An increased burden of common and rare lipid-associated risk alleles contributes to the phenotypic spectrum of hypertriglyceridemia.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Earlier studies have suggested that a common genetic architecture underlies the clinically heterogeneous polygenic Fredrickson hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) phenotypes defined by hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Here, we comprehensively analyzed 504 HLP-HTG patients and 1213 normotriglyceridemic controls and confirmed that a spectrum of common and rare lipid-associated variants underlies this heterogeneity. METHODS AND RESULTS:First, we demonstrated that genetic determinants of plasma lipids and lipoproteins, including common variants associated with plasma triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from the Global Lipids Genetics Consortium were associated with multiple HLP-HTG phenotypes. Second, we demonstrated that weighted risk scores composed of common TG-associated variants were distinctly increased across all HLP-HTG phenotypes compared with controls; weighted HDL-C and LDL-C risk scores were also increased, although to a less pronounced degree with some HLP-HTG phenotypes. Interestingly, decomposition of HDL-C and LDL-C risk scores revealed that pleiotropic variants (those jointly associated with TG) accounted for the greatest difference in HDL-C and LDL-C risk scores. The APOE E2/E2 genotype was significantly overrepresented in HLP type 3 versus other phenotypes. Finally, rare variants in 4 genes accumulated equally across HLP-HTG phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS:HTG susceptibility and phenotypic heterogeneity are both influenced by accumulation of common and rare TG-associated variants.
Project description:Numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found in recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) to be associated with subtle plasma triglyceride (TG) variation in normolipidemic subjects. However, since these GWAS did not specifically evaluate patients with rare disorders of lipoprotein metabolism--'hyperlipoproteinemia' (HLP)--it remains largely unresolved whether any of these SNP determinants of modest physiological changes in TG are necessarily also determinants of most HLP phenotypes. To address this question, we evaluated 28 TG-associated SNPs from GWAS in 386 unrelated adult patients with one of five Fredrickson phenotypes (HLP types 2A, 2B, 3, 4 and 5) and 242 matched normolipidemic controls. We found that several SNPs associated with TG in normolipidemic samples, including APOA5 p.S19W and -1131T>C, TRIB1 rs17321515, TBL2 rs17145738, GCKR rs780094, GALNT2 rs4846914 and ANGPTL3 rs12130333, were significantly associated with HLP types 2B, 3, 4 and 5. The findings indicate that: (i) the TG-associated Fredrickson HLP types 2B, 3, 4 and 5 are polygenic traits; (ii) these Fredrickson HLP types share numerous genetic determinants among themselves; and (iii) genetic determinants of modest TG variation in normolipidemic population samples also underlie--to an apparently even greater degree--susceptibility to these rare HLP phenotypes. Thus, the TG-associated Fredrickson HLP types 2B, 3, 4 and 5, although historically considered to be distinct are actually complex traits sharing among them several common genetic determinants seen in GWAS of normolipidemic population samples.
Project description:Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a common complex metabolic trait that results of the accumulation of relatively common genetic variants in combination with other modifier genes and environmental factors resulting in increased plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. The majority of severe primary hypertriglyceridemias is diagnosed in adulthood and their molecular bases have not been fully defined yet. The prevalence of HTG is highly variable among populations, possibly caused by differences in environmental factors and genetic background. However, the prevalence of very high TG and the frequency of rare mutations causing HTG in a whole non-selected population have not been previously studied.The total of 23,310 subjects over 18 years from a primary care-district in a middle-class area of Zaragoza (Spain) with TG >500 mg/dL were selected to establish HTG prevalence. Those affected of primary HTG were considered for further genetic analysis. The promoters, coding regions and exon-intron boundaries of LPL, LMF1, APOC2, APOA5, APOE and GPIHBP1 genes were sequenced. The frequency of rare variants identified was studied in 90 controls.One hundred ninety-four subjects (1.04%) had HTG and 90 subjects (46.4%) met the inclusion criteria for primary HTG. In this subgroup, nine patients (12.3%) were carriers of 7 rare variants in LPL, LMF1, APOA5, GPIHBP1 or APOE genes. Three of these mutations are described for the first time in this work. The presence of a rare pathogenic mutation did not confer a differential phenotype or a higher family history of HTG.The prevalence of rare mutations in candidate genes in subjects with primary HTG is low. The low frequency of rare mutations, the absence of a more severe phenotype or the dominant transmission of the HTG would not suggest the use of genetic analysis in the clinical practice in this population.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci associated with plasma lipid levels but those common variants together account only for a small proportion of the genetic variance of lipid traits. It has been hypothesized that the remaining heritability may partly be explained by rare variants with strong effect sizes. Here, we have comprehensively investigated the associations of both common and uncommon/rare variants in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene in relation to plasma lipoprotein-lipid levels in African Blacks (ABs). For variant discovery purposes, the entire LPL gene and flanking regions were resequenced in 95 ABs with extreme high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. A total of 308 variants were identified, of which 64 were novel. Selected common tagSNPs and uncommon/rare variants were genotyped in the entire sample (n=788), and 126 QC-passed variants were evaluated for their associations with lipoprotein-lipid levels by using single-site, haplotype and rare variant (SKAT-O) association analyses. We found eight not highly correlated (r(2)<0.40) signals (rs1801177:G>A, rs8176337:G>C, rs74304285:G>A, rs252:delA, rs316:C>A, rs329:A>G, rs12679834:T>C, and rs4921684:C>T) nominally (P<0.05) associated with lipid traits (HDL-C, LDL-C, ApoA1 or ApoB levels) in our sample. The most significant SNP, rs252:delA, represented a novel association observed with LDL-C (P=0.002) and ApoB (P=0.012). For TG and LDL-C, the haplotype analysis was more informative than the single-site analysis. The SKAT-O analysis revealed that the bin (group) containing 22 rare variants with MAF?0.01 exhibited nominal association with TG (P=0.039) and LDL-C (P=0.027). Our study indicates that both common and uncommon/rare LPL variants/haplotypes may affect plasma lipoprotein-lipid levels in general African population.
Project description:The severe forms of hypertriglyceridaemia (HTG) are caused by mutations in genes that lead to the loss of function of lipoprotein lipase (LPL). In most patients with severe HTG (TG?>?10?mmol?L(-1) ), it is a challenge to define the underlying cause. We investigated the molecular basis of severe HTG in patients referred to the Lipid Clinic at the Academic Medical Center Amsterdam.The coding regions of LPL, APOC2, APOA5 and two novel genes, lipase maturation factor 1 (LMF1) and GPI-anchored high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), were sequenced in 86 patients with type 1 and type 5 HTG and 327 controls.In 46 patients (54%), rare DNA sequence variants were identified, comprising variants in LPL (n?=?19), APOC2 (n?=?1), APOA5 (n?=?2), GPIHBP1 (n?=?3) and LMF1 (n?=?8). In 22 patients (26%), only common variants in LPL (p.Asp36Asn, p.Asn318Ser and p.Ser474Ter) and APOA5 (p.Ser19Trp) could be identified, whereas no mutations were found in 18 patients (21%). In vitro validation revealed that the mutations in LMF1 were not associated with compromised LPL function. Consistent with this, five of the eight LMF1 variants were also found in controls and therefore cannot account for the observed phenotype.The prevalence of mutations in LPL was 34% and mostly restricted to patients with type 1 HTG. Mutations in GPIHBP1 (n?=?3), APOC2 (n?=?1) and APOA5 (n?=?2) were rare but the associated clinical phenotype was severe. Routine sequencing of candidate genes in severe HTG has improved our understanding of the molecular basis of this phenotype associated with acute pancreatitis and may help to guide future individualized therapeutic strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels. In this paper, we evaluate a weighted and an unweighted approach for estimating the combined effect of multiple markers (using genotypes and haplotypes) on lipid levels for a given individual. METHODS:Using data from the Framingham Heart Study SHARe genome-wide association study, we tested genome-wide genotypes and haplotypes for association with lipid levels and constructed genetic risk scores (GRS) based on multiple markers that were weighted according to their estimated effects on LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. These scores (GRS-LDL, GRS-HDL, and GRS-TG) were then evaluated for associations with LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG, and compared with results of an unweighted method based on risk-allele counts. For comparability of metrics, GRS variables were divided into quartiles. RESULTS:GRS-LDL quartiles were associated with LDL-C levels (p = 2.1 x 10-24), GRS-HDL quartiles with HDL-C (p = 5.9 x 10-22), and GRS-TG quartiles with TG (p = 5.4 x 10-25). In comparison, these p-values were considerably lower than those for the associations of the unweighted GRS quartiles for LDL-C (p = 3.6 x 10-7), HDL-C (p = 6.4 x 10-16), and TG (p = 4.1 x 10-10). CONCLUSION:GRS variables were highly predictive of LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG measurements, especially when weighted based on each marker's individual association with those intermediate risk phenotypes. The allele-count GRS approach that does not weight the GRS by individual marker associations was considerably less predictive of lipid and lipoprotein measures when the same genetic markers were utilized, suggesting that substantially more risk-associated genetic marker information is encapsulated by the weighted GRS variables.
Project description:Background and Aim:Individual lipid phenotypes including circulating total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and triglycerides (TG) determinations are influenced by gene-environment interactions. The aim of this study was to predict blood lipid level (TC, LDL-c, HDL-c, and TG) variability using genetic and lifestyle data in subjects with excessive body weight-for-height. Methods:This cross-sectional study enrolled 304 unrelated overweight/obese adults of self-reported European ancestry. A total of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to obesity and weight loss were analyzed by a targeted next-generation sequencing system. Relevant genotypes of each SNP were coded as 0 (nonrisk) and 1 (risk). Four genetic risk scores (GRS) for each lipid phenotype were calculated by adding the risk genotypes. Information concerning lifestyle (diet, physical activity, alcohol drinking, and smoking) was obtained using validated questionnaires. Total body fat (TFAT) and visceral fat (VFAT) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results:Overall, 45 obesity-related genetic variants were associated with some of the studied blood lipids. In addition to conventional factors (age, sex, dietary intakes, and alcohol consumption), the calculated GRS significantly contributed to explain their corresponding plasma lipid trait. Thus, HDL-c, TG, TC, and LDL-c serum concentrations were predicted by approximately 28% (optimism-corrected adj. R 2 = 0.28), 25% (optimism-corrected adj. R 2 = 0.25), 24% (optimism-corrected adj. R 2 = 0.24), and 21% (optimism-corrected adj. R 2=0.21), respectively. Interestingly, GRS were the greatest contributors to TC (squared partial correlation (PC2)?=?0.18) and LDL-c (PC2?=?0.18) features. Likewise, VFAT and GRS had a higher impact on HDL-c (PC2?=?0.09 and PC2?=?0.06, respectively) and TG levels (PC2?=?0.20 and PC2?=?0.07, respectively) than the rest of variables. Conclusions:Besides known lifestyle influences, some obesity-related genetic variants could help to predict blood lipid phenotypes.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple loci associated with plasma lipid concentrations. Common variants at these loci together explain <10% of variation in each lipid trait. Rare variants with large individual effects may also contribute to the heritability of lipid traits; however, the extent to which rare variants affect lipid phenotypes remains to be determined. Here we show an accumulation of rare variants, or a mutation skew, in GWAS-identified genes in individuals with hypertriglyceridemia (HTG). Through GWAS, we identified common variants in APOA5, GCKR, LPL and APOB associated with HTG. Resequencing of these genes revealed a significant burden of 154 rare missense or nonsense variants in 438 individuals with HTG, compared to 53 variants in 327 controls (P = 6.2 x 10(-8)), corresponding to a carrier frequency of 28.1% of affected individuals and 15.3% of controls (P = 2.6 x 10(-5)). Considering rare variants in these genes incrementally increased the proportion of genetic variation contributing to HTG.
Project description:Lipoprotein characteristics were analyzed in familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) patients before and after statin treatment. Twenty-six FCH patients were classified according to the presence (HTG group, n = 13) or absence (normotriglyceridemic (NTG) group, n = 13) of hypertriglyceridemia. Fifteen healthy subjects comprised the control group. Lipid profile, inflammation markers, and qualitative characteristics of lipoproteins were assessed. Both groups of FCH subjects showed high levels of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and apolipoprotein J. Statins reverted the increased levels of Lp-PLA2 and CRP. Lipoprotein composition alterations detected in FCH subjects were much more frequent in the HTG group, leading to dysfunctional low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). In the HTG group, LDL was smaller, more susceptible to oxidation, and contained more electronegative LDL (LDL(-)) compared to the NTG and control groups. Regarding HDL, the HTG group had less Lp-PLA2 activity than the NTG and control groups. HDL from both FCH groups was less anti-inflammatory than HDL from the control group. Statins increased LDL size, decreased LDL(-), and lowered Lp-PLA2 in HDL from HTG. In summary, pro-atherogenic alterations were more frequent and severe in the HTG group. Statins improved some alterations, but many remained unchanged in HTG.
Project description:Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Investigating the genetics of HTG may identify new drug targets. There are ~35 known single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) that explain only ~10% of variation in triglyceride (TG) level. Because of the genetic heterogeneity of HTG, a family study design is optimal for identification of rare genetic variants with large effect size because the same mutation can be observed in many relatives and cosegregation with TG can be tested. We considered HTG in a five-generation family of European American descent (n = 121), ascertained for familial combined hyperlipidemia. By using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo joint oligogenic linkage and association analysis, we detected linkage to chromosomes 7 and 17. Whole-exome sequence data revealed shared, highly conserved, private missense SNVs in both SLC25A40 on chr7 and PLD2 on chr17. Jointly, these SNVs explained 49% of the genetic variance in TG; however, only the SLC25A40 SNV was significantly associated with TG (p = 0.0001). This SNV, c.374A>G, causes a highly disruptive p.Tyr125Cys substitution just outside the second helical transmembrane region of the SLC25A40 inner mitochondrial membrane transport protein. Whole-gene testing in subjects from the Exome Sequencing Project confirmed the association between TG and SLC25A40 rare, highly conserved, coding variants (p = 0.03). These results suggest a previously undescribed pathway for HTG and illustrate the power of large pedigrees in the search for rare, causal variants.
Project description:Blood lipid levels including low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) are highly heritable. Genome-wide association is a promising approach to map genetic loci related to these heritable phenotypes.In 1087 Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort participants (mean age 47 years, 52% women), we conducted genome-wide analyses (Affymetrix 100K GeneChip) for fasting blood lipid traits. Total cholesterol, HDL-C, and TG were measured by standard enzymatic methods and LDL-C was calculated using the Friedewald formula. The long-term averages of up to seven measurements of LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG over a approximately 30 year span were the primary phenotypes. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE), family-based association tests (FBAT) and variance components linkage to investigate the relationships between SNPs (on autosomes, with minor allele frequency > or =10%, genotypic call rate > or =80%, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium p > or = 0.001) and multivariable-adjusted residuals. We pursued a three-stage replication strategy of the GEE association results with 287 SNPs (P < 0.001 in Stage I) tested in Stage II (n approximately 1450 individuals) and 40 SNPs (P < 0.001 in joint analysis of Stages I and II) tested in Stage III (n approximately 6650 individuals).Long-term averages of LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG were highly heritable (h2 = 0.66, 0.69, 0.58, respectively; each P < 0.0001). Of 70,987 tests for each of the phenotypes, two SNPs had p < 10(-5) in GEE results for LDL-C, four for HDL-C, and one for TG. For each multivariable-adjusted phenotype, the number of SNPs with association p < 10(-4) ranged from 13 to 18 and with p < 10(-3), from 94 to 149. Some results confirmed previously reported associations with candidate genes including variation in the lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL) and HDL-C and TG (rs7007797; P = 0.0005 for HDL-C and 0.002 for TG). The full set of GEE, FBAT and linkage results are posted at the database of Genotype and Phenotype (dbGaP). After three stages of replication, there was no convincing statistical evidence for association (i.e., combined P < 10(-5) across all three stages) between any of the tested SNPs and lipid phenotypes.Using a 100K genome-wide scan, we have generated a set of putative associations for common sequence variants and lipid phenotypes. Validation of selected hypotheses in additional samples did not identify any new loci underlying variability in blood lipids. Lack of replication may be due to inadequate statistical power to detect modest quantitative trait locus effects (i.e., <1% of trait variance explained) or reduced genomic coverage of the 100K array. GWAS in FHS using a denser genome-wide genotyping platform and a better-powered replication strategy may identify novel loci underlying blood lipids.