A novel mechanism of eukaryotic translation initiation that is neither m7G-cap-, nor IRES-dependent.
ABSTRACT: Resistance of translation of some eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to inactivation of the cap-binding factor eIF4E under unfavorable conditions is well documented. To date, it is the mechanism of internal ribosome entry that is predominantly thought to underlay this stress tolerance. However, many cellular mRNAs that had been considered to contain internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) failed to pass stringent control tests for internal initiation, thus raising the question of how they are translated under stress conditions. Here, we show that inserting an eIF4G-binding element from a virus IRES into 5'-UTRs of strongly cap-dependent mRNAs dramatically reduces their requirement for the 5'-terminal m(7)G-cap, though such cap-independent translation remains dependent on a vacant 5'-terminus of these mRNAs. Importantly, direct binding of eIF4G to the 5'-UTR of mRNA makes its translation resistant to eIF4F inactivation both in vitro and in vivo. These data may substantiate a new paradigm of translational control under stress to complement IRES-driven mechanism of translation.
Project description:Initiation is a highly regulated rate-limiting step of mRNA translation. During cap-dependent translation, the cap-binding protein eIF4E recruits the mRNA to the ribosome. Specific elements in the 5'UTR of some mRNAs referred to as Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESes) allow direct association of the mRNA with the ribosome without the requirement for eIF4E. Cap-independent initiation permits translation of a subset of cellular and viral mRNAs under conditions wherein cap-dependent translation is inhibited, such as stress, mitosis and viral infection. DAP5 is an eIF4G homolog that has been proposed to regulate both cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. Herein, we demonstrate that DAP5 associates with eIF2? and eIF4AI to stimulate IRES-dependent translation of cellular mRNAs. In contrast, DAP5 is dispensable for cap-dependent translation. These findings provide the first mechanistic insights into the function of DAP5 as a selective regulator of cap-independent translation.
Project description:Numerous cellular mRNAs encoding proteins critical during cell stress, apoptosis, and the cell cycle seem to be translated by means of internal ribosome entry sequences (IRES) when cap-dependent translation is compromised. The underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Using a HeLa-based cell-free translation system that mirrors the function of cellular IRESs in vitro, we recently demonstrated that translation from the c-myc IRES continues after proteolytic cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4G. To address the role of eIF4G in cellular IRES-driven translation directly, we immunodepleted eIF4GI from the HeLa cell translation extracts. After efficient depletion of eIF4GI (>90%), both cap-dependent and c-myc IRES-dependent translations are diminished to residual levels (<5%). In striking contrast to cap-dependent translation, c-myc IRES-dependent translation is fully restored by addition of the conserved middle fragment of eIF4GI, harboring the eIF3- and eIF4A-binding sites. p97, an eIF4G-related protein that has been described both as an inhibitor of translation and as a modulator of apoptosis, not only suffices to also rescue c-myc IRES-driven (but not cap-dependent) translation, but it even superinduces IRES-mediated translation 3-fold compared with nondepleted extracts. Interestingly, both p97 and the middle fragment of eIF4GI also rescue translation driven by proapoptotic (p97) and antiapoptotic [X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (c-IAP1)] IRESs, reflecting a broader role of these polypeptides in cellular IRES-mediated translation and indicating their importance in apoptosis.
Project description:Many mammalian mRNAs possess long 5' UTRs with numerous stem-loop structures. For some of them, the presence of Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESes) was suggested to explain their significant activity, especially when cap-dependent translation is compromised. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the translation initiation efficiencies of some cellular 5' UTRs reported to have IRES-activity with those lacking IRES-elements in RNA-transfected cells and cell-free systems. Unlike viral IRESes, the tested 5' UTRs with so-called 'cellular IRESes' demonstrate only background activities when placed in the intercistronic position of dicistronic RNAs. In contrast, they are very active in the monocistronic context and the cap is indispensable for their activities. Surprisingly, in cultured cells or cytoplasmic extracts both the level of stimulation with the cap and the overall translation activity do not correlate with the cumulative energy of the secondary structure of the tested 5' UTRs. The cap positive effect is still observed under profound inhibition of translation with eIF4E-BP1 but its magnitude varies for individual 5' UTRs irrespective of the cumulative energy of their secondary structures. Thus, it is not mandatory to invoke the IRES hypothesis, at least for some mRNAs, to explain their preferential translation when eIF4E is partially inactivated.
Project description:Comprehensive genome-wide analysis has revealed the presence of translational elements in the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of human transcripts. However, the mechanisms by which translation is initiated in 3' UTRs and the physiological function of their products remain unclear. This study showed that eIF4G drives the translation of various downstream open reading frames (dORFs) in 3' UTRs. The 3' UTR of GCH1, which encodes GTP cyclohydrolase 1, contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that initiates the translation of dORFs. An in vitro reconstituted translation system showed that the IRES in the 3' UTR of GCH1 required eIF4G and conventional translation initiation factors, except eIF4E, for AUG-initiated translation of dORFs. The 3' UTR of GCH1-mediated translation was resistant to the mTOR inhibitor Torin 1, which inhibits cap-dependent initiation by increasing eIF4E-unbound eIF4G. eIF4G was also required for the activity of various elements, including polyU and poliovirus type 2, a short element thought to recruit ribosomes by base-pairing with 18S rRNA. These findings indicate that eIF4G mediates translation initiation of various ORFs in mammalian cells, suggesting that the 3' UTRs of mRNAs may encode various products.
Project description:Translation of m7G-capped cellular mRNAs is initiated by recruitment of ribosomes to the 5' end of mRNAs via eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), a heterotrimeric complex comprised of a cap-binding subunit (eIF4E) and an RNA helicase (eIF4A) bridged by a scaffolding molecule (eIF4G). Internal translation initiation bypasses the requirement for the cap and eIF4E and occurs on viral and cellular mRNAs containing internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs). Here we demonstrate that eIF4E availability plays a critical role in the switch from cap-dependent to IRES-mediated translation in picornavirus-infected cells. When both capped and IRES-containing mRNAs are present (as in intact cells or in vitro translation extracts), a decrease in the amount of eIF4E associated with the eIF4F complex elicits a striking increase in IRES-mediated viral mRNA translation. This effect is not observed in translation extracts depleted of capped mRNAs, indicating that capped mRNAs compete with IRES-containing mRNAs for translation. These data explain numerous reported observations where viral mRNAs are preferentially translated during infection.
Project description:Integration of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) at the common integration site Int6 occurs in the gene encoding eIF3e, the p48 subunit of translation initiation factor eIF3. Integration is at any of several introns of the Eif3e gene and causes the expression of truncated Eif3e mRNAs. Ectopic expression of the truncated eIF3e protein resulting from integration at intron 5 (3e5) induces malignant transformation, but by an unknown mechanism. Because eIF3e makes up at least part of the binding site for eIF4G, we examined the effects of 3e5 expression on protein synthesis. We developed an NIH3T3 cell line that contains a single copy of the 3e5 sequence at a predetermined genomic site. Co-immunoprecipitation indicated diminished binding of eIF3 to eIF4G, signifying a reduction in recruitment of the mRNA-unwinding machinery to the 43 S preinitiation complex. Cell growth and overall protein synthesis were decreased. Translation driven by the eIF4G-independent hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry sequence (HCV IRES) in a bicistronic mRNA was increased relative to cap-dependent translation. Endogenous mRNAs encoding XIAP, c-Myc, CYR61, and Pim-1, which are translated in a cap-independent manner, were shifted to heavier polysomes whereas mRNAs encoding GAPDH, actin, L32, and L34, which are translated in a cap-dependent manner, were shifted to lighter polysomes. We propose that expression of 3e5 diminishes eIF4G interaction with eIF3 and causes abnormal gene expression at the translational level. The correlation between up-regulation of cap-independent translation and MMTV-induced tumorigenesis contrasts with the well established model for malignant transformation involving up-regulation of highly cap-dependent translation.
Project description:Translation initiation of eukaryotic mRNAs typically occurs by cap-dependent ribosome scanning mechanism. However, certain mRNAs are translated by ribosome assembly at internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs). Whether IRES-mediated translation occurs in stressed primary human endothelial cells (ECs) is unknown.We performed microarray analysis of polyribosomal mRNA from ECs to identify IRES-containing mRNAs. Cap-dependent translation was disabled by poliovirus (PV) infection and confirmed by loss of polysome peaks, detection of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G cleavage, and decreased protein synthesis. We found that 87.4% of mRNAs were dissociated from polysomes in virus-infected ECs. Twelve percent of mRNAs remained associated with polysomes, and 0.6% were enriched ?2-fold in polysome fractions from infected ECs. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction confirmed the microarray findings for 31 selected mRNAs. We found that enriched polysome associations of programmed cell death 8 (PDCD8) and JunB mRNA resulted in increased protein expression in PV-infected ECs. The presence of IRESs in the 5' untranslated region of PDCD8 mRNA, but not of JunB mRNA, was confirmed by dicistronic analysis.We show that microarray profiling of polyribosomal mRNA transcripts from PV-infected ECs successfully identifies mRNAs whose translation is preserved in the face of stress-induced, near complete cessation of cap-dependent initiation. Nevertheless, internal ribosome entry is not the only mechanism responsible for this privileged translation.
Project description:Translation initiation of eukaryotic mRNAs generally occurs by cap-dependent ribosome scanning. However, certain mRNAs contain internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) allowing cap-independent translation. Several of these IRES-competent transcripts and their corresponding proteins are involved in tumourigenesis. This study focused on IRES-driven translation control during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of hepatocytes that reflects crucial aspects of carcinoma progression. Expression profiling of EMT revealed Laminin B1 (LamB1) to be translationally upregulated. The 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of LamB1 was potent to direct IRES-dependent mRNA utilization of a bicistronic reporter construct. Stringent assays for cryptic promoter and splice sites showed no aberrantly expressed transcripts, suggesting that the reporter activity provided by the leader region of LamB1 mRNA exclusively depends on IRES. In accordance, LamB1 expression increased upon negative interference with cap-dependent translation by expression of human rhinovirus 2A protease or heat shock of cells. Finally, the enhanced expression of LamB1 during EMT correlated with an elevated IRES activity. Together, these data provide first evidence that the 5'-UTR of LamB1 contains a bona fide IRES that directs translational upregulation of LamB1 during stress conditions and neoplastic progression of hepatocytes.
Project description:RNA-binding motif protein 4 (RBM4) plays a regulatory role in alternative splicing of precursor mRNA. We show here that cell stress such as arsenite exposure induces phosphorylation of RBM4 at serine 309 and also drives its cytoplasmic accumulation and targeting to stress granule via the MKK(3/6)-p38 signaling pathway. Accordingly, RBM4 suppresses cap-dependent translation in a cis-element-dependent manner. However, RBM4 concomitantly activates internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation likely by promoting the association of translation initiation factor eIF4A with IRES-containing mRNAs. Overexpression of RBM4 therefore mimics the effect of cell stress-induced signaling on translation initiation control. Whereas arsenite treatment promotes RBM4 loading onto IRES mRNAs and enhances RBM4-eIF4A interactions, a nonphosphorylatable mutant of RBM4 was unresponsive to arsenite stress and failed to activate IRES-mediated translation. Thus, our results uncover a previously unrecognized paradigm for the RNA-binding protein RBM4 in its phosphorylation-modulated dual action as a suppressor of cap-dependent and enhancer of IRES-mediated translation in response to stress signals.
Project description:Picornaviruses use internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) to translate their genomes into protein. A typical feature of these IRESs is their ability to bind directly to the eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4G component of the eIF4F cap-binding complex. Remarkably, the hepatitis A virus (HAV) IRES requires eIF4E for its translation, but no mechanism has been proposed to explain this. Here we demonstrate that eIF4E regulates HAV IRES-mediated translation by two distinct mechanisms. First, eIF4E binding to eIF4G generates a high-affinity binding conformation of the eIF4F complex for the IRES. Second, eIF4E binding to eIF4G strongly stimulates the rate of duplex unwinding by eIF4A on the IRES. Our data also reveal that eIF4E promotes eIF4F binding and increases the rate of restructuring of the poliovirus (PV) IRES. This provides a mechanism to explain why PV IRES-mediated translation is stimulated by eIF4E availability in nuclease-treated cell-free extracts. Using a PV replicon and purified virion RNA, we also show that eIF4E promotes the rate of eIF4G cleavage by the 2A protease. Finally, we show that cleavage of eIF4G by the poliovirus 2A protease generates a high-affinity IRES binding truncation of eIF4G that stimulates eIF4A duplex unwinding independently of eIF4E. Therefore, our data reveal how picornavirus IRESs use eIF4E-dependent and -independent mechanisms to promote their translation.