NC. Additionally, we demonstrated that immature capsids formed by GagZip proteins are insensitive to RNase A, as expected. However, unexpectedly, immature HIV-1 capsids were almost as insensitive to RNase A as GagZip capsids, suggesting that RNA is not a structural element holding together immature wild-type HIV-1 capsids.
Project description:The loss of the large ribosomal protein L9 causes a reduction in translation fidelity by an unknown mechanism. To identify pathways affected by L9, we identified mutants of E. coli that require L9 for fitness. In a prior study, we characterized L9-dependent mutations in the essential GTPase Der (EngA). Here, we describe a second class of L9-dependent mutations that either compromise or inactivate elongation factor P (EF-P, eIF5A in eukaryotes). Without L9, ?efp cells are practically inviable. Cell fractionation studies revealed that, in both the Der and EF-P mutant cases, L9's activity reduces immature 16S rRNA in 30S particles and partially restores the abundance of monosomes. Inspired by these findings, we discovered that L9 also enhances 16S maturation in wild-type cells. Surprisingly, although the amount of immature 16S in 30S particles was found to be elevated in ?rplI cells, the amount in polysomes was low and inversely correlated with the immature 16S abundance. These findings provide an explanation for the observed fitness increases afforded by L9 in these mutants and reveal particular physiological conditions in which L9 becomes critical. Additionally, L9 may affect the partitioning of small subunits containing immature 16S rRNA.