A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between depression and insulin resistance.
ABSTRACT: Depression is associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, controlled trials, and unpublished data was conducted to examine the association between depression and insulin resistance (IR).Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched for studies published up to September 2011. Two independent reviewers assessed the eligibility of each report based on predefined inclusion criteria (study design and measure of depression and IR, excluding prevalent cases of diabetes). Individual effect sizes were standardized, and a meta-analysis was performed to calculate a pooled effect size using random effects. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were conducted to explore any potential source of heterogeneity between studies.Of 967 abstracts reviewed, 21 studies met the inclusion criteria of which 18 studies had appropriate data for the meta-analysis (n = 25,847). The pooled effect size (95% CI) was 0.19 (0.11-0.27) with marked heterogeneity (I(2) = 82.2%) using the random-effects model. Heterogeneity between studies was not explained by age or sex, but could be partly explained by the methods of depression and IR assessments.A small but significant cross-sectional association was observed between depression and IR, despite heterogeneity between studies. The pathophysiology mechanisms and direction of this association need further study using a purposively designed prospective or intervention study in samples at high risk for diabetes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Depression is common in the aftermath of myocardial infarction (MI) and may not only lead to impaired long-term quality of life, but also cause increased mortality among patients with MI. The reported prevalence of depression among patients with MI varied considerably across studies, for which a pooled prevalence was obtained in the only 1 meta-analysis conducted in March 2004. Subsequently, numerous relevant studies have been published, indicating the need for an update on the pooled prevalence. Therefore, this study was aimed at updating the pooled prevalence of depression among patients with MI. METHODS:A comprehensive literature search in 3 electronic databases, PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO, was performed in April 2018. The heterogeneity across studies was examined by the Cochran's Q test and quantified by the I statistic. If significant heterogeneity was observed, meta-regression analyses and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Publication bias was assessed by a funnel plot and verified by the Egger's and Begg's tests. RESULTS:Nineteen eligible studies conducted in 10 countries were included, which consisted of 12,315 patients with MI, among whom 3818 were identified with depression. High heterogeneity was observed across the eligible studies (I = 98.4%), with the reported prevalence of depression ranging from 9.17% to 65.88%. The pooled prevalence of depression among patients with MI was 28.70% (95% CI: 22.39-35.46%) by a random effects model. Subgroup analyses showed that the pooled prevalence differed significantly by region, tool used to identify depression, study quality, sex, race, anterior MI, and diabetes status (P < .05). Meta-regression analyses did not identify any moderators of heterogeneity, and the heterogeneity was high within most subgroups. Nonetheless, for unmarried subjects, the heterogeneity was low (I = 19.5). The Egger's test and the Begg's test indicated no evidence of publication bias (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS:Given the high pooled prevalence of depression found in this study and the association between depression and adverse health outcomes among patients with MI, more psychological resources including early assessment and effective treatment of depression should be allocated to patients with MI.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between depression and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in people with diabetes by systematically reviewing the literature and carrying out a meta-analysis of relevant longitudinal studies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: PUBMED and PSYCINFO were searched for articles assessing mortality risk associated with depression in diabetes up until August 16, 2012. The pooled hazard ratios were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, which were pooled in an overall all-cause mortality estimate, and five in a cardiovascular mortality estimate. After adjustment for demographic variables and micro- and macrovascular complications, depression was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.29-1.66), and cardiovascular mortality (HR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.11-1.73). Heterogeneity across studies was high for all-cause mortality and relatively low for cardiovascular mortality, with an I-squared of respectively 78.6% and 39.6%. Subgroup analyses showed that the association between depression and mortality not significantly change when excluding three articles presenting odds ratios, yet this decreased heterogeneity substantially (HR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.39-1.61, I-squared = 15.1%). A comparison between type 1 and type 2 diabetes could not be undertaken, as only one study reported on type 1 diabetes specifically. CONCLUSIONS: Depression is associated with an almost 1.5-fold increased risk of mortality in people with diabetes. Research should focus on both cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes of death associated with depression, and determine the underlying behavioral and physiological mechanisms that may explain this association.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An earlier meta-analysis showed that diabetes is a risk factor for the development and/or recurrence of depression. Yet whether this risk is different for studies using questionnaires than for those relying on diagnostic criteria for depression has not been examined. This study examined the association of diabetes and the onset of depression by reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on this topic. METHODS: EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycInfo were searched for articles published up to September 2009. All studies that examined the relationship between type 2 diabetes and the onset of depression were included. Pooled relative risks were calculated using fixed and random effects models. RESULTS: Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Based on the pooled data, including 48,808 cases of type 2 diabetes without depression at baseline, the pooled relative risk was 1.24 (95% CI 1.09-1.40) for the random effects model. This risk was significantly higher for studies relying on diagnostic criteria of depression than for studies using questionnaires. However, this difference was no longer significant when controlled for year of publication. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Compared with non-diabetic controls, people with type 2 diabetes have a 24% increased risk of developing depression. The mechanisms underlying this relationship are still unclear and warrant further research.
Project description:Previous literature has reported that patients with diabetes in pregnancy (DIP) are at risk of developing antepartum depression but the results have been inconsistent in cohort studies. We conducted a systematic review and performed a meta-analysis to quantify the association between DIP and risk of antepartum depression in cohort studies. Medline, Cinahl, and PubMed databases were searched for studies investigating DIP involving pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus and their risk of antepartum depression that were published in journals from inception to 27 December 2019. We derived the summary estimates using a random-effects model and reported the findings as pooled relative risks (RR) and confidence interval (CI). Publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot and was quantified by Egger and Begg's tests. Ten studies, involving 71,036 pregnant women were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled RR to develop antepartum depression was (RR = 1.430, 95% CI: 1.251-1.636) among women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Combining pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus, they had a significant increased risk of developing antepartum depression (RR = 1.431, 95% CI: 1.205-1.699) compared with those without it. In comparison, we found no association between pre-existing diabetes mellitus in pregnancy (RR = 1.300, 95% CI: 0.736-2.297) and the risk of developing antepartum depression. This study has a few limitations: first, different questionnaire and cut-off points were used in evaluation of depression across the studies. Second, there was a lack of data on history of depression prior to pregnancy, which lead to confounding bias that could not be solved by this meta-analysis. Third, data were dominated by studies in Western countries; this is due to the studies from Eastern countries failing to meet our inclusion criteria for statistical analysis. Women with gestational diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of developing antepartum depression compared to those without the disease. Therefore, more attention on the mental health status should be given on pregnant women diagnosed with pre-existing diabetes mellitus and gestational diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Depression is one of the major important public health problems that is often comorbid with diabetes. Despite the huge effect of comorbid depression and diabetes, the overall pooled prevalence of depression among diabetic patients in the country level remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to estimate the pooled prevalence of depression among patients with diabetes mellitus in Ethiopia.Data extraction was designed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies were accessed through electronic web-based search from PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Embase, and PsycINFO. All statistical analyses were done using STATA version 11 software using random effects model. The pooled prevalence was presented in forest plots.A total of 9 studies with 2944 participants were included in this meta-analysis and the overall pooled estimated prevalence of depression among diabetic patients in Ethiopia was 39.73% (95% CI (28.02%, 51.45%)). According to subgroup analysis the estimated prevalence of depression in Addis Ababa was 52.9% (95% CI: 36.93%, 68.88%) and in Oromia region was 45.49% (95% CI: 41.94, 49.03%).The analysis revealed that the overall prevalence of comorbid depression among diabetic patients in Ethiopia was high. Therefore, Ministry of Health should design multisectorial approach and context specific interventions that address this comorbid depression in this specific group as well as general population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Several studies have suggested that depression is associated with an increased risk for fracture; however, the results are conflicting. This study aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of cohort studies assessing the association between depression and the risk for fracture. METHODS:Relevant studies were identified by a search of Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and WanFang database to Feb 2018. Cohort studies on the relationship between depression and the risk for fracture in the general population were included in the meta-analysis. Data collection was in accordance with the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines, and the quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Two independent investigators screened the abstracts and full texts of the studies, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the study. Either a fixed-effect or random-effects model was used to compute the pooled risk estimates when appropriate. RESULTS:In total, 16 cohort studies with 25 independent reports that included 414,686 participants during a follow-up duration of 3-14 years were included in the analysis. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) for total fracture was 1.24 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14-1.35; P?<?0.001 for heterogeneity; random-effects model). In the subgroup analyses conducted in terms of study region, the pooled HR for the studies conducted in Europe was higher (HR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.44-2.17; P?=?0.792 for heterogeneity) than that in America and Asia, with a significant difference between the groups (P?=?0.036). CONCLUSION:The results of our meta-analysis suggest that depression is prospectively associated with a significantly increased risk for fracture, which may have substantial implications, both clinical and preventive.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Glucose, insulin and Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) are markers of insulin resistance. The objective of this study is to compare fasting glucose, fasting insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR in strength of association with incident cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We searched the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, ScienceDirect and Cochrane Library databases from inception to March, 2011, and screened reference lists. Cohort studies or nested case-control studies that investigated the association between fasting glucose, fasting insulin or HOMA-IR and incident cardiovascular disease, were eligible. Two investigators independently performed the article selection, data extraction and risk of bias assessment. Cardiovascular endpoints were coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke or combined cardiovascular disease. We used fixed and random-effect meta-analyses to calculate the pooled relative risk for CHD, stroke and combined cardiovascular disease, comparing high to low concentrations of glucose, insulin or HOMA-IR. Study heterogeneity was calculated with the I(2) statistic. To enable a comparison between cardiovascular disease risks for glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, we calculated pooled relative risks per increase of one standard deviation. RESULTS: We included 65 studies (involving 516,325 participants) in this meta-analysis. In a random-effect meta-analysis the pooled relative risk of CHD (95% CI; I(2)) comparing high to low concentrations was 1.52 (1.31, 1.76; 62.4%) for glucose, 1.12 (0.92, 1.37; 41.0%) for insulin and 1.64 (1.35, 2.00; 0%) for HOMA-IR. The pooled relative risk of CHD per one standard deviation increase was 1.21 (1.13, 1.30; 64.9%) for glucose, 1.04 (0.96, 1.12; 43.0%) for insulin and 1.46 (1.26, 1.69; 0.0%) for HOMA-IR. CONCLUSIONS: The relative risk of cardiovascular disease was higher for an increase of one standard deviation in HOMA-IR compared to an increase of one standard deviation in fasting glucose or fasting insulin concentration. It may be useful to add HOMA-IR to a cardiovascular risk prediction model.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Many studies on COVID-19 have reported diabetes to be associated with severe disease and mortality, however, the data is conflicting. The objectives of this meta-analysis were to explore the relationship between diabetes and COVID-19 mortality and severity, and to determine the prevalence of diabetes in patients with COVID-19. METHODS:We searched the PubMed for case-control studies in English, published between Jan 1 and Apr 22, 2020, that had data on diabetes in patients with COVID-19. The frequency of diabetes was compared between patients with and without the composite endpoint of mortality or severity. Random effects model was used with odds ratio as the effect size. We also determined the pooled prevalence of diabetes in patients with COVID-19. Heterogeneity and publication bias were taken care by meta-regression, sub-group analyses, and trim and fill methods. RESULTS:We included 33 studies (16,003 patients) and found diabetes to be significantly associated with mortality of COVID-19 with a pooled odds ratio of 1.90 (95% CI: 1.37-2.64; p < 0.01). Diabetes was also associated with severe COVID-19 with a pooled odds ratio of 2.75 (95% CI: 2.09-3.62; p < 0.01). The combined corrected pooled odds ratio of mortality or severity was 2.16 (95% CI: 1.74-2.68; p < 0.01). The pooled prevalence of diabetes in patients with COVID-19 was 9.8% (95% CI: 8.7%-10.9%) (after adjusting for heterogeneity). CONCLUSIONS:Diabetes in patients with COVID-19 is associated with a two-fold increase in mortality as well as severity of COVID-19, as compared to non-diabetics. Further studies on the pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic implications need to be done.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To quantify the impact of depression measured by self-reports and depression measured by clinical interview on all-cause mortality in individuals with diabetes and to analyze the strength of both associations, the influence of covariates, and possible differences between studies assessing self-rated depressive symptoms and those using a clinical interview to measure depression as predictors of mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: PUBMED and PsycINFO were searched up to July 2013 for prospective studies assessing depression, diabetes and mortality. The pooled hazard ratios were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. After adjustment for demographic variables depression measured by self-reports was associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk (pooled HR?=?2.56, 95% CI 1.89-3.47), and the mortality risk remained high after additional adjustment for diabetes complications (HR?=?1.76, 95% CI 1.45-2.14,). Six studies reporting adjusted HRs for depression measured by clinical interviews supported the results of the other models (HR?=?1.49, 95% CI 1.15-1.93). CONCLUSIONS: Both depression measured by self-report and depression measured by clinical interview have an unfavorable impact on mortality in individuals with diabetes. The results, however, are limited by the heterogeneity of the primary studies. It remains unclear whether self-reports or clinical interviews for depression are the more precise predictor.
Project description:Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients commonly experience psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. This meta-analysis sought to compare depression and anxiety levels between IBS patients and healthy controls.We searched major electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library) to find comparative studies on IBS patients and healthy controls. The primary outcome was a standardized mean difference (SMD) of anxiety and depression levels; sub-group analyses were conducted according to IBS-subtypes.In total, 2293 IBS patients and 4951 healthy controls from 27 studies were included. In random effect analysis, depression and anxiety levels were significantly higher in IBS patients (pooled SMD = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62-0.90; P < 0.001; I2 = 77.2% and pooled SMD = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67-1.01; P < 0.001; I2 = 85.6%, respectively). Both analyses' funnel plots showed symmetry. In meta-regression analysis, heterogeneity was due to the studied region and questionnaire type for both depression and anxiety. In sub-group analyses of IBS-subtype, the pooled SMDs of depression and anxiety levels (IBS with predominant constipation: 0.83 and 0.81, IBS with predominant diarrhea: 0.73 and 0.65, and IBS with mixed bowel habits: 0.62 and 0.75; P < 0.001, respectively) were significantly higher in all IBS-subtypes.The present meta-analysis showed depression and anxiety levels to be higher in IBS patients than in healthy controls, regardless of IBS-subtype. However, the gender effect on psychological factors among IBS patients could not be determined and should be evaluated in prospective studies.