Nod1 is an essential signal transducer in intestinal epithelial cells infected with bacteria that avoid recognition by toll-like receptors.
ABSTRACT: The transcription factor NF-kappaB in human intestinal epithelial cells plays a central role in regulating genes that govern the onset of mucosal inflammatory responses following intestinal microbial infection. Nod1 is a cytosolic pattern recognition receptor in mammalian cells that senses components of microbial peptidoglycans and signals the activation of NF-kappaB. The aim of these studies was to assess the functional importance of Nod1 in activating NF-kappaB and NF-kappaB proinflammatory target genes in human intestinal epithelium. Human colon epithelial cells that constitutively express Nod1 were used as a model intestinal epithelium. These cells do not signal through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) or respond to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, but they express functional TLR5 and interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptors that signal the activation of NF-kappaB in response to bacterial flagellin or IL-1 stimulation. Stable expression of dominant negative (DN) Nod1 in colon epithelial cells prevented IkappaB kinase and NF-kappaB activation in response to infection with enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. In contrast, DN Nod1 did not eliminate IL-1 or flagellin-stimulated NF-kappaB activation. Inhibition of NF-kappaB was accompanied by inhibition of NF-kappaB target genes that provide signals for the mucosal influx of neutrophils during intestinal infection. We conclude that signaling through Nod1 is required for activating NF-kappaB in human intestinal epithelial cells infected with gram-negative enteric bacteria that can bypass TLR activation. Signaling through Nod1 provides the intestinal epithelium with a backup mechanism for rapidly activating innate immunity during infection with a group of highly invasive pathogenic gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:Shiga toxins expressed in the intestinal lumen during infection with Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli must translocate across the epithelium and enter the systemic circulation to cause systemic (pathological) effects, including hemolytic uremic syndrome. The transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to chemokine expression by intestinal epithelial cells is thought to promote uptake of Stx from the intestinal lumen by compromising the epithelial barrier. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that flagellin acts in conjunction with Shiga toxin to augment this chemokine expression. We investigated the relative contributions of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling to transcription and translation of interleukin-8. Using reporter gene constructs, we showed that flagellin-mediated interleukin-8 gene transcription is heavily dependent on both NF-kappaB and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK-1/2) activation. In contrast, inhibition of p38 has no detectable effect on interleukin-8 gene transcription, even though flagellin-mediated activation of host p38 is critical for maximal interleukin-8 protein expression. Inhibition of MAPK-interacting kinase 1 suggests that p38 signaling affects the posttranscriptional regulation of interleukin-8 protein expression induced by flagellin. Cotreatment with Stx2 and flagellin results in a synergistic upregulation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinases (JNKs), p38 activation, and a superinduction of interleukin-8 mRNA. This synergism was also evident at the protein level, with increased interleukin-8 protein detectable following cotreatment with flagellin and Stx2. We propose that flagellin, in conjunction with Shiga toxin, synergistically upregulates stress-activated protein kinases, resulting in superinduction of interleukin-8 and, ultimately, absorption of Stx into the systemic circulation.
Project description:Acute injury to the intestinal mucosa is a major dose-limiting complication of abdominal radiation therapy. We studied the role of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in protection against radiation-induced apoptosis in the intestinal epithelium in vivo. We use mice in which NF-kappaB signaling through IkappaB-kinase (IKK)-beta is selectively ablated in intestinal epithelial cells to show that failure to activate epithelial cell NF-kappaB in vivo results in a significant increase in radiation-induced epithelial cell apoptosis. Furthermore, bacterial lipopolysaccharide, which is normally a radioprotective agent, is radiosensitizing in IKKbeta-deficient intestinal epithelial cells. Increased apoptosis in IKKbeta-deficient intestinal epithelial cells was accompanied by increased expression and activation of the tumor suppressor p53 and decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. These results demonstrate the physiological importance of the NF-kappaB system in protection against radiation-induced death in the intestinal epithelium in vivo and identify IKKbeta as a key molecular target for radioprotection in the intestine. Selective preactivation of NF-kappaB through IKKbeta in intestinal epithelial cells could provide a therapeutic modality that allows higher doses of radiation to be tolerated during cancer radiotherapy.
Project description:In order for the opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cause an airway infection, the pathogen interacts with epithelial cells and the overlying mucous layer. We examined the contribution of the biofilm polysaccharide Psl to epithelial cell adherence and the impact of Psl on proinflammatory signaling by flagellin. Psl has been implicated in the initial attachment of P. aeruginosa to biotic and abiotic surfaces, but its direct role in pathogenesis has not been evaluated (L. Ma, K. D. Jackson, R. M. Landry, M. R. Parsek, and D. J. Wozniak, J. Bacteriol. 188:8213-8221, 2006). Using an NF-kappaB luciferase reporter system in the human epithelial cell line A549, we show that both Psl and flagellin are necessary for full activation of NF-kappaB and production of the interleukin 8 (IL-8) chemokine. We demonstrate that Psl does not directly stimulate NF-kappaB activity, but indirectly as a result of increasing contact between bacterial cells and epithelial cells, it facilitates flagellin-mediated proinflammatory signaling. We confirm differential adherence of Psl and/or flagellin mutants by scanning electron microscopy and identify Psl-dependent membrane structures that may participate in adherence. Although we hypothesized that Psl would protect P. aeruginosa from recognition by the epithelial cell line A549, we instead observed a positive role for Psl in flagellin-mediated NF-kappaB activation, likely as a result of increasing contact between bacterial cells and epithelial cells.
Project description:Chronic infection with the bacterial Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of gastric and duodenal ulcer disease, gastric mucosal atrophy, and cancer. H. pylori-induced expression of the intestinal epithelial-specific transcription factor caudal-related homeobox 2 (Cdx2) contributes to intestinal metaplasia, a precursor event to gastric cancer. Given a role for the bacterial pattern recognition molecule nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) in the innate immune response to bacterial infection, we investigated mechanisms used by NOD1 to regulate H. pylori infection and its propensity towards the development of intestinal metaplasia. We found that Cdx2 was induced by H. pylori infection in both normal and neoplastic gastric epithelial cells in a manner that was inversely related to NOD1 signaling. Mechanistic investigations revealed that Cdx2 induction relied upon activation of NF-?B but was suppressed by NOD1-mediated activation of TRAF3, a negative regulator of NF-?B. In vivo, prolonged infection of NOD1-deficient mice with H. pylori led to increased Cdx2 expression and intestinal metaplasia. Furthermore, gastric epithelial cells from these mice exhibited increased nuclear expression of the NF-?B p65 subunit and decreased expression of TRAF3. Overall, our findings illuminated a role for NOD1 signaling in attenuating H. pylori-induced Cdx2 expression in gastric epithelial cells, suggesting a rationale to augment NOD1 signaling in H. pylori-infected patients to limit their risks of accumulating precancerous gastric lesions.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a therapeutic target in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease; however, the exact role of TNF signaling in the colon epithelium remains unclear. We demonstrate that TNF activation of TNF receptor (R)1 stimulates both pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways in the colon epithelium; however, TNFR1 protects against colon epithelial cell apoptosis following TNF exposure. To investigate anti-apoptotic signaling pathways downstream of TNFR1, we generated an intestinal epithelium-specific Raf knock-out mouse and identified Raf kinase as a key regulator of colon epithelial cell survival in response to TNF. Surprisingly, Raf promotes NF-kappaB p65 phosphorylation, independent of MEK signaling, to support cell survival. Taken together, these data demonstrate a novel pathway in which Raf promotes colon epithelial cell survival through NF-kappaB downstream of TNFR1 activation. Thus, further understanding of colon epithelial cell-specific TNFR signaling may result in the identification of new targets for inflammatory bowel disease treatment and define novel mediators of colitis-associated cancer.
Project description:Epidemiologic studies have reported an inverse relationship between childhood Helicobacter pylori infection and development of allergic asthma. Because lung epithelium plays an important role in allergic asthma pathogenesis, we hypothesized that H. pylori may directly influence airway epithelial cell innate immune function, particularly in early childhood. To test our hypothesis, we established an in vitro H. pylori infection model using primary tracheobronchial epithelial cell cultures derived from infant, juvenile and adult rhesus monkeys. Airway epithelial cell cultures were infected with wild-type or cag pathogenicity island mutant H. pylori strains, followed by evaluation of IL-8 and IL-6 protein synthesis. We found that H. pylori primarily increased IL-8 synthesis in a MOI and age-dependent fashion, with a greater than 4-fold induction in infant versus adult cultures. H. pylori-induced IL-8 synthesis in infant and juvenile cultures was significantly reduced by cag pathogenicity island mutants, indicating a requirement for the type IV secretion system. Although peptidoglycan recognition of nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) and NF-kappaB have been implicated as key cytokine signaling molecules for H. pylori infection in gastric epithelium, NOD1 (ML130) or NF-kappaB (JSH-23) inhibitors minimally affected IL-8 synthesis in airway epithelial cell cultures following H. pylori infection. In contrast, inhibition of the p38 MAP kinase pathway (SB203580) resulted in almost complete suppression of H. pylori-induced IL-8 synthesis. Collectively, these results indicate that H. pylori can preferentially elicit IL-8 synthesis in a model of pediatric airway epithelium using the type IV secretion system via p38 MAP kinase.
Project description:Trefoil factor 3 (intestinal trefoil factor) is a cytoprotective factor in the gut. Herein we compared the effect of trefoil factor 3 with tumor necrosis factor-alpha on 1) activation of NF-kappaB in intestinal epithelial cells; 2) expression of Twist protein (a molecule essential for downregulation of nuclear factor-kappaB activity in vivo); and 3) production of interleukin-8. We showed that Twist protein is constitutively expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced persistent degradation of Twist protein in intestinal epithelial cells via a signaling pathway linked to proteasome, which was associated with prolonged activation of NF-kappaB. In contrast to tumor necrosis factor, trefoil factor 3 triggered transient activation of NF-kappaB and prolonged upregulation of Twist protein in intestinal epithelial cells via an ERK kinase-mediated pathway. Unlike tumor necrosis factor-alpha, transient activation of NF-kappaB by trefoil factor 3 is not associated with induction of IL-8 in cells. To examine the role of Twist protein in intestinal epithelial cells, we silenced the Twist expression by siRNA. Our data showed that trefoil factor 3 induced interleukin-8 production after silencing Twist in intestinal epithelial cells. Together, these observations indicated that 1) trefoil factor 3 triggers a diverse signal from tumor necrosis factor-alpha on the activation of NF-kappaB and its associated molecules in intestinal epithelial cells; and 2) trefoil factor 3-induced Twist protein plays an important role in the modulation of inflammatory cytokine production in intestinal epithelial cells.
Project description:NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) has a pivotal role in many cellular processes, including the inflammatory and immune responses and, therefore, its activation is tightly regulated by the IKK (IkappaB kinase) complex and by IkappaBalpha degradation. When Shigella bacteria multiply within epithelial cells they release peptidoglycans, which are recognized by Nod1 and stimulate the NF-kappaB pathway, thus leading to a severe inflammatory response. Here, we show that IpaH9.8, a Shigella effector possessing E3 ligase activity, dampens the NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory response to the bacterial infection in a unique way. IpaH9.8 interacts with NEMO/IKKgamma and ABIN-1, a ubiquitin-binding adaptor protein, promoting ABIN-1-dependent polyubiquitylation of NEMO. Consequently, polyubiquitylated NEMO undergoes proteasome-dependent degradation, which perturbs NF-kappaB activation. As NEMO is essential for NF-kappaB activation, we propose that the polyubiquitylation and degradation of NEMO during Shigella infection is a new bacterial strategy to modulate host inflammatory responses.
Project description:Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2), a seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor, is activated at inflammatory sites by proteolytic cleavage of its extracellular N terminus by trypsin-like enzymes, exposing a tethered, receptor-activating ligand. Synthetic agonist peptides (AP) that share the tethered ligand sequence also activate PAR2, often measured by Ca2+ release. PAR2 contributes to inflammation through activation of NF-kappaB-regulated genes; however, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Overexpression of human PAR2 in HEK293T cells resulted in concentration-dependent, PAR2 AP-inducible NF-kappaB reporter activation that was protein synthesis-independent, yet blocked by inhibitors that uncouple Gi proteins or sequester intracellular Ca2+. Because previous studies described synergistic PAR2- and TLR4-mediated cytokine production, we hypothesized that PAR2 and TLR4 might interact at the level of signaling. In the absence of TLR4, PAR2-induced NF-kappaB activity was inhibited by dominant negative (DN)-TRIF or DN-TRAM constructs, but not by DN-MyD88, findings confirmed using cell-permeable, adapter-specific BB loop blocking peptides. Co-expression of TLR4/MD-2/CD14 with PAR2 in HEK293T cells led to a synergistic increase in AP-induced NF-kappaB signaling that was MyD88-dependent and required a functional TLR4, despite the fact that AP exhibited no TLR4 agonist activity. Co-immunoprecipitation of PAR2 and TLR4 revealed a physical association that was AP-dependent. The response to AP or lipopolysaccharide was significantly diminished in TLR4(-/-) and PAR2(-/-) macrophages, respectively, and SW620 colonic epithelial cells exhibited synergistic responses to co-stimulation with AP and lipopolysaccharide. Our data suggest a unique interaction between two distinct innate immune response receptors and support a novel paradigm of receptor cooperativity in inflammatory responses.
Project description:Nod1 and Nod2 are intracellular proteins that are involved in host recognition of specific bacterial molecules and are genetically associated with several inflammatory diseases. Nod1 and Nod2 stimulation activates NF-kappaB through RICK, a caspase-recruitment domain-containing kinase. However, the mechanism by which RICK activates NF-kappaB in response to Nod1 and Nod2 stimulation is unknown. Here we show that RICK is conjugated with lysine-63-linked polyubiquitin chains at lysine 209 (K209) located in its kinase domain upon Nod1 or Nod2 stimulation and by induced oligomerization of RICK. Polyubiquitination of RICK at K209 was essential for RICK-mediated IKK activation and cytokine/chemokine secretion. However, RICK polyubiquitination did not require the kinase activity of RICK or alter the interaction of RICK with NEMO, a regulatory subunit of IkappaB kinase (IKK). Instead, polyubiquitination of RICK was found to mediate the recruitment of TAK1, a kinase that was found to be essential for Nod1-induced signaling. Thus, RICK polyubiquitination links TAK1 to IKK complexes, a critical step in Nod1/Nod2-mediated NF-kappaB activation.