Cardiotoxic and cardioprotective features of chronic ?-adrenergic signaling.
ABSTRACT: In the failing heart, persistent ?-adrenergic receptor activation is thought to induce myocyte death by protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent and PKA-independent activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. ?-adrenergic signaling pathways also are capable of activating cardioprotective mechanisms.This study used a novel PKA inhibitor peptide to inhibit PKA activity to test the hypothesis that ?-adrenergic receptor signaling causes cell death through PKA-dependent pathways and cardioprotection through PKA-independent pathways.In PKA inhibitor peptide transgenic mice, chronic isoproterenol failed to induce cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, and myocyte apoptosis, and decreased cardiac function. In cultured adult feline ventricular myocytes, PKA inhibition protected myocytes from death induced by ?1-adrenergic receptor agonists by preventing cytosolic and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) overload and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II activation. PKA inhibition revealed a cardioprotective role of ?-adrenergic signaling via cAMP/exchange protein directly activated by cAMP/Rap1/Rac/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. Selective PKA inhibition causes protection in the heart after myocardial infarction that was superior to ?-blocker therapy.These results suggest that selective block of PKA could be a novel heart failure therapy.
Project description:Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling is a highly coordinated process that is controlled by protein kinase signaling pathways, including Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and protein kinase A (PKA). Increased CaMKII expression and activity (as occurs during heart failure) destabilizes EC coupling and may lead to sudden cardiac death. To better understand mechanisms of cardiac CaMKII function, we integrated dynamic CaMKII-dependent regulation of key Ca(2+) handling targets with previously validated models of cardiac EC coupling, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent activation of CaMKII, and ?-adrenergic activation of PKA. Model predictions are validated against CaMKII-overexpression data from rabbit ventricular myocytes. The model demonstrates how overall changes to Ca(2+) handling during CaMKII overexpression are explained by interactions between individual CaMKII substrates. CaMKII and PKA activities during ?-adrenergic stimulation may synergistically facilitate inotropic responses and contribute to a CaMKII-Ca(2+)-CaMKII feedback loop. CaMKII regulated early frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation and EC coupling gain (which was highly sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load-dependent). Additionally, the model identifies CaMKII-dependent ryanodine receptor hyperphosphorylation as a proarrhythmogenic trigger. In summary, we developed a detailed computational model of CaMKII and PKA signaling in cardiac myocytes that provides unique insights into their regulation of normal and pathological Ca(2+) handling.
Project description:In heart failure, myofilament proteins display abnormal phosphorylation, which contributes to contractile dysfunction. The mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of protein phosphorylation on myofilaments is not clear.This study aims to understand the mechanisms underlying altered phosphorylation of myofilament proteins in heart failure.We generate a novel genetically encoded protein kinase A (PKA) biosensor anchored onto the myofilaments in rabbit cardiac myocytes to examine PKA activity at the myofilaments in responses to adrenergic stimulation. We show that PKA activity is shifted from the sarcolemma to the myofilaments in hypertrophic failing rabbit myocytes. In particular, the increased PKA activity on the myofilaments is because of an enhanced ?2 adrenergic receptor signal selectively directed to the myofilaments together with a reduced phosphodiesterase activity associated with the myofibrils. Mechanistically, the enhanced PKA activity on the myofilaments is associated with downregulation of caveolin-3 in the hypertrophic failing rabbit myocytes. Reintroduction of caveolin-3 in the failing myocytes is able to normalize the distribution of ?2 adrenergic receptor signal by preventing PKA signal access to the myofilaments and to restore contractile response to adrenergic stimulation.In hypertrophic rabbit myocytes, selectively enhanced ?2 adrenergic receptor signaling toward the myofilaments contributes to elevated PKA activity and PKA phosphorylation of myofilament proteins. Reintroduction of caveolin-3 is able to confine ?2 adrenergic receptor signaling and restore myocyte contractility in response to ? adrenergic stimulation.
Project description:Localization of protein kinase A (PKA) via A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs) is important for cAMP responsiveness in many cellular systems, and evidence suggests that AKAPs play an important role in cardiac signaling. To test the importance of AKAP-mediated targeting of PKA on cardiac function, we designed a cell-permeable peptide, which we termed trans-activator of transcription (TAT)-AKAD for TAT-conjugated A-kinase-anchoring disruptor, using the PKA binding region of AKAP10 and tested the effects of this peptide in isolated cardiac myocytes and in Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts. We initially validated TAT-AKAD as a PKA localization inhibitor in cardiac myocytes by the use of confocal microscopy and cellular fractionation to show that treatment with the peptide disrupts type I and type II PKA regulatory subunits. Knockdown of PKA activity was demonstrated by decrease in phosphorylation of phospholamban and troponin I after beta-adrenergic stimulation in isolated myocytes. Treatment with TAT-AKAD reduced myocyte shortening and rates of contraction and relaxation. Injection of TAT-AKAD (1 microM), but not scrambled control peptide, into the coronary circulation of isolated perfused hearts rapidly (<1 min) and reversibly decreased heart rate and peak left ventricular developed pressure. TAT-AKAD also had a pronounced effect on developed pressure (-dP/dt), consistent with a delayed relaxation of the heart. The effects of TAT-AKAD on heart rate and contractility persisted in hearts pretreated with isoproterenol. Disruption of PKA localization with TAT-AKAD thus had negative effects on chronotropy, inotropy, and lusitropy, thereby indicating a key role for AKAP-targeted PKA in control of heart rate and contractile function.
Project description:Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are transcriptional repressors whose nuclear export in the cardiac myocyte is associated with the induction of pathological gene expression and cardiac remodeling. Class IIa HDACs are regulated by multiple, functionally opposing post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation by protein kinase D (PKD) that promotes nuclear export and phosphorylation by protein kinase A (PKA) that promotes nuclear import. We have previously shown that the scaffold protein muscle A-kinase anchoring protein ? (mAKAP?) orchestrates signaling in the cardiac myocyte required for pathological cardiac remodeling, including serving as a scaffold for both PKD and PKA. We now show that mAKAP? is a scaffold for HDAC5 in cardiac myocytes, forming signalosomes containing HDAC5, PKD, and PKA. Inhibition of mAKAP? expression attenuated the phosphorylation of HDAC5 by PKD and PKA in response to ?- and ?-adrenergic receptor stimulation, respectively. Importantly, disruption of mAKAP?-HDAC5 anchoring prevented the induction of HDAC5 nuclear export by ?-adrenergic receptor signaling and PKD phosphorylation. In addition, disruption of mAKAP?-PKA anchoring prevented the inhibition by ?-adrenergic receptor stimulation of ?-adrenergic-induced HDAC5 nuclear export. Together, these data establish that mAKAP? signalosomes serve to bidirectionally regulate the nuclear-cytoplasmic localization of class IIa HDACs. Thus, the mAKAP? scaffold serves as a node in the myocyte regulatory network controlling both the repression and activation of pathological gene expression in health and disease, respectively.
Project description:Activation of the beta adrenergic receptor (betaAR) induces a tightly controlled cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) activity to ensure an agonist dose-dependent and saturable contraction response in animal heart. We have found that stimulation of beta(1)AR by isoproterenol induces maximal contraction responses at the dose of 1 microM in cardiac myocytes; however, cAMP accumulation continues to increase with higher agonist concentrations. Dose-dependent cAMP accumulation is tightly controlled by negative regulator phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) that hydrolyzes cAMP. At 1 nM isoproterenol, cAMP accumulation is minimal because of the hydrolysis of cAMP by PDE4, which leads to a small increase in PKA phosphorylation of phospholamban and troponin I (TnI), and contraction responses. Inhibition of PDE4 activity with rolipram enhances cAMP accumulation, yields maximal PKA phosphorylation of phospholamban and TnI, and myocyte contraction responses. In contrast, at 10 microM isoproterenol, despite the negative effect of PDE4, cAMP accumulation is sufficient for maximal PKA phosphorylation of phospholamban and TnI. Inhibition of PDE4 with rolipram enhances cAMP accumulation, but not PKA phosphorylation and contraction responses. It is interesting that activities of both PKA and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) are enhanced under beta(1)AR activation with 10 microM isoproterenol, and PP2A is recruited to PKA/A kinase-anchoring protein complex. Inhibition of PP2A with okadaic acid further enhances the phosphorylation of phospholamban and TnI as well as contraction responses induced by 10 microM isoproterenol. Therefore, PP2A plays a key role in limiting PKA phosphorylation of phospholamban and TnI for myocyte contraction responses under beta(1)AR stimulation.
Project description:RATIONALE:Gq signaling in cardiac myocytes is classically considered toxic. Targeting Gq directly to test this is problematic, because cardiac myocytes have many Gq-coupled receptors. OBJECTIVE:Test whether Gq coupling is required for the cardioprotective effects of an alpha-1A-AR (adrenergic receptor) agonist. METHODS AND RESULTS:In recombinant cells, a mouse alpha-1A-AR with a 6-residue substitution in the third intracellular loop does not couple to Gq signaling. Here we studied a knockin mouse with this alpha-1A-AR mutation. Heart alpha-1A receptor levels and antagonist affinity in the knockin were identical to wild-type. In wild-type cardiac myocytes, the selective alpha-1A agonist A61603-stimulated phosphoinositide-phospholipase C and myocyte contraction. In myocytes with the alpha-1A knockin, both A61603 effects were absent, indicating that Gq coupling was absent. Surprisingly, A61603 activation of cardioprotective ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) was markedly impaired in the KI mutant myocytes, and A61603 did not protect mutant myocytes from doxorubicin toxicity in vitro. Similarly, mice with the ?1A KI mutation had increased mortality after transverse aortic constriction, and A61603 did not rescue cardiac function in mice with the Gq coupling-defective alpha-1A receptor. CONCLUSIONS:Gq coupling is required for cardioprotection by an alpha-1A-AR agonist. Gq signaling can be adaptive.
Project description:Urocortin 2 is beneficial in heart failure, but the underlying cellular mechanisms are not completely understood. Here we have characterized the functional effects of urocortin 2 on mouse cardiomyocytes and elucidated the underlying signalling pathways and mechanisms.Mouse ventricular myocytes were field-stimulated at 0.5 Hz at room temperature. Fractional shortening and [Ca²(+)](i) transients were measured by an edge detection and epifluorescence system respectively. Western blots were carried out on myocyte extracts with antibodies against total phospholamban (PLN) and PLN phosphorylated at serine-16.Urocortin 2 elicited time- and concentration-dependent positive inotropic and lusitropic effects (EC?? : 19 nM) that were abolished by antisauvagine-30 (10 nM, n= 6), a specific antagonist of corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) CRF? receptors. Urocortin 2 (100 nM) increased the amplitude and decreased the time constant of decay of the underlying [Ca²(+)](i) transients. Urocortin 2 also increased PLN phosphorylation at serine-16. H89 (2 µM) or KT5720 (1 µM), two inhibitors of protein kinase A (PKA), as well as KN93 (1 µM), an inhibitor of Ca²(+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), suppressed the urocortin 2 effects on shortening and [Ca²(+)](i) transients. In addition, urocortin 2 also elicited arrhythmogenic events consisting of extra cell shortenings and extra [Ca²(+)](i) increases in diastole. Urocortin 2-induced arrhythmogenic events were significantly reduced in cells pretreated with KT5720 or KN93.Urocortin 2 enhanced contractility in mouse ventricular myocytes via activation of CRF? receptors in a cAMP/PKA- and Ca²(+)/CaMKII-dependent manner. This enhancement was accompanied by Ca²(+)-dependent arrhythmogenic effects mediated by PKA and CaMKII.
Project description:Inflammation is a significant player in the progression of heart failure and has detrimental effects on cardiac function. Prostaglandin (PG)E2, a major proinflammatory prostanoid in the cardiovascular system, is a potent stimulus in inducing intracellular cAMP but minimally affects cardiac contractile function. Here, we show that the PGE2 stimulation attenuates the adrenergic-induced cardiac contractile response in animal hearts. Stimulation with PGE2 leads to stimulatory G protein (Gs)-dependent production of cAMP. However, the induced cAMP is spatially restricted because of its degradation by phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 and cannot access the intracellular sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) for increasing calcium signaling and myocyte contraction. Moreover, pretreatment with PGE2 significantly inhibits PKA activities at the SR induced by a ?-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol, and subsequently blocks isoproterenol-induced PKA phosphorylation of phospholamban and contractile responses in myocytes. Further analysis reveals that the PGE2-induced cAMP/PKA is sufficient to phosphorylate and activate PDE4D isoforms, which, in turn, spatially inhibits the diffusion of adrenergic-induced cAMP from the plasma membrane to the SR. Inhibition of PDE4 rescues the adrenergic-induced increase in cAMP/PKA activities at the SR, PKA phosphorylation of phospholamban, and contractile responses in PGE2-pretreated myocytes. Thus, this offers an example that one Gs-coupled receptor is able to inhibit the intracellular signaling transduction initiated by another Gs-coupled receptor via controlling the diffusion of cAMP, presenting a paradigm for G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signal transduction. It also provides a mechanism for the integration of signaling initiated by different neurohormonal stimuli, as well as long-term effects of chronically circulating proinflammatory factors in myocardium.
Project description:Two major forms of mammalian acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 22.214.171.124), ACC-alpha and ACC-beta, have been described and the sequences of the isoforms deduced. ACC-beta is the predominant isoform expressed in heart and skeletal muscles, in which a major role of malonyl-CoA is probably to regulate fatty acid beta-oxidation. The regulatory properties of ACC-beta are incompletely defined but it is known that some cellular stresses lead to inhibition in parallel with the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP-PK). Here we examine the phosphorylation state of ACC-beta within intact rat cardiac ventricular myocytes. Treatment of myocytes with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline (isoproterenol) led to increased ACC-beta phosphorylation that was maximal within 2 min and with 50 nM agonist. Effects of isoprenaline were revealed by the incorporation of 32P into ACC in cells incubated with [32P]Pi and also by a marked decrease (approx. 80%) in subsequent phosphorylation in vitro with cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides revealed that ACC-beta was phosphorylated at multiple sites by incubation in vitro with PKA or AMP-PK. Treatment of myocytes with isoprenaline affected all the major phosphorylation sites of ACC-beta that were recognized in vitro by purified PKA, so that subsequent phosphorylation in vitro was greatly diminished after cell stimulation. beta-Adrenergic stimulation led to decreases in cellular malonyl-CoA concentrations but no changes in kinetic properties of ACC were detected after cell homogenization and partial purification of proteins. The results suggest that: (1) ACC-beta is rapidly phosphorylated at multiple sites within intact cardiac ventricular myocytes after beta-adrenergic stimulation, (2) ACC-beta is phosphorylated in vitro by PKA and AMP-PK at multiple sites, including at least one site accessible to each kinase, as well as kinase-selective sites, and (3) PKA is a physiologically significant ACC-beta kinase.
Project description:Increased cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR)-dependent diastolic SR Ca leak is present in heart failure and in conditions when adrenergic tone is high. Increasing Ca leak from the SR could result in spontaneous Ca wave (SCaW) formation. SCaWs activate the inward Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) current causing a delayed afterdepolarization (DAD), potentially leading to arrhythmia. Here we examine SCaWs in ventricular myocytes isolated from failing and healthy rabbit hearts. Myocytes from healthy hearts did not exhibit SCaWs under baseline conditions versus 43% of those exposed to isoproterenol (ISO). This ISO-induced increase in activity was reversed by inhibition of Ca-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by KN93. Inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by H89 had no observed effect. Of myocytes treated with forskolin 50% showed SCaW activity, attributable to a large increase in SR Ca load ([Ca](SRT)) versus control. At similar [Ca](SRT) (121muM) myocytes treated with ISO plus KN93 had significantly fewer SCaWs versus those treated with ISO or ISO plus H89 (0.2+/-0.28 vs. 1.1+/-0.28 and 1.29+/-0.39 SCaWs cell(-)(1), respectively). In myocytes isolated from failing hearts ISO induced an increase in the percentage of cells generating SCaWs vs. baseline (74% vs. 11%) with no increase in [Ca](SRT). Inhibiting CaMKII reversed this effect (14%). At similar [Ca](SRT) (71microM) myocytes treated with ISO or ISO plus H89 had significantly more SCaWs per cell vs. untreated (2.5+/-0.5; 1.6+/-0.7 vs. 0.36+/-0.3, respectively). Treatment with ISO plus KN93 completely abolished this effect. The evidence suggests the ISO-dependent increase in SCaW activity in both healthy and failing myocytes is CaMKII-dependent, implicating CaMKII in arrhythmogenesis.