Nucleotide composition of cellular internal ribosome entry sites defines dependence on NF45 and predicts a posttranscriptional mitotic regulon.
ABSTRACT: The vast majority of cellular mRNAs initiate their translations through a well-defined mechanism of ribosome recruitment that occurs at the 5'-terminal 7-methylguanosine cap with the help of several canonical protein factors. A subset of cellular and viral mRNAs contain regulatory motifs in their 5' untranslated regions (UTRs), termed internal ribosome entry sites (IRES), that sidestep this canonical mode of initiation. On cellular mRNAs, this mechanism requires IRES trans-acting protein factors (ITAFs) that facilitate ribosome recruitment downstream of the cap. While several ITAFs and their target mRNAs have been empirically identified, the in silico prediction of targets has proved difficult. Here, we report that a high AU content (>60%) of the IRES-containing 5' UTRs serves as an excellent predictor of dependence on NF45, a recently identified ITAF. Moreover, we provide evidence that cells deficient in NF45 ITAF activity exhibit reduced IRES-mediated translation of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) mRNAs that, in turn, leads to dysregulated expression of their respective targets, survivin and cyclin E. This specific defect in IRES translation explains in part the cytokinesis impairment and senescence-like phenotype observed in HeLa cells expressing NF45 RNA interference (RNAi). This study uncovers a novel role for NF45 in regulating ploidy and highlights the importance of IRES-mediated translation in cellular homeostasis.
Project description:Cells and viruses can utilize internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) to drive translation when cap-dependent translation is inhibited by stress or viral factors. IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs) are known to participate in such cap-independent translation, but there are gaps in the understanding as to how ITAFs, particularly negative ITAFs, regulate IRES-driven translation. This study found that Lys109, Lys121 and Lys122 represent critical ubiquitination sites for far upstream element-binding protein 2 (KHSRP, also known as KH-type splicing regulatory protein or FBP2), a negative ITAF. Mutations at these sites subsequently reduced KHSRP ubiquitination and abolished its inhibitory effect on IRES-driven translation. We further found that interaction between the Kelch domain of Kelch-like protein 12 (KLHL12) and the C-terminal domain of KHSRP contributed to KHSRP ubiquitination, leading to downregulation of enterovirus IRES-mediated translation in infected cells and increased competition against other positive ITAFs. Together, these results show that ubiquitination can exert control over IRES-driven translation via modification of ITAFs, and to the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of such a regulatory mechanism for IRES-dependent translation.
Project description:Translation is a tightly regulated and is predominantly controlled at the level of its initiation. Initiation occurs in a cap-dependent manner. Under stress conditions when cap-dependent translation is hampered, internal ribosome entry sites (IRESes) allow for cap-independent translation of certain mRNAs. IRES-dependent translation is commonly regulated by RNA-interacting proteins, known as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs). In the present study, we searched for new IRESes by identifying 5’ untranslated regions (UTRs) bound by the ITAF hnRNPA1. Using a PAR-iCLIP approach, we found the mRNA of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) bound by hnRNPA1. Upon verification of an IRES element within the 5’UTR of TXNIP, we determined additional interacting proteins, which predominantly appeared to interact with the IRES-regulatory second half of the 5’UTR. Amongst these PTB, FBP3, and GEMIN5 emerged as functional ITAFs. Finally, we found that the TXNIP IRES-inhibitory effect of PTB was dominant over the activating effect of FBP3, while it succumbed to the stimulatory function of GEMIN5. In summary, we identified and characterized a novel IRES within the 5’UTR of TXNIP, which is regulated by the ITAFs PTB, FBP3, and GEMIN5. Overall design: 1 Sample examined
Project description:The 5' UTR of Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) contains internal ribosome entry site (IRES), which allows cap-independent translation of the viral RNA and a 5'-terminal cloverleaf structure that regulates viral replication, translation and stability. Here, we demonstrate that host protein PSF (PTB associated splicing factor) interacts with the cloverleaf RNA as well as the IRES element. PSF was found to be an important IRES trans acting factor (ITAF) for efficient translation of CVB3 RNA. Interestingly, cytoplasmic abundance of PSF protein increased during CVB3 infection and this is regulated by phosphorylation status at two different amino acid positions. Further, PSF protein was up-regulated in CVB3 infection. The expression of CVB3-2A protease alone could also induce increased PSF protein levels. Furthermore, we observed the presence of an IRES element in the 5'UTR of PSF mRNA, which is activated during CVB3 infection and might contribute to the elevated levels of PSF. It appears that PSF IRES is also positively regulated by PTB, which is known to regulate CVB3 IRES. Taken together, the results suggest for the first time a novel mechanism of regulations of ITAFs during viral infection, where an ITAF undergoes IRES mediated translation, sustaining its protein levels under condition of translation shut-off.
Project description:Cap-independent translation initiation on picornavirus mRNAs is mediated by an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) in the 5' untranslated region. The regulation of internal initiation requires the interaction of IRES-transacting factors (ITAFs) with the IRES. In this study, we identified a novel ITAF, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), which negatively regulates foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) translation and viral replication. Further investigation revealed that the KH2 and KH3 domains of hnRNP K directly bind to domains II, III, and IV of the FMDV IRES, resulting in the inhibition of IRES-mediated translation by interfering with the recognition of another positive ITAF, polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB). Conversely, hnRNP K-mediated inhibition was antagonized by the viral 3C protease through the cleavage of hnRNP K at the Glu-364 residue during FMDV infection. Interestingly, the N-terminal cleavage product, hnRNP K<sub>1-364</sub>, retained partial inhibitory effects on IRES activity, whereas the C-terminal cleavage product, hnRNP K<sub>364-465</sub>, became a positive regulator of FMDV replication. Our findings expand the current understanding of virus-host interactions concerning viral recruitment and the modulation of ITAFs, providing new insights into translational control during viral infection.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> The translation of picornaviral genome RNA mediated by the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) is a crucial step for virus infections. Virus-host interactions play a critical role in the regulation of IRES-dependent translation, but the regulatory mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified an ITAF, hnRNP K, that negatively regulates FMDV replication by inhibiting viral IRES-mediated translation. In addition, we describe a novel translational regulation mechanism involving the proteolytic cleavage of hnRNP K by FMDV protease 3C. The cleavage of hnRNP K yields two cleavage products with opposite functions: the cleavage product hnRNP K<sub>1-364</sub> retains a partial inhibitory effect on IRES activity, and the cleavage product hnRNP K<sub>364-465</sub> becomes a positive regulator of FMDV replication. Our findings shed light on the effect of a novel ITAF on the translational regulation of picornavirus and provide new insights into translational control during viral infection.
Project description:Many mammalian mRNAs possess long 5' UTRs with numerous stem-loop structures. For some of them, the presence of Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESes) was suggested to explain their significant activity, especially when cap-dependent translation is compromised. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the translation initiation efficiencies of some cellular 5' UTRs reported to have IRES-activity with those lacking IRES-elements in RNA-transfected cells and cell-free systems. Unlike viral IRESes, the tested 5' UTRs with so-called 'cellular IRESes' demonstrate only background activities when placed in the intercistronic position of dicistronic RNAs. In contrast, they are very active in the monocistronic context and the cap is indispensable for their activities. Surprisingly, in cultured cells or cytoplasmic extracts both the level of stimulation with the cap and the overall translation activity do not correlate with the cumulative energy of the secondary structure of the tested 5' UTRs. The cap positive effect is still observed under profound inhibition of translation with eIF4E-BP1 but its magnitude varies for individual 5' UTRs irrespective of the cumulative energy of their secondary structures. Thus, it is not mandatory to invoke the IRES hypothesis, at least for some mRNAs, to explain their preferential translation when eIF4E is partially inactivated.
Project description:Prior work indicates that c-myc translation is up-regulated in multiple myeloma cells. To test a role for interleukin (IL)-6 in myc translation, we studied the IL-6-responsive ANBL-6 and IL-6-autocrine U266 cell lines as well as primary patient samples. IL-6 increased c-myc translation, which was resistant to rapamycin, indicating a mechanism independent of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and cap-dependent translation. In contrast, the cytokine enhanced cap-independent translation via a stimulatory effect on the myc internal ribosome entry site (IRES). As known IRES-trans-activating factors (ITAF) were unaffected by IL-6, we used a yeast-three-hybrid screen to identify novel ITAFs and identified hnRNP A1 (A1) as a mediator of the IL-6 effect. A1 specifically interacted with the myc IRES in filter binding assays as well as EMSAs. Treatment of myeloma cells with IL-6 induced serine phosphorylation of A1 and increased its binding to the myc IRES in vivo in myeloma cells. Primary patient samples also showed binding between A1 and the IRES. RNA interference to knock down hnRNP A1 prevented an IL-6 increase in myc protein expression, myc IRES activity, and cell growth. These data point to hnRNP A1 as a critical regulator of c-myc translation and a potential therapeutic target in multiple myeloma.
Project description:Expression of the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) is unexpectedly repressed at the level of translation under normal physiological conditions in many cell lines. We have previously shown that the 5' untranslated region of cIAP1 mRNA contains a stress-inducible internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that governs expression of cIAP1 protein. Although inactive in unstressed cells, the IRES supports cap-independent translation of cIAP1 in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress. To gain an insight into the mechanism of cIAP1 IRES function, we empirically derived the minimal free energy secondary structure of the cIAP1 IRES using enzymatic cleavage mapping. We subsequently used RNA affinity chromatography to identify several cellular proteins, including nuclear factor 45 (NF45) as cIAP1 IRES binding proteins. In this report we show that NF45 is a novel RNA binding protein that enhances IRES-dependent translation of endogenous cIAP1. Further, we show that NF45 is required for IRES-mediated induction of cIAP1 protein during the unfolded protein response. The data presented are consistent with a model in which translation of cIAP1 is governed, at least in part, by NF45, a novel cellular IRES trans-acting factor.
Project description:Translation of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) proceeds by internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated initiation, a process that is physiologically important because XIAP expression is essential for cell survival under conditions of compromised cap-dependent translation, such as cellular stress. The regulation of internal initiation requires the interaction of IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs) with the IRES element. We used RNA-affinity chromatography to identify XIAP ITAFs and isolated the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1). We find that hnRNP A1 interacts with XIAP IRES RNA both in vitro and in vivo and that hnRNP A1 negatively regulates XIAP IRES activity. Moreover, XIAP IRES-dependent translation is significantly reduced when hnRNP A1 accumulates in the cytoplasm. Osmotic shock, a cellular stress that causes cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1, also leads to a decrease in XIAP levels that is abrogated by knockdown of hnRNP A1 expression. These results suggest that the subcellular localization of hnRNP A1 is an important determinant of its ability to negatively regulate XIAP IRES activity, suggesting that the subcellular distribution of ITAFs plays a critical role in regulating IRES-dependent translation. Our findings demonstrate that cytoplasmic hnRNP A1 is a negative regulator of XIAP IRES-dependent translation, indicating a novel function for the cytoplasmic form of this protein.
Project description:Resistance of translation of some eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to inactivation of the cap-binding factor eIF4E under unfavorable conditions is well documented. To date, it is the mechanism of internal ribosome entry that is predominantly thought to underlay this stress tolerance. However, many cellular mRNAs that had been considered to contain internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) failed to pass stringent control tests for internal initiation, thus raising the question of how they are translated under stress conditions. Here, we show that inserting an eIF4G-binding element from a virus IRES into 5'-UTRs of strongly cap-dependent mRNAs dramatically reduces their requirement for the 5'-terminal m(7)G-cap, though such cap-independent translation remains dependent on a vacant 5'-terminus of these mRNAs. Importantly, direct binding of eIF4G to the 5'-UTR of mRNA makes its translation resistant to eIF4F inactivation both in vitro and in vivo. These data may substantiate a new paradigm of translational control under stress to complement IRES-driven mechanism of translation.
Project description:Translation of mRNAs through Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESs) has emerged as a prominent mechanism of cellular and viral initiation. It supports cap-independent translation of select cellular genes under normal conditions, and in conditions when cap-dependent translation is inhibited. IRES structure and sequence are believed to be involved in this process. However due to the small number of IRESs known, there have been no systematic investigations of the determinants of IRES activity. With the recent discovery of thousands of novel IRESs in human and viruses, the next challenge is to decipher the sequence determinants of IRES activity. We present the first in-depth computational analysis of a large body of IRESs, exploring RNA sequence features predictive of IRES activity. We identified predictive k-mer features resembling IRES trans-acting factor (ITAF) binding motifs across human and viral IRESs, and found that their effect on expression depends on their sequence, number and position. Our results also suggest that the architecture of retroviral IRESs differs from that of other viruses, presumably due to their exposure to the nuclear environment. Finally, we measured IRES activity of synthetically designed sequences to confirm our prediction of increasing activity as a function of the number of short IRES elements.