Mutations in two non-canonical Arabidopsis SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPases cause embryogenesis and stem cell maintenance defects.
ABSTRACT: SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPases play important roles in plant and metazoan development. Whereas metazoans generally encode one or two SWI2/SNF2 ATPase genes, Arabidopsis encodes four such chromatin regulators: the well-studied BRAHMA and SPLAYED ATPases, as well as two closely related non-canonical SWI2/SNF2 ATPases, CHR12 and CHR23. No developmental role has as yet been described for CHR12 and CHR23. Here, we show that although strong single chr12 or chr23 mutants are morphologically indistinguishable from the wild type, chr12?chr23 double mutants cause embryonic lethality. The double mutant embryos fail to initiate root and shoot meristems, and display few and aberrant cell divisions. Weak double mutant embryos give rise to viable seedlings with dramatic defects in the maintenance of both the shoot and the root stem cell populations. Paradoxically, the stem cell defects are correlated with increased expression of the stem cell markers WUSCHEL and WOX5. During subsequent development, the meristem defects are partially overcome to allow for the formation of very small, bushy adult plants. Based on the observed morphological defects, we named the two chromatin remodelers MINUSCULE 1 and 2. Possible links between minu1 minu2 defects and defects in hormone signaling and replication-coupled chromatin assembly are discussed.
Project description:This review focuses on recent structural insights into regulation and nucleic acid binding of Superfamily 2 (SF2)-type helicases as they relate to chromatin remodelers. We review structural features of the Chd1 chromatin remodeler regarding regulation of the ATPase motor, and discuss related strategies observed for other SF2 ATPases. Since no SWI2/SNF2 ATPases have yet been captured bound to DNA in a state competent for ATP hydrolysis, we turn to structural examples from the DEAD-box RNA helicase family, and suggest that SWI2/SNF2-specific inserts may be poised to alter canonical duplex DNA structure.
Project description:Patterning of the floral organs is exquisitely controlled and executed by four classes of homeotic regulators. Among these, the class B and class C floral homeotic regulators are of central importance as they specify the male and female reproductive organs. Inappropriate induction of the class B gene APETALA3 (AP3) and the class C gene AGAMOUS (AG) causes reduced reproductive fitness and is prevented by polycomb repression. At the onset of flower patterning, polycomb repression needs to be overcome to allow induction of AP3 and AG and formation of the reproductive organs. We show that the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin-remodeling ATPases SPLAYED (SYD) and BRAHMA (BRM) are redundantly required for flower patterning and for the activation of AP3 and AG. The SWI2/SNF2 ATPases are recruited to the regulatory regions of AP3 and AG during flower development and physically interact with two direct transcriptional activators of class B and class C gene expression, LEAFY (LFY) and SEPALLATA3 (SEP3). SYD and LFY association with the AP3 and AG regulatory loci peaks at the same time during flower patterning, and SYD binding to these loci is compromised in lfy and lfy sep3 mutants. This suggests a mechanism for SWI2/SNF2 ATPase recruitment to these loci at the right stage and in the correct cells. SYD and BRM act as trithorax proteins, and the requirement for SYD and BRM in flower patterning can be overcome by partial loss of polycomb activity in curly leaf (clf) mutants, implicating the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodelers in reversal of polycomb repression.
Project description:Swi2/Snf2 ATPases remodel substrates such as nucleosomes and transcription complexes to control a wide range of DNA-associated processes, but detailed structural information on the ATP-dependent remodeling reactions is largely absent. The single subunit remodeler Mot1 (modifier of transcription 1) dissociates TATA box-binding protein (TBP):DNA complexes, offering a useful system to address the structural mechanisms of Swi2/Snf2 ATPases. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Mot1 in complex with TBP, DNA, and the transcription regulator negative cofactor 2 (NC2). Our data show that Mot1 reduces DNA:NC2 interactions and unbends DNA as compared to the TBP:DNA:NC2 state, suggesting that Mot1 primes TBP:NC2 displacement in an ATP-independent manner. Electron microscopy and cross-linking data suggest that the Swi2/Snf2 domain of Mot1 associates with the upstream DNA and the histone fold of NC2, thereby revealing parallels to some nucleosome remodelers. This study provides a structural framework for how a Swi2/Snf2 ATPase interacts with its substrate DNA:protein complex.
Project description:Mammalian neural stem cells (NSCs) have the capacity to both self-renew and to generate all the neuronal and glial cell-types of the adult nervous system. Global chromatin changes accompany the transition from proliferating NSCs to committed neuronal lineages, but the mechanisms involved have been unclear. Using a proteomics approach, we show that a switch in subunit composition of neural, ATP-dependent SWI/SNF-like chromatin remodeling complexes accompanies this developmental transition. Proliferating neural stem and progenitor cells express complexes in which BAF45a, a Krüppel/PHD domain protein and the actin-related protein BAF53a are quantitatively associated with the SWI2/SNF2-like ATPases, Brg and Brm. As neural progenitors exit the cell cycle, these subunits are replaced by the homologous BAF45b, BAF45c, and BAF53b. BAF45a/53a subunits are necessary and sufficient for neural progenitor proliferation. Preventing the subunit switch impairs neuronal differentiation, indicating that this molecular event is essential for the transition from neural stem/progenitors to postmitotic neurons. More broadly, these studies suggest that SWI/SNF-like complexes in vertebrates achieve biological specificity by combinatorial assembly of their subunits.
Project description:Swi2/Snf2 ATPases remodel protein:DNA complexes in all of the fundamental chromosome-associated processes. The single-subunit remodeler Mot1 dissociates TATA box-binding protein (TBP):DNA complexes and provides a simple model for obtaining structural insights into the action of Swi2/Snf2 ATPases. Previously we reported how the N-terminal domain of Mot1 binds TBP, NC2 and DNA, but the location of the C-terminal ATPase domain remained unclear (Butryn et al., 2015). Here, we report the crystal structure of the near full-length Mot1 from Chaetomium thermophilum. Our data show that Mot1 adopts a ring like structure with a catalytically inactive resting state of the ATPase. Biochemical analysis suggests that TBP binding switches Mot1 into an ATP hydrolysis-competent conformation. Combined with our previous results, these data significantly improve the structural model for the complete Mot1:TBP:DNA complex and suggest a general mechanism for Mot1 action.
Project description:Swi2/Snf2-type ATPases regulate genome-associated processes such as transcription, replication and repair by catalysing the disruption, assembly or remodelling of nucleosomes or other protein-DNA complexes. It has been suggested that ATP-driven motor activity along DNA disrupts target protein-DNA interactions in the remodelling reaction. However, the complex and highly specific remodelling reactions are poorly understood, mostly because of a lack of high-resolution structural information about how remodellers bind to their substrate proteins. Mot1 (modifier of transcription 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, denoted BTAF1 in humans) is a Swi2/Snf2 enzyme that specifically displaces the TATA box binding protein (TBP) from the promoter DNA and regulates transcription globally by generating a highly dynamic TBP pool in the cell. As a Swi2/Snf2 enzyme that functions as a single polypeptide and interacts with a relatively simple substrate, Mot1 offers an ideal system from which to gain a better understanding of this important enzyme family. To reveal how Mot1 specifically disrupts TBP-DNA complexes, we combined crystal and electron microscopy structures of Mot1-TBP from Encephalitozoon cuniculi with biochemical studies. Here we show that Mot1 wraps around TBP and seems to act like a bottle opener: a spring-like array of 16 HEAT (huntingtin, elongation factor 3, protein phosphatase 2A and lipid kinase TOR) repeats grips the DNA-distal side of TBP via loop insertions, and the Swi2/Snf2 domain binds to upstream DNA, positioned to weaken the TBP-DNA interaction by DNA translocation. A 'latch' subsequently blocks the DNA-binding groove of TBP, acting as a chaperone to prevent DNA re-association and ensure efficient promoter clearance. This work shows how a remodelling enzyme can combine both motor and chaperone activities to achieve functional specificity using a conserved Swi2/Snf2 translocase.
Project description:One of the hallmarks of the Swi2/Snf2 family members is their ability to modify the interaction between DNA-binding protein and DNA in controlling gene expression. The studies of Swi2/Snf2 have been mostly focused on their roles in chromatin and/or nucleosome remodeling in eukaryotes. A bacterial Swi2/Snf2 protein named RapA from Escherichia coli is a unique addition to these studies. RapA is an RNA polymerase (RNAP)-associated protein and an ATPase. It binds nucleic acids including RNA and DNA. The ATPase activity of RapA is stimulated by its interaction with RNAP, but not with nucleic acids. RapA and the major sigma factor ?70 compete for binding to core RNAP. After one transcription cycle in vitro, RNAP is immobilized in an undefined posttranscription/posttermination complex (PTC), thus becoming unavailable for reuse. RapA stimulates RNAP recycling by ATPase-dependent remodeling of PTC, leading to the release of sequestered RNAP, which then becomes available for reuse in another cycle of transcription. Recently, the crystal structure of RapA that is also the first full-length structure for the entire Swi2/Snf2 family was determined. The structure provides a framework for future studies of the mechanism of RNAP recycling in transcription. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Snf2/Swi2 ATPase structure and function.
Project description:Double-stranded DNA viruses display a great variety of proteins that interact with host chromatin. Using the wealth of available genomic and functional information, we have systematically surveyed chromatin-related proteins encoded by dsDNA viruses. The distribution of viral chromatin-related proteins is primarily influenced by viral genome size and the superkingdom to which the host of the virus belongs. Smaller viruses usually encode multifunctional proteins that mediate several distinct interactions with host chromatin proteins and viral or host DNA. Larger viruses additionally encode several enzymes, which catalyze manipulations of chromosome structure, chromatin remodeling and covalent modifications of proteins and DNA. Among these viruses, it is also common to encounter transcription factors and DNA-packaging proteins such as histones and IHF/HU derived from cellular genomes, which might play a role in constituting virus-specific chromatin states. Through all size ranges a subset of domains in viral chromatin proteins appears to have been derived from those found in host proteins. Examples include the Zn-finger domains of the E6 and E7 proteins of papillomaviruses, SET domain methyltransferases and Jumonji-related demethylases in certain nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses and BEN domains in poxviruses and polydnaviruses. In other cases, chromatin-interacting modules, such as the LXCXE motif, appear to have been widely disseminated across distinct viral lineages, resulting in similar retinoblastoma targeting strategies. Viruses, especially those with large linear genomes, have evolved a number of mechanisms to manipulate viral chromosomes in the process of replication-associated recombination. These include topoisomerases, Rad50/SbcC-like ABC ATPases and a novel recombinase system in bacteriophages utilizing RecA and Rad52 homologs. Larger DNA viruses also encode SWI2/SNF2 and A18-like ATPases which appear to play specialized roles in transcription and recombination. Finally, it also appears that certain domains of viral provenance have given rise to key functions in eukaryotic chromatin such as a HEH domain of chromosome tethering proteins and the TET/JBP-like cytosine and thymine hydroxylases.
Project description:BREVIPEDICELLUS (BP or KNAT1), a class-I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) transcription factor in Arabidopsis thaliana, contributes to shaping the normal inflorescence architecture through negatively regulating other two class-I KNOX genes, KNAT2 and KNAT6. However, the molecular mechanism of BP-mediated transcription regulation remains unclear. In this study, we showed that BP directly interacts with the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA (BRM) both in vitro and in vivo. Loss-of-function BRM mutants displayed inflorescence architecture defects, with clustered inflorescences, horizontally orientated pedicels, and short pedicels and internodes, a phenotype similar to the bp mutants. Furthermore, the transcript levels of KNAT2 and KNAT6 were elevated in brm-3, bp-9 and brm-3 bp-9 double mutants. Increased histone H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) levels were detected in brm-3, bp-9 and brm-3 bp-9 double mutants. Moreover, BRM and BP co-target to KNAT2 and KNAT6 genes, and BP is required for the binding of BRM to KNAT2 and KNAT6. Taken together, our results indicate that BP interacts with the chromatin remodeling factor BRM to regulate the expression of KNAT2 and KNAT6 in control of inflorescence architecture.
Project description:RapA, as abundant as sigma70 in the cell, is an RNA polymerase (RNAP)-associated Swi2/Snf2 protein with ATPase activity. It stimulates RNAP recycling during transcription. We report a structure of RapA that is also a full-length structure for the entire Swi2/Snf2 family. RapA contains seven domains, two of which exhibit novel protein folds. Our model of RapA in complex with ATP and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) suggests that RapA may bind to and translocate on dsDNA. Our kinetic template-switching assay shows that RapA facilitates the release of sequestered RNAP from a posttranscrption/posttermination complex for transcription reinitiation. Our in vitro competition experiment indicates that RapA binds to core RNAP only but is readily displaceable by sigma70. RapA is likely another general transcription factor, the structure of which provides a framework for future studies of this bacterial Swi2/Snf2 protein and its important roles in RNAP recycling during transcription.