Grade III or Grade IV Hypertensive Retinopathy with Severely Elevated Blood Pressure.
ABSTRACT: Hypertensive retinopathy describes a spectrum of retinal changes in patients with elevated blood pressure (BP). It is unknown why some patients are more likely to develop acute ocular end-organ damage than others with similar BP. We examined risk factors for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency in the emergency department (ED) and compared healthcare utilization and mortality between patients with and without grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy.A preplanned subanalysis of patients who presented to a university hospital ED with diastolic BP ? 120 mmHg and who enrolled in the Fundus Photography versus Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the ED study was performed. Bilateral nonmydriatic ocular fundus photographs, vital signs, and demographics were obtained at presentation. Past medical history, laboratory values, healthcare utilization, and mortality were ascertained from medical record review at least 8 months after initial ED visit.Twenty-one patients with diastolic BP ? 120 mmHg, 7 of whom (33%) had grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, were included. Patients with retinopathy were significantly younger than those without (median 33 vs 50 years, P= 0.02). Mean arterial pressure (165 vs 163 mmHg) was essentially equal in the 2 groups. Patients with retinopathy had substantially increased but nonsignificant rates of ED revisit (57% vs 29%, P = 0.35) and hospital admission after ED discharge (43% vs 14%, P = 0.28). One of the patients with retinopathy died, but none without.Younger patients may be at higher risk for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency. Chronic compensatory mechanisms may have not yet developed in these younger patients. Alternatively, older patients with retinopathy may be underrepresented secondary to increased mortality among these patients at a younger age (survivorship bias). Further research is needed to validate these preliminary findings.
Project description:Determine the frequency of and the predictive factors for abnormal ocular fundus findings among emergency department (ED) headache patients.Cross-sectional study of prospectively enrolled adult patients presenting to our ED with a chief complaint of headache. Ocular fundus photographs were obtained using a nonmydriatic fundus camera that does not require pupillary dilation. Demographic and neuroimaging information was collected. Photographs were reviewed independently by 2 neuroophthalmologists for findings relevant to acute care. The results were analyzed using univariate statistics and logistic regression modeling.We included 497 patients (median age: 40 years, 73% women), among whom 42 (8.5%, 95% confidence interval: 6%-11%) had ocular fundus abnormalities. Of these 42 patients, 12 had disc edema, 9 had optic nerve pallor, 6 had grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, and 15 had isolated retinal hemorrhages. Body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m(2) (odds ratio [OR]: 2.3, p = 0.02), younger age (OR: 0.7 per 10-year increase, p = 0.02), and higher mean arterial blood pressure (OR: 1.3 per 10-mm Hg increase, p = 0.003) were predictive of abnormal retinal photography. Patients with an abnormal fundus had a higher percentage of hospital admission (21% vs 10%, p = 0.04). Among the 34 patients with abnormal ocular fundi who had brain imaging, 14 (41%) had normal imaging.Ocular fundus abnormalities were found in 8.5% of patients with headache presenting to our ED. Predictors of abnormal funduscopic findings included higher body mass index, younger age, and higher blood pressure. Our study confirms the importance of funduscopic examination in patients with headache, particularly in the ED, and reaffirms the utility of nonmydriatic fundus photography in this setting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this work was to describe the efficacy and safety of a telmisartan 80 mg + hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg (T80/H25) single-pill combination therapy in patients with moderate-severe hypertension (mean seated trough cuff systolic blood pressure [BP] ? 160 mmHg and diastolic BP ? 100 mmHg) in specific patient subpopulations. METHODS:This was a planned analysis of a double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group trial that demonstrated the superiority of a single-pill combination of T80/H25 versus T80 monotherapy in terms of systolic BP change from baseline to week 7. Subpopulations included older (aged ? 65 years) versus younger, gender, race, hypertension severity, and prior antihypertensive therapy. Endpoints were change from baseline in mean seated trough cuff systolic and diastolic BP, proportion of patients achieving their BP goal (systolic/diastolic BP < 140/90 mmHg), and proportion of patients attaining systolic BP reductions of >30 mmHg and >40 mmHg. RESULTS:Across all subgroups, the T80/H25 single-pill combination provided consistently greater systolic and diastolic BP reductions than T80 and more patients had systolic BP reductions of >30 mmHg. In the T80 and T80/H25 groups, BP control was achieved in 34.1% and 48.8% of men, 35.5% and 62.7% of women, 34.5% and 56.6% of Asians, 22.6% and 38.6% of blacks, 36.7% and 57.8% of whites, 36.9% and 57.5% of patients < 65 years, 29.3% and 49.3% ?65 years, 44.2% and 66.2% of those with grade 2 hypertension, 20.4% and 39.4% of those with grade 3 hypertension, 38.9% and 53.2% of previously untreated patients, 38.1% and 62.5% of patients previously treated with one antihypertensive, and 29.7% and 48.9% of patients previously treated with two or more antihypertensive agents respectively. Treatment was generally well tolerated across the patient subgroups. CONCLUSION:The T80/H25 single-pill combination provides consistent BP reductions and higher goal attainment rates versus T80 across a range of hypertensive patient subgroups, which are likely to have a positive impact on patients' cardiovascular risk.
Project description:Impaired blood pressure (BP) stabilisation after standing, defined using beat-to-beat measurements, has been shown to predict important health outcomes. We aimed to define the relationship between individual classes of antihypertensive agent and BP stabilisation among hypertensive older adults.Cross-sectional analysis from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, a cohort study of Irish adults aged 50 years and over. Beat-to-beat BP was recorded in participants undergoing an active stand test. We defined grade 1 hypertension according to European Society of Cardiology criteria (systolic BP [SBP] 140-159 mmHg ± diastolic BP [DBP] 90-99 mmHg). Outcomes were: (i) initial orthostatic hypotension (IOH) (SBP drop ?40 mmHg ± DBP drop ?20 mmHg within 15 seconds [s] of standing accompanied by symptoms); (ii) sustained OH (SBP drop ?20 mmHg ± DBP drop ?10 mmHg from 60 to 110 s inclusive); (iii) impaired BP stabilisation (SBP drop ?20 mmHg ± DBP drop ?10 mmHg at any 10 s interval during the test). Outcomes were assessed using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression.A total of 536 hypertensive participants were receiving monotherapy with a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system inhibitor (n = 317, 59.1%), beta-blocker (n = 89, 16.6%), calcium channel blocker (n = 89, 16.6%) or diuretic (n = 41, 7.6%). A further 783 untreated participants met criteria for grade 1 hypertension. Beta-blockers were associated with increased odds of initial OH (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.31-3.21) and sustained OH (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.87-6.03) versus untreated grade 1 hypertension. Multivariable adjustment did not attenuate the results. Impaired BP stabilisation was evident at 20 s (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.58-4.25) and persisted at 110 s (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.64-5.11). No association was found between the other agents and any study outcome.Beta-blocker monotherapy was associated with a >2-fold increased odds of initial OH and a >3-fold increased odds of sustained OH and impaired BP stabilisation, compared to untreated grade 1 hypertension. These findings support existing literature questioning the role of beta-blockers as first line agents for essential hypertension.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Recent studies suggest that hypotension thresholds in current guidelines might be too low for older patients due to arterial stiffening, possibly leading to insufficient fluid resuscitation. We compared intravenous (IV) fluid volumes that older (≥ 70 years) and younger (< 70 years) patients with suspected infection with similar initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) received in the emergency department (ED) and investigated whether this was associated with in-hospital mortality in older patients. METHODS:This was an observational multicenter study using an existing database in which consecutive ED patients hospitalized with suspected infection were prospectively included. We first compared the fluid volumes older and younger ED patients received per initial SBP category. Patients were then stratified into two SBP categories (≤ or > 120 mmHg; 120 has been suggested to be a better threshold) and thereafter into three fluid volume categories: 0-1 L, 1-2 L, or > 2 L. In each SBP and fluid category, case-mix-adjusted in-hospital mortality was compared between older and younger patients, using multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS:The included 981 (37%) older and 1678 (63%) younger ED patients received similar IV fluid volumes per initial SBP category. Older patients with an initial SBP > 120 mmHg had a higher adjusted OR of 2.06 (95% CI 1.02-4.16), in the 0-1 L category, while this association was not found in the higher fluid categories of 1-2 L or > 2 L. In the SBP ≤ 120 mmHg category, this association was also absent. CONCLUSION:This hypothesis-generating study suggests that older patients with suspected infection may need higher fluid volumes than younger patients, when having a seemingly normal initial SBP.
Project description:This cross sectional investigation included 12,966 subjects with hypertension, a cohort of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), a randomized, multicenter clinical trial. This study aimed to explore the correlation between serum uric acid (SUA) concentration and hypertensive retinopathy in hypertensive adults.Diagnosis of hypertensive retinopathy was determined by non-mydriatic fundus photography and classified with Keith-Wagener-Barker (KWB) system. The correlation of SUA levels with hypertensive retinopathy prevalence and severity was assessed by statistical analysis.9848 (75.95%) subjects were diagnosed with hypertensive retinopathy with the following retinopathy grade distribution: grade 1: 58.80%, grade 2: 14.81%, and grade 3-4: 2.34%. SUA levels were significantly associated with hypertensive retinopathy prevalence. Patients with hypertensive retinopathy had higher SUA levels than those without hypertensive retinopathy. Patients in the highest uric acid quartile had an odds ratio for hypertensive retinopathy of 1.21 compared to patients in the lowest uric acid quartile (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.05-1.40, P = 0.008). When compared to the non-hyperuricemia group, those in the hyperuricemia group had an odds ratio for hypertensive retinopathy of 1.18(OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05-1.33, P = 0.004). Every 1 mg/dl increase in uric acid concentration was significantly associated with a 6% higher odds of hypertensive retinopathy (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10, P = 0.002).The prevalence of hypertensive retinopathy was high (75.95%) among hypertensives in our patients cohort. In addition, SUA concentration was significantly associated with hypertensive retinopathy.
Project description:During the first phase of the Fundus Photography vs Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the Emergency Department study, 13% (44/350; 95% confidence interval [CI] 9% to 17%) of patients had an ocular fundus finding, such as papilledema, relevant to their emergency department (ED) management found by nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography reviewed by neuro-ophthalmologists. All of these findings were missed by emergency physicians, who examined only 14% of enrolled patients by direct ophthalmoscopy. In the present study, we evaluate the sensitivity of nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography, an alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy, for relevant findings when photographs are made available for use by emergency physicians during routine clinical care.Three hundred fifty-four patients presenting to our ED with headache, focal neurologic deficit, visual change, or diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 120 mm Hg had nonmydriatic fundus photography obtained (Kowa nonmydriatic ?-D). Photographs were placed on the electronic medical record for emergency physician review. Identification of relevant findings on photographs by emergency physicians was compared with a reference standard of neuro-ophthalmologist review.Emergency physicians reviewed photographs of 239 patients (68%). Thirty-five patients (10%; 95% CI 7% to 13%) had relevant findings identified by neuro-ophthalmologist review (6 disc edema, 6 grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, 7 isolated hemorrhages, 15 optic disc pallor, and 1 retinal vascular occlusion). Emergency physicians identified 16 of 35 relevant findings (sensitivity 46%; 95% CI 29% to 63%) and also identified 289 of 319 normal findings (specificity 91%; 95% CI 87% to 94%). Emergency physicians reported that photographs were helpful for 125 patients (35%).Emergency physicians used nonmydriatic fundus photographs more frequently than they performed direct ophthalmoscopy, and their detection of relevant abnormalities improved. Ocular fundus photography often assisted ED care even when results were normal. Nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography offers a promising alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Little is known about age-specific target blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study was to determine the BP level at the lowest cardiovascular risk of hypertensive patients with DM according to age. METHODS:Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database, we analyzed patients without cardiovascular disease diagnosed with both hypertension and DM from January 2002 to December 2011. Primary end-point was composite cardiovascular events including cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. RESULTS:Of 241,148 study patients, 35,396 had cardiovascular events during a median follow-up period of 10 years. At the age of?<?70 years, the risk of cardiovascular events was lower in patients with BP?<?120/70 mmHg than in those with BP 130-139/80-89 mmHg. At the age of???70, however, there were no significant differences in the risk of cardiovascular events between patients with BP 130-139/80-89 mmHg and BP?<?120/70 mmHg. The risk of cardiovascular events was similar between patients with BP 130-139/80-89 mmHg and BP 120-129/70-79 mmHg, and it was significantly higher in those with BP???140/90 mmHg than in those with BP 130-139/80-89 mmHg at all ages. CONCLUSIONS:In a cohort of hypertensive patients who had DM but no history of cardiovascular disease, lower BP was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events especially at the age of?<?70. However, low BP?<?130-139/80-89 mmHg was not associated with decreased cardiovascular risk, it may be better to keep the BP of 130-139/80-89 mmHg at the age of???70.
Project description:Complications of hypertension are particularly common in people of African descent but previous reports had suggested rarity of hypertensive retinopathy in black Africans. We evaluated retinal changes among Nigerian hypertensive patients and determined their relationship with renal function.Consecutive Hypertensive patients who were ≥18 years were selected for the study. Socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric parameters and blood pressure were measured. All patients had ophthalmoscopic examination and retinal changes were graded according to Keith-Wegener's classification. Blood samples were taken for blood urea nitrogen, lipids and C-reactive protein; and urine was collected for creatinine and microalbuminuria. Serum creatinine was determined using modified Jaffe method and estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) was calculated using MDRD equation: 186 × (Creatinine/88.4)-1.154 × (Age)-0.203 × (0.742 if female) × (1.210 if black).Of the 240 patients studied, 187 (78 %) had one form of retinopathy or the other. While 85 (35.4 %) patients had grade 1 retinopathy, 87 (36.3 %) had grade 2, 13 (5.4 %) had grade 3 and 2 (0.83 %) had grade 4 respectively. Comparison of patients with and without retinopathy showed that, the former were older (p = 0.001) and had longer duration of hypertension (p = 0.001). Similarly, hypertensive patients with retinopathy had higher total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.017, p = 0.041 respectively). However, eGFR was lower in individuals with retinopathy (46.2 ml/min/1.73) than those with normal retinal (55.9 ml/min/1.73) findings, p = 0.019. Multi-variable adjusted odds ratios showed increased probability of retinopathy with age (odds ratio-1.08, p = 0.001) and body mass index (odds ratio-1.20, p = 0.013).Hypertensive retinopathy is a common clinical finding among hypertensive Nigerians and may occur pari passu with renal damage as consequences of long standing hypertension.
Project description:Paracetamol's solubility is achieved by adding to the excipient sodium salts, either as bicarbonate, carbonate or citrate. As the relationship between salt and hypertension is well known, due to the sodium content it has raised a hypothesis that may interfere with the control of that risk factor. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect on blood pressure of effervescent paracetamol compared to non-effervescent, in hypertensive patients.This is the protocol of a phase IV multicenter clinical trial, randomized, controlled, crossover, open, which will compare the effect of two different formulations of paracetamol (effervescent or non-effervescent) in the blood pressure of hypertensive patients, with a seven weeks follow up. 49 controlled hypertensive patients will be included (clinical BP lower than 150 and 95 mmHg, and lower than 135 mmHg and 85 mmHg in patients with diabetes or a history of cardiovascular event, and daytime ambulatory measurements lower than 140 and 90 mmHg) and mild to moderate pain (Visual Analog Scale between 1 and 4). The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Fundació Jordi Gol i Gurina and following standards of good clinical practice. The primary endpoint will be the variations in systolic BP in 24 h Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring, considering significant differences 2 or more mmHg among those treated with non-effervescent and effervescent formulations. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis will be held.Despite the broad recommendation not to use effervescent drugs in patients with hypertension, there are relatively little studies that show exactly this pressor effect due to sodium in salt that gives the effervescence of the product. This is the first clinical trial designed to study the effect of effervescence compared to the non-effervescent, in well-controlled hypertensive patients with mild to moderate pain, performed in routine clinical practice.NCT 02514538.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Emergency departments (EDs) are critical sites for hypertension (HTN) screening. Home blood pressure (BP) monitoring (HBPM) is used routinely in outpatient settings, yet its utility after the ED visit for those with elevated BP in the ED is unclear. AIM:In this pilot study, we assessed if HBPM could detect HTN in patients with elevated in-ED BP. METHODS:From September 2014 to July 2017, we recruited adult patients at an urban, academic ED with a triage BP???120/80 mmHg and no history of HTN into this prospective cohort observational study. After their ED visit, participants obtained BP measurements for two weeks using a validated HBPM. HTN was considered probable if the average HBPM BP was???135/85 mmHg. We calculated the proportion of participants whose ED BP measurement accurately predicted HTN using HBPM after discharge. RESULTS:Of 136 participants enrolled, 93 (68%) returned the HBPM with at least four home BP measurements [mean number of measurements obtained: 29 (SD: 17, range 4-59)]. Participants' median age was 40 years-old (IQR 34-48); 55% were female, 19% were black, and 58% were white. Forty-six percent of participants with elevated in-ED BP had HTN in follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:For patients with elevated BP in the ED, HBPM could be valuable for determining which patients have HTN and require expedient follow-up.