Concentration levels and ecological risks of persistent organic pollutants in the surface sediments of Tianjin coastal area, China.
ABSTRACT: Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16?PAHs ranging from 274.06??g/kg to 2656.65??g/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24?OCPs, 35?PCBs, and 14?PBDEs were 3103.36??g/kg, 87.31??g/kg, and 13.88??g/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area.
Project description:The contamination of water resource and food chain by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) constitutes a major environmental and human health concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of POPs in irrigation water, soil and in Amaranthus viridis (A. viridis) from different gardening sites in Kinshasa to evaluate the potential environmental and human health risks. A survey study for the use of pesticides and fertilizers was carried out with 740 market gardeners. The levels of POPs (including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) were analyzed in irrigation water and 144 vegetable samples collected from different gardening sites. The assessment of potential human health risk was estimated by calculating daily intake and toxic equivalency to quantify the carcinogenicity. The results show highest PAH levels in A. viridis from all studied sites. The concentrations of the sum of seven PCBs (?7PCBS) congeners in analyzed plants ranged between 15.89 and 401.36 ng g-1. The distributions of OCPs in both water and A. viridis were congener specific, chlorpyrifos-ethyl and p,p'-DDE were predominantly detected. Among PBDEs, only BDE47 was quantified with noticeable concentration in A. viridis, while no PBDEs were detected in irrigation water. Higher estimated daily intake values indicate that consuming leafy vegetables might associate with increased human health risks. However, calculated incremental lifetime cancer risk values indicates no potential carcinogenic risk for the local population. The results of this study provide important information on A. viridis contamination by POPs and strongly recommend implementing the appropriate measures to control the use of chemicals used in studied gardening areas. Thus in Kinshasa, urban agriculture control programs for POPs and fertilizers is very important in order to protect the public health through direct and dietary exposure pathways.
Project description:This study was initiated to document information on the levels of sediment contamination with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Moreover, it was intended to identify compounds which impose major ecological risks to aquatic organisms. Surficial sediments were collected from 46 locations within the streams and rivers of the Awash River Basin. In total 30 compounds were included in this study: 16 OCPs, 7 PCBs and 7 PBDEs. The total concentrations of OCPs, PCBs, and PBDEs ranged from 6.63 to 206.13 ng g-1- dry weight (dw), 0.85 to 26.56 ng g-1-dw and 3.71 to 18.95 ng g-1-dw respectively. Out of all the tested OCPs, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and ?-hexachlorocyclohexane (?-HCH) were the most abundant in the study area. The ratio of (?-HCH/?HCHs) indicated that HCHs were originally from earlier usage of HCH in the area whereas the ratio of (p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE) showed that the majority of DDT components were recently introduced into most of the sampling locations. Even though there were relatively low concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs across the sampling sites, substantial amounts of PCBs were observed in Addis Ababa City. According to the established ecological risk indices, p,p'-DDT and ?-HCH are the major concerns for potential adverse ecological impacts. This study provided the first comprehensive information on organohalogenated compounds' (OCs') occurrences, spatial distributions, and ecological risks in sediments of the Awash River Basin. Thus, the report will be very useful background information for further studies on sediment contamination with OCs' in the region. It also adds important first-hand data to the field of fresh water ecology and provides useful empirical evidence for setting pollution control priorities for an ecologically important, yet largely understudied region.
Project description:Sediment profile and mud shrimp (Austinogebia edulis) from the coastal wetland of central Taiwan in 2017 and 2018 were analyzed for concentration, source, and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; DDT and HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Sediment profiling indicated PAH concentrations reaching 254.38 ng/g dw in areas near industrial areas and PAH concentrations of 41.8 and 58.42 ng/g dw in sampling areas further from industrial areas, suggesting that the determining factor for spatial distribution of POPs might be proximity to contaminant sources in industrial zones. Based on molecular indices, PAHs were substantially of both pyrolytic and petrogenic origins. The main sources for PCBs were Aroclor 1016 and 1260 and the congener BDE-209 was the dominant component among PBDE congeners. While we were unable to obtain live mud shrimp samples from the heavily contaminated areas, in samples from less contaminated areas, the risk assessment on mud shrimp still illustrated a borderline threat, with DDT concentrations almost reaching standardized values of Effects Range-Low (ERL). Bioaccumulation factors for DDTs and PCBs (17.33 and 54.59, respectively) were higher than other POPs in this study. Further study is essential to assess and understand the impact of these chemicals on the wetland ecosystem near this heavily industrialized area.
Project description:Notothenioid fish and invertebrate samples from Antarctica were collected in the austral summer of 2009, and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), as well as ?13C and ?15N stable isotopes for trophic level determination. In this study, the POP levels in the Antarctic biota samples were found to be ranked in the following order: OCPs > PAHs >> PBDEs. The POP levels in notothenioid fish and krill correlate to trophic levels; however, the POP concentrations in intertidal benthic invertebrates are higher than in notothenioid fish implying that specific biogeochemical factors may affect bioaccumulation in the Antarctica ecosystem. Biomagnification of POPs may have a smaller role than bioconcentration in Antarctica environment. In addition to the source, transport, exposure, and absorption for each group of POPs in the short food chain in Antarctica, the biological variation among species, interaction habitats, diet and metabolism are also factors for future studies on contaminant bioaccumulation.
Project description:Fish consumption is an important route of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in dolphins as well as humans. In order to assess the potential risks associated with these contaminants, 39 whole fish and 37 fillets from fish representing species consumed by dolphins and humans captured from Charleston Harbor and tributaries, South Carolina, USA, were measured for a suite of POPs. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 5.02 to 232.20?ng/g in whole fish and 5.42-131.95?ng/g in fillets (weight weight ww) followed by total organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Total POPs levels varied by location and species with general trends indicating significantly higher levels in fish from the Cooper (93.4?ng/g ww) and Ashley Rivers (56.2?ng/g ww) compared to Charleston Harbor (31.6?ng/g ww). Mullet and spot were found to have significantly higher PCBs, OCPs and total POPs, 2-3 times higher than red drum; mullet were also significantly higher in OCPs compared to seatrout. PCB concentrations in whole fish and fillets exceeded EPA human screening values for cancer risk in all fish sampled. For PCBs in fillets, all samples had values of maximum allowable meals per month that were less than the EPA, FDA guidelines for recommended fish meals per month, suggesting lower (more stringent) allowable fish meals per month. All fish exceeded PBDE wildlife values and all fish except two exceeded the level where 95% of the dolphin population would have tissue levels below the health effect threshold. Considering that POP concentrations in fish potentially consumed by humans exceed human health effect thresholds levels, consumption advisories should be considered as a prudent public health measure.
Project description:Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) used in agricultural, industrial, and domestic applications are widely distributed and bioaccumulate in food webs, causing adverse effects to the biosphere. A review of published data for 1977-2015 for a wide range of vegetation around the globe indicates an extensive load of pollutants in vegetation. On a global perspective, the accumulation of POPs and PAHs in vegetation depends on the industrialization history across continents and distance to emission sources, beyond organism type and climatic variables. International regulations initially reduced the concentrations of POPs in vegetation in rural areas, but concentrations of HCB, HCHs, and DDTs at remote sites did not decrease or even increased over time, pointing to a remobilization of POPs from source areas to remote sites. The concentrations of compounds currently in use, PBDEs and PAHs, are still increasing in vegetation. Differential congener specific accumulation is mostly determined by continent-in accordance to the different regulations of HCHs, PCBs and PBDEs in different countries-and by plant type (PAHs). These results support a concerning general accumulation of toxic pollutants in most ecosystems of the globe that for some compounds is still far from being mitigated in the near future.
Project description:The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R (2) > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally-determined distribution coefficients can be used to compare POP exposures across studies using different types of blood-based matrices.
Project description:There are substantial variations of relative risks (RR) in smoking-related mortality by country and time. We hypothesized the RRs in smoking-related mortality might differ depending on serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). We evaluated the associations of cigarette smoking with total mortality in 610 elderly (aged ? 70 yr) (702 elderly for organochlorine pesticides [OCPs]) after stratification by serum concentration of POPs, in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 followed through 2006. Summary measures of POPs subclasses showed significant or marginally significant interaction with cigarette smoking on the risk of total mortality. P values for interaction were 0.069 for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 0.008 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 0.024 for OCPs. The effect of smoking on total mortality showed different patterns according to the serum concentration of some POPs. Former or current smokers had 1.4 to 2.9 times higher mortality rates compared with never smokers among participants with higher serum concentrations of POPs (2nd or 3rd tertiles). However, when the level of PCBs or OCPs were low (1st tertile), there were little positive associations between smoking and mortality. Our study suggests that the background exposure to several POPs may be related to variability in smoking-related total mortality.
Project description:Although the production and use of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been banned or highly restricted, human exposure remains a subject of investigation due to their environmental persistence. Physiological changes during pregnancy may affect the disposition of POPs in the mother's body, and thus fetal exposure. Changes in serum concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) across pregnancy trimesters, and trans-placental transfer to the fetus were investigated. Seventy-nine pregnant women in Trujillo, Peru were recruited in the first trimester of pregnancy, and provided blood samples for the analysis of 35 PCB congeners, 9 OCPs, and 11 polybrominated biphenyl diethers (PBDEs). Subsequently, maternal blood samples were collected in the second (n=64) and third trimesters (n=59), and cord blood samples (n=50) were collected at delivery. There were statistically significant changes across trimesters (p<0.05) for both fresh weight (increase) and lipid adjusted concentrations (decrease) of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), PCB-74, 118, 138-158, 153, 170, 180 and 194. Fresh weight concentrations of these POPs increased from first to third trimester by 10-28%. On the other hand lipid adjusted concentrations decreased from first to third trimester by 16-28%. Serum lipids increased from first to third trimester by 53% indicating the dilution of the POPs in the lipids. Concentrations of 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), its metabolite p,p'-DDE, PCB-118, 138-158, 153, 170 and 180 above their limits of detection were measured in >60% of cord serum samples. Intra-individual correlations in maternal serum concentrations were high for most of the POPs (?=0.62-0.99; p<0.05) while correlations between maternal and cord serum concentrations were also high (?=0.68-0.99; p<0.05). Results indicate that the disposition in the body and blood concentrations of POPs may change during pregnancy, and show trans-placental transfer of DDT, DDE and PCBs.
Project description:Exposures to environmental pollutants in utero may increase the risk of adverse health effects. We measured the concentrations of 59 potentially harmful chemicals in 77 maternal and 65 paired umbilical cord blood samples collected in San Francisco during 2010-2011, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in serum and metals in whole blood. Consistent with previous studies, we found evidence that concentrations of mercury (Hg) and lower-brominated PBDEs were often higher in umbilical cord blood or serum than in maternal samples (median cord:maternal ratio > 1), while for most PFCs and lead (Pb), concentrations in cord blood or serum were generally equal to or lower than their maternal pair (median cord:maternal ratio ? 1). In contrast to the conclusions of a recent review, we found evidence that several PCBs and OCPs were also often higher in cord than maternal serum (median cord:maternal ratio > 1) when concentrations are assessed on a lipid-adjusted basis. Our findings suggest that for many chemicals, fetuses may experience higher exposures than their mothers and highlight the need to characterize potential health risks and inform policies aimed at reducing sources of exposure.