Unique features of the anti-parallel, heterodimeric coiled-coil interaction between methyl-cytosine binding domain 2 (MBD2) homologues and GATA zinc finger domain containing 2A (GATAD2A/p66?).
ABSTRACT: The methyl-cytosine binding domain 2 (MBD2)-nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex recognizes methylated DNA and silences expression of associated genes through histone deacetylase and nucleosome remodeling functions. Our previous structural work demonstrated that a coiled-coil interaction between MBD2 and GATA zinc finger domain containing 2A (GATAD2A/p66?) proteins recruits the chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein (CHD4/Mi2?) to the NuRD complex and is necessary for MBD2-mediated DNA methylation-dependent gene silencing in vivo (Gnanapragasam, M. N., Scarsdale, J. N., Amaya, M. L., Webb, H. D., Desai, M. A., Walavalkar, N. M., Wang, S. Z., Zu Zhu, S., Ginder, G. D., and Williams, D. C., Jr. (2011) p66?-MBD2 coiled-coil interaction and recruitment of Mi-2 are critical for globin gene silencing by the MBD2-NuRD complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108, 7487-7492). The p66?-MBD2 interaction differs from most coiled-coils studied to date by forming an anti-parallel heterodimeric complex between two peptides that are largely monomeric in isolation. To further characterize unique features of this complex that drive heterodimeric specificity and high affinity binding, we carried out biophysical analyses of MBD2 and the related homologues MBD3, MBD3-like protein 1 (MBD3L1), and MBD3-like protein 2 (MBD3L2) as well as specific mutations that modify charge-charge interactions and helical propensity of the coiled-coil domains. Analytical ultracentrifugation analyses show that the individual peptides remain monomeric in isolation even at 300 ?M in concentration for MBD2. Circular dichroism analyses demonstrate a direct correlation between helical content of the coiled-coil domains in isolation and binding affinity for p66?. Furthermore, complementary electrostatic surface potentials and inherent helical content of each peptide are necessary to maintain high-affinity association. These factors lead to a binding affinity hierarchy of p66? for the different MBD2 homologues (MBD2 ? MBD3 > MBD3L1 ? MBD3L2) and suggest a hierarchical regulatory model in tissue and life cycle stage-specific silencing by NuRD complexes.
Project description:The MBD2-NuRD (Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase) complex is an epigenetic reader of DNA methylation that regulates genes involved in normal development and neoplastic diseases. To delineate the architecture and functional interactions of the MBD2-NuRD complex, we previously solved the structures of MBD2 bound to methylated DNA and a coiled-coil interaction between MBD2 and p66? that recruits the CHD4 nucleosome remodeling protein to the complex. The work presented here identifies novel structural and functional features of a previously uncharacterized domain of MBD2 (MBD2IDR). Biophysical analyses show that the MBD2IDR is an intrinsically disordered region (IDR). However, despite this inherent disorder, MBD2IDR increases the overall binding affinity of MBD2 for methylated DNA. MBD2IDR also recruits the histone deacetylase core components (RbAp48, HDAC2 and MTA2) of NuRD through a critical contact region requiring two contiguous amino acid residues, Arg(286) and Leu(287). Mutating these residues abrogates interaction of MBD2 with the histone deacetylase core and impairs the ability of MBD2 to repress the methylated tumor suppressor gene PRSS8 in MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. These findings expand our knowledge of the multi-dimensional interactions of the MBD2-NuRD complex that govern its function.
Project description:Nucleosome remodeling complexes comprise several large families of chromatin modifiers that integrate multiple epigenetic control signals to play key roles in cell type-specific transcription regulation. We previously isolated a methyl-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2)-containing nucleosome remodeling and deacetylation (NuRD) complex from primary erythroid cells and showed that MBD2 contributes to DNA methylation-dependent embryonic and fetal β-type globin gene silencing during development in vivo. Here we present structural and biophysical details of the coiled-coil interaction between MBD2 and p66α, a critical component of the MBD2-NuRD complex. We show that enforced expression of the isolated p66α coiled-coil domain relieves MBD2-mediated globin gene silencing and that the expressed peptide interacts only with a subset of components of the MBD2-NuRD complex that does not include native p66α or Mi-2. These results demonstrate the central importance of the coiled-coil interaction and suggest that MBD2-dependent DNA methylation-driven gene silencing can be disrupted by selectively targeting this coiled-coil complex.
Project description:The heterogeneous collection of nucleosome remodelling and deacetylation (NuRD) complexes can be grouped into the MBD2- or MBD3-containing complexes MBD2-NuRD and MBD3-NuRD. MBD2 is known to bind to methylated CpG sequences in vitro in contrast to MBD3. Although functional differences have been described, a direct comparison of MBD2 and MBD3 in respect to genome-wide binding and function has been lacking. Here, we show that MBD2-NuRD, in contrast to MBD3-NuRD, converts open chromatin with euchromatic histone modifications into tightly compacted chromatin with repressive histone marks. Genome-wide, a strong enrichment for MBD2 at methylated CpG sequences is found, whereas CpGs bound by MBD3 are devoid of methylation. MBD2-bound genes are generally lower expressed as compared with MBD3-bound genes. When depleting cells for MBD2, the MBD2-bound genes increase their activity, whereas MBD2 plus MBD3-bound genes reduce their activity. Most strikingly, MBD3 is enriched at active promoters, whereas MBD2 is bound at methylated promoters and enriched at exon sequences of active genes.
Project description:During hematopoiesis, red blood cells originate from the hematopoietic stem cell reservoir. Although the regulation of erythropoiesis and globin expression has been intensively investigated, the underlining mechanisms are not fully understood, including the interplay between transcription factors and epigenetic factors. Here, we uncover that the Mbd2-free NuRD chromatin remodeling complex potentiates erythroid differentiation of proerythroblasts via managing functions of the CP2c complexes. We found that both Mbd2 and Mbd3 expression is downregulated during differentiation of MEL cells in vitro and in normal erythropoiesis in mouse bone marrow, and Mbd2 downregulation is crucial for erythropoiesis. In uninduced MEL cells, the Mbd2-NuRD complex is recruited to the promoter via Gata1/Fog1, and, via direct binding through p66?, it acts as a transcriptional inhibitor of the CP2c complexes, preventing their DNA binding and promoting degradation of the CP2c family proteins to suppress globin gene expression. Conversely, during erythropoiesis in vitro and in vivo, the Mbd2-free NuRD does not dissociate from the chromatin and acts as a transcriptional coactivator aiding the recruitment of the CP2c complexes to chromatin, and thereby leading to the induction of the active hemoglobin synthesis and erythroid differentiation. Our study highlights the regulation of erythroid differentiation by the Mbd2-CP2c loop.
Project description:MBD2 and MBD3 are closely related proteins with consensus methyl-CpG binding domains. MBD2 is a transcriptional repressor that specifically binds to methylated DNA and is a component of the MeCP1 protein complex. In contrast, MBD3 fails to bind methylated DNA in murine cells, and is a component of the Mi-2/NuRD corepressor complex. We show by gene targeting that the two proteins are not functionally redundant in mice, as Mbd3-/- mice die during early embryogenesis, whereas Mbd2-/- mice are viable and fertile. Maternal behavior of Mbd2-/- mice is however defective and, at the molecular level, Mbd2-/- mice lack a component of MeCP1. Mbd2-mutant cells fail to fully silence transcription from exogenous methylated templates, but inappropriate activation of endogenous imprinted genes or retroviral sequences was not detected. Despite their differences, Mbd3 and Mbd2 interact genetically suggesting a functional relationship. Genetic and biochemical data together favor the view that MBD3 is a key component of the Mi-2/NuRD corepressor complex, whereas MBD2 may be one of several factors that can recruit this complex to DNA.
Project description:As high fetal hemoglobin levels ameliorate the underlying pathophysiological defects in sickle cell anemia and beta (?)-thalassemia, understanding the mechanisms that enforce silencing of fetal hemoglobin postnatally offers the promise of effective molecular therapy. Depletion of the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase complex member MBD2 causes a 10-20-fold increase in ?-globin gene expression in adult ?-globin locus yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mice. To determine the effect of MBD2 depletion in human erythroid cells, genome editing technology was utilized to knockout MBD2 in Human Umbilical cord Derived Erythroid Progenitor-2 cells resulting in ?/?+? mRNA levels of approximately 50% and approximately 40% fetal hemoglobin by high performance liquid chromatography. In contrast, MBD3 knockout had no appreciable effect on ?-globin expression. Knockdown of MBD2 in primary adult erythroid cells consistently increased ?/?+? mRNA ratios by approximately 10-fold resulting in approximately 30-40% ?/?+? mRNA levels and a corresponding increase in ?-globin protein. MBD2 exerts its repressive effects through recruitment of the chromatin remodeler CHD4 via a coiled-coil domain, and the histone deacetylase core complex via an intrinsically disordered region. Enforced expression of wild-type MBD2 in MBD2 knockout cells caused a 5-fold decrease in ?-globin mRNA while neither the coiled-coil mutant nor the intrinsically disordered region mutant MBD2 proteins had an inhibitory effect. Co-immunoprecipitation assays showed that the coiled-coil and intrinsically disorder region mutations disrupt complex formation by dissociating the CHD4 and the histone deacetylase core complex components, respectively. These results establish the MBD2 Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase complex as a major silencer of fetal hemoglobin in human erythroid cells and point to the coiled-coil and intrinsically disordered region of MBD2 as potential therapeutic targets.
Project description:ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling and core histone acetylation and deacetylation represent mechanisms to alter nucleosome structure. NuRD is a multisubunit complex containing nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase activities. The histone deacetylases HDAC1 and HDAC2 and the histone binding proteins RbAp48 and RbAp46 form a core complex shared between NuRD and Sin3-histone deacetylase complexes. The histone deacetylase activity of the core complex is severely compromised. A novel polypeptide highly related to the metastasis-associated protein 1, MTA2, and the methyl-CpG-binding domain-containing protein, MBD3, were found to be subunits of the NuRD complex. MTA2 modulates the enzymatic activity of the histone deacetylase core complex. MBD3 mediates the association of MTA2 with the core histone deacetylase complex. MBD3 does not directly bind methylated DNA but is highly related to MBD2, a polypeptide that binds to methylated DNA and has been reported to possess demethylase activity. MBD2 interacts with the NuRD complex and directs the complex to methylated DNA. NuRD may provide a means of gene silencing by DNA methylation.
Project description:Genome-wide erasure of CpG methylation occurs along the paternal pronucleus in fertilized oocytes. This process involves an active, replication-independent enzymatic step, which has remained enigmatic. MBD3L1 and MBD3L2 are two mammalian homologues of the methyl-CpG-binding protein genes MBD2 and MBD3 that arose from recent gene duplication events. Expression of Mbd3l1 occurs specifically in haploid male germ cells. Mbd3l2 expression is restricted to metaphase II oocytes and zygotes making both proteins candidates for the zygotic demethylation process. Neither of these genes was able to promote reactivation of a methylation-silenced reporter gene. We created Mbd3l1 and Mbd3l2 knockout mice, which were viable and fertile. We show that demethylation of the paternal pronucleus in Mbd3l1-/- and Mbd3l2-/- mice is identical to that in wild-type controls. These data suggest that Mbd3l1 and Mbd3l2 are not involved in genome-wide demethylation of paternal genomes in mouse zygotes and are dispensable for normal development.
Project description:The Mi-2/NuRD complex is a multi-subunit protein complex with enzymatic activities involving chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation. Targeting of Mi-2/NuRD to methylated CpG sequences mediates gene repression. The function of p66alpha and of p66beta within the multiple subunits has not been addressed. Here, we analyzed the in vivo function and binding of both p66-paralogs. Both factors function in synergy, since knocking-down p66alpha affects the repressive function of p66beta and vice versa. Both proteins interact with MBD2 functionally and biochemically. Mutation of a single amino acid of p66alpha abolishes in vivo binding to MBD2 and interferes with MBD2-mediated repression. This loss of binding results in a diffuse nuclear localization in contrast to wild-type p66alpha that shows a speckled nuclear distribution. Furthermore, wild-type subnuclear distribution of p66alpha and p66beta depends on the presence of MBD2. Both proteins interact with the tails of all octamer histones in vitro, and acetylation of histone tails interferes with p66 binding. The conserved region 2 of p66alpha is required for histone tail interaction as well as for wild-type subnuclear distribution. These results suggest a two-interaction forward feedback binding mode, with a stable chromatin association only after deacetylation of the histones has occurred.
Project description:DNA cytosine methylation and methyl-cytosine binding domain (MBD) containing proteins are found throughout all vertebrate species studied to date. However, both the presence of DNA methylation and pattern of methylation varies among invertebrate species. Invertebrates generally have only a single MBD protein, MBD2/3, that does not always contain appropriate residues for selectively binding methylated DNA. Therefore, we sought to determine whether sponges, one of the most ancient extant metazoan lineages, possess an MBD2/3 capable of recognizing methylated DNA and recruiting the associated nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. We find that Ephydatia muelleri has genes for each of the NuRD core components including an EmMBD2/3 that selectively binds methylated DNA. NMR analyses reveal a remarkably conserved binding mode, showing almost identical chemical shift changes between binding to methylated and unmethylated CpG dinucleotides. In addition, we find that EmMBD2/3 and EmGATAD2A/B proteins form a coiled-coil interaction known to be critical for the formation of NuRD. Finally, we show that knockdown of EmMBD2/3 expression disrupts normal cellular architecture and development of E. muelleri. These data support a model in which the MBD2/3 methylation-dependent functional role emerged with the earliest multicellular organisms and has been maintained to varying degrees across animal evolution.