Neutrophil proteinase 3 acts on protease-activated receptor-2 to enhance vascular endothelial cell barrier function.
ABSTRACT: The principle role of the vascular endothelium is to present a semi-impermeable barrier to soluble factors and circulating cells, while still permitting the passage of leukocytes from the bloodstream into the tissue. The process of diapedesis involves the selective disruption of endothelial cell junctions, which could compromise vascular integrity. It is therefore somewhat surprising that neutrophil transmigration does not significantly impair endothelial barrier function. We examined whether neutrophils might secrete factors that promote vascular integrity during the latter stages of neutrophil transmigration, in particular, the role of neutrophil serine proteinase 3 (PR3).Endothelial cells were treated with PR3 either in its soluble form or in a complex form with cell surface NB1. We observed that PR3 mediated the enhancement of endothelial cell junctional integrity and that this required its proteolytic activity, as well as endothelial cell expression of the protease-activated receptor-2. Importantly, PR3 suppressed the vascular permeability changes and disruption of junctional proteins induced by the action of protease-activated receptor-1 agonists.These findings establish the potential for neutrophil-derived PR3 to play a role in reestablishing vascular integrity after leukocyte transmigration and in protecting endothelial cells from protease-activated receptor-1-induced permeability changes that occur during thrombotic and inflammatory events.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>The pathophysiological increase in microvascular permeability plays a well-known role in the onset and progression of diseases like sepsis and atherosclerosis. However, how interactions between neutrophils and the endothelium alter vessel permeability is often debated.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we introduce a microfluidic, silicon-membrane enabled vascular mimetic (?SiM-MVM) for investigating the role of neutrophils in inflammation-associated microvascular permeability. In utilizing optically transparent silicon nanomembrane technology, we build on previous microvascular models by enabling <i>in situ</i> observations of neutrophil-endothelium interactions. To evaluate the effects of neutrophil transmigration on microvascular model permeability, we established and validated electrical (transendothelial electrical resistance and impedance) and small molecule permeability assays that allow for the <i>in situ</i> quantification of temporal changes in endothelium junctional integrity.<h4>Results</h4>Analysis of neutrophil-expressed ?<sub>1</sub> integrins revealed a prominent role of neutrophil transmigration and basement membrane interactions in increased microvascular permeability. By utilizing blocking antibodies specific to the ?<sub>1</sub> subunit, we found that the observed increase in microvascular permeability due to neutrophil transmigration is constrained when neutrophil-basement membrane interactions are blocked. Having demonstrated the value of <i>in situ</i> measurements of small molecule permeability, we then developed and validated a quantitative framework that can be used to interpret barrier permeability for comparisons to conventional Transwell™ values.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Overall, our results demonstrate the potential of the ?SiM-MVM in elucidating mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disease, and provide evidence for a role for neutrophils in inflammation-associated endothelial barrier disruption.
Project description:Neutrophil proteases, proteinase-3 (PR3) and elastase play key roles in glomerular endothelial cell (GEC) injury during glomerulonephritis. Endothelial protease-activated receptors (PARs) are potential serine protease targets in glomerulonephritis. We investigated whether PAR1/2 are required for alterations in GEC phenotype that are mediated by PR3 or elastase during active glomerulonephritis. Endothelial PARs were assessed by flow cytometry. Thrombin, trypsin and agonist peptides for PAR1 and PAR2, TFLLR-NH(2) and SLIGKV-NH(2,) respectively, were used to assess alterations in PAR activation induced by PR3 or elastase. Endothelial von Willebrand Factor (vWF)release and calcium signaling were used as PAR activation markers. Both PR3 and elastase induced endothelial vWF release, with elastase inducing the highest response. PAR1 peptide induced GEC vWF release to the same extent as PR3. However, knockdown of PARs by small interfering RNA showed that neither PAR1 nor PAR2 activation caused PR3 or elastase-mediated vWF release. Both proteases interacted with and disarmed surface GEC PAR1, but there was no detectable interaction with cellular PAR2. Neither protease induced a calcium response in GEC. Therefore, PAR signaling and serine protease-induced alterations in endothelial function modulate glomerular inflammation via parallel but independent pathways.
Project description:Junctional complexes between endothelial cells form a dynamic barrier that hinders passive diffusion of blood constituents into interstitial tissues. Remodelling of junctions is an essential process during leukocyte trafficking, vascular permeability, and angiogenesis. However, for many junctional proteins, the mechanisms of junctional remodelling have yet to be determined. Here, we used receptor mutagenesis, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and ascorbate peroxidase 2 (APEX-2) proximity labelling, alongside light and electron microscopy (EM), to map the intracellular trafficking routes of junctional adhesion molecule-C (JAM-C). We found that JAM-C cotraffics with receptors associated with changes in permeability such as vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-Cadherin) and neuropilin (NRP)-1 and 2, but not with junctional proteins associated with the transmigration of leukocytes. Dynamic JAM-C trafficking and degradation are necessary for junctional remodelling during cell migration and angiogenesis. By identifying new potential trafficking machinery, we show that a key point of regulation is the ubiquitylation of JAM-C by the E3 ligase Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (CBL), which controls the rate of trafficking versus lysosomal degradation.
Project description:Leukocyte transmigration is mediated by endothelial cell (EC) junctional molecules, but the associated mechanisms remain unclear. Here we investigate how intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2), junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A), and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) mediate neutrophil transmigration in a stimulus-dependent manner (eg, as induced by interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta] but not tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha]), and demonstrate their ability to act in sequence. Using a cell-transfer technique, transmigration responses of wild-type and TNF-alpha p55/p75 receptor-deficient leukocytes (TNFR(-/-)) through mouse cremasteric venules were quantified by fluorescence intravital microscopy. Whereas wild-type leukocytes showed a normal transmigration response to TNF-alpha in ICAM-2(-/-), JAM-A(-/-), and PECAM-1(-/-) recipient mice, TNFR(-/-) leukocytes exhibited a reduced transmigration response. Hence, when the ability of TNF-alpha to directly stimulate neutrophils is blocked, TNF-alpha-induced neutrophil transmigration is rendered dependent on ICAM-2, JAM-A, and PECAM-1, suggesting that the stimulus-dependent role of these molecules is governed by the target cell being activated. Furthermore, analysis of the site of arrest of neutrophils in inflamed tissues from ICAM-2(-/-), JAM-A(-/-), and PECAM-1(-/-) mice demonstrated that these molecules act sequentially to mediate transmigration. Collectively, the findings provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of key molecules implicated in leukocyte transmigration.
Project description:Neutrophil elastase (NE) plays a pivotal role in inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying NE-mediated inflammation in obesity remains unclear. Here, we report that NE activates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2), stimulates actin filament (F-actin) formation, decreases intercellular junction molecule VE-cadherin expression, and increases the permeability of human arterial endothelial cells (hECs). NE also prompts degradation of VE-cadherin and its binding proteins p120- and β-catenins via MG132-sensitive proteasomes. NE stimulates phosphorylation of myosin light-chain (MLC) and its regulator myosin phosphatase target subunit-1 (MYPT1), a target of Rho kinase (ROCK). Inhibitors of PAR2 and ROCK prohibit NE-induced F-actin formation, MLC phosphorylation, and VE-cadherin reduction in hECs, and impede monocyte transmigration through hEC monolayer pretreated with either neutrophils or NE. Further, administration of an NE inhibitor GW311616A significantly attenuates vascular leakage, leukocyte infiltration, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in the white adipose tissue from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Likewise, NE-deficient mice are resistant to HFD-induced vascular leakage in the heart. Together, NE regulates actomyosin cytoskeleton activity and VE-cadherin expression by activating PAR2 signaling in the endothelial cells, leading to increased vascular permeability and leukocyte extravasation. Hence, inhibition of NE is a potential approach to mitigate vascular injury and leukocyte infiltration in obesity-related systemic inflammation.
Project description:Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with increased vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and pro-inflammatory mediator release. We investigated the role of the metalloproteinase ADAM17 in endotoxin-induced ALI with focus on endothelial ADAM17. In vitro, endotoxin-mediated induction of endothelial permeability and IL-8-induced transmigration of neutrophils through human microvascular endothelial cells required ADAM17 as shown by inhibition with GW280264X or shRNA-mediated knockdown. In vivo, ALI was induced by intranasal endotoxin-challenge combined with GW280264X treatment or endothelial adam17-knockout. Endotoxin-triggered upregulation of ADAM17 mRNA in the lung was abrogated in knockout mice and associated with reduced ectodomain shedding of the junctional adhesion molecule JAM-A and the transmembrane chemokine CX3CL1. Induced vascular permeability, oedema formation, release of TNF-? and IL-6 and pulmonary leukocyte recruitment were all markedly reduced by GW280264X or endothelial adam17-knockout. Intranasal application of TNF-? could not restore leukocyte recruitment and oedema formation in endothelial adam17-knockout animals. Thus, activation of endothelial ADAM17 promotes acute pulmonary inflammation in response to endotoxin by multiple endothelial shedding events most likely independently of endothelial TNF-? release leading to enhanced vascular permeability and leukocyte recruitment.
Project description:Endothelium dysfunction is an initiating factor in atherosclerosis. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 15 (ADAM 15) is a multidomain metalloprotease recently identified as a regulator of endothelial permeability. However, whether and how ADAM15 contributes to atherosclerosis remains unknown.Genetic ablation of ADAM15 in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice led to a significant reduction in aortic atherosclerotic lesion size (by 52%), plaque macrophage infiltration (by 69%), and smooth muscle cell deposition (by 82%). In vitro studies implicated endothelial-derived ADAM15 in barrier dysfunction and monocyte transmigration across mouse aortic and human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers. This role of ADAM15 depended on intact functioning of the cytoplasmic domain, as evidenced in experiments with site-directed mutagenesis targeting the metalloprotease active site (E349A), the disintegrin domain (Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid?Threonine-Aspartic acid-Aspartic acid), or the cytoplasmic tail. Further investigations revealed that ADAM15-induced barrier dysfunction was concomitant with dissociation of endothelial adherens junctions (vascular endothelial [VE]-cadherin/?-catenin), an effect that was sensitive to Src family kinase inhibition. Through small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of distinct Src family kinase members, c-Src and c-Yes were identified as important mediators of these junctional effects of ADAM15.These results suggest that endothelial cell-derived ADAM15, signaling through c-Src and c-Yes, contributes to atherosclerotic lesion development by disrupting adherens junction integrity and promoting monocyte transmigration.
Project description:A vast amount of work has been dedicated to the effects of shear flow and cytokines on leukocyte transmigration. However, no studies have explored the effects of substrate stiffness on transmigration. Here, we investigated important aspects of endothelial cell contraction-mediated neutrophil transmigration using an in vitro model of the vascular endothelium. We modeled blood vessels of varying mechanical properties using fibronectin-coated polyacrylamide gels of varying physiologic stiffness, plated with human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers, which were activated with tumor necrosis factor-?. Interestingly, neutrophil transmigration increased with increasing substrate stiffness below the endothelium. HUVEC intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, stiffness, cytoskeletal arrangement, morphology, and cell-substrate adhesion could not account for the dependence of transmigration on HUVEC substrate stiffness. We also explored the role of cell contraction and observed that large holes formed in endothelium on stiff substrates several minutes after neutrophil transmigration reached a maximum. Further, suppression of contraction through inhibition of myosin light chain kinase normalized the effects of substrate stiffness by reducing transmigration and eliminating hole formation in HUVECs on stiff substrates. These results provide strong evidence that neutrophil transmigration is regulated by myosin light chain kinase-mediated endothelial cell contraction and that this event depends on subendothelial cell matrix stiffness.
Project description:Endothelial adherens junctions maintain vascular integrity. Arteries and veins differ in their permeability but whether organization and strength of their adherens junctions vary has not been demonstrated in vivo. Here we report that vascular endothelial cadherin, an endothelial specific adhesion protein located at adherens junctions, is phosphorylated in Y658 and Y685 in vivo in veins but not in arteries under resting conditions. This difference is due to shear stress-induced junctional Src activation in veins. Phosphorylated vascular endothelial-cadherin is internalized and ubiquitinated in response to permeability-increasing agents such as bradykinin and histamine. Inhibition of Src blocks vascular endothelial cadherin phosphorylation and bradykinin-induced permeability. Point mutation of Y658F and Y685F prevents vascular endothelial cadherin internalization, ubiquitination and an increase in permeability by bradykinin in vitro. Thus, phosphorylation of vascular endothelial cadherin contributes to a dynamic state of adherens junctions, but is not sufficient to increase vascular permeability in the absence of inflammatory agents.
Project description:The mechanisms regulating neutrophil transmigration of vascular endothelium are not fully elucidated, but involve neutrophil firm attachment and passage through endothelial cell-cell junctions. The goal of this study was to characterize the tangential forces exerted by neutrophils during transendothelial migration at cell-cell junctions using an in vitro laminar shear flow model in which confluent activated endothelium is grown on a microfabricated pillar substrate. The tangential forces are deduced from the measurement of pillar deflection beneath the endothelial cell-cell junction as neutrophils transmigrate. The force diagram displays an initial force increase, which coincides with neutrophil penetration into the intercellular space and formation of a gap in VE-cadherin staining. This is followed by a rapid and large increase of traction forces exerted by endothelial cells on the substrate in response to the transmigration process and the disruption of cell-cell contacts. The average maximum force exerted by an actively transmigrating neutrophil is three times higher than the force generated by an adherent neutrophil that does not transmigrate. Furthermore, we show that substrate rigidity can modify the mechanical forces induced by the transmigration of a neutrophil through the endothelium. Our data suggest that the force induced by neutrophil transmigration plays a key role in the disruption of endothelial adherens junctions.