PPAR? activation attenuates glycated-serum induced pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction through enhancing Pdx1 and Mafa protein stability.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic-duodenal homeobox-1 (Pdx1) and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (Mafa) play important roles in sustaining the pancreatic beta-cell differentiation phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is also a regulator of cell differentiation. Our previous study revealed that glycated serum (GS) causes beta-cell dedifferentiation by down-regulating beta-cell specific genes, such as insulin and Pdx1. Here, we show that GS enhanced the cellular accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins, including Pdx1 and Mafa, in pancreatic beta-cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of proteolytic activity restored the protein levels of Pdx1 and Mafa, whereas inhibition of de novo protein synthesis accelerated their degradation. These findings suggest that both Pdx1 and Mafa are regulated at the post-transcriptional level. We further show that activation of PPAR? could restore GS-induced reduction of Pdx1 and Mafa protein levels, leading to improved insulin secretion and synthesis. Moreover, ectopic expression of Bcl-xl, a mitochondrial regulator, also restored Pdx1 and Mafa protein levels, linking mitochondrial function to Pdx1 and Mafa stability. Taken together, our results identify a key role of PPAR? in regulating pancreatic beta-cell function by improving the stability of Pdx1 and Mafa proteins.
Project description:Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1), Ngn3 (neurogenin 3) and MafA (v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A) have been reported to bring about the transdifferentiation of pancreatic exocrine cells to beta (?) cells in vivo. We have investigated the mechanism of this process using a standard in vitro model of pancreatic exocrine cells, the rat AR42j-B13 cell line. We constructed a new adenoviral vector encoding all three genes, called Ad-PNM (adenoviral Pdx1, Ngn3, MafA construct). When introduced into AR42j-B13 cells, Ad-PNM caused a rapid change to a flattened morphology and a cessation of cell division. The expression of exocrine markers is suppressed. Both insulin genes are up-regulated as well as a number of transcription factors normally characteristic of beta cells. At the chromatin level, histone tail modifications of the Pdx1, Ins1 (insulin 1) and Ins2 (insulin 2) gene promoters are shifted in a direction associated with gene activity, and the level of DNA CpG methylation is reduced at the Ins1 promoter. The transformed cells secrete insulin and are capable of relieving diabetes in streptozotocin-treated NOD-SCID (non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency) mice. However the transformation is not complete. The cells lack expression of several genes important for beta cell function and they do not show glucose-sensitive insulin secretion. We conclude that, for this exocrine cell model, although the transformation is dramatic, the reprogramming is not complete and lacks critical aspects of the beta cell phenotype.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Effects of the transcription factor v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A (MAFA) on the regulation of beta cell gene expression and function were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS:INS-1 stable cell lines permitting inducible up- or downregulation of this transcription factor were established. RESULTS:MAFA overproduction enhanced and its dominant-negative mutant (DN-MAFA) diminished binding of the factor to the insulin promoter, correlating with insulin mRNA levels and cellular protein content. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was facilitated by MAFA and blunted by DN-MAFA. This is partly due to alterations in glucokinase production, the glucose sensor of beta cells. In addition, the expression of important beta cell genes, e.g. those encoding solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 2 (formerly known as GLUT2), pancreatic and duodenal homeobox factor 1 (PDX1), NK6 transcription factor-related, locus 1 (NKX6-1), glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R), prohormone convertase 1/3 (PCSK1) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC), was regulated positively by MAFA and negatively by DN-MAFA. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:The data suggest that MAFA is not only a key activator of insulin transcription, but also a master regulator of genes implicated in maintaining beta cell function, in particular metabolism-secretion coupling, proinsulin processing and GLP1R signalling. Our in vitro study provides molecular targets that explain the phenotype of recently reported Mafa-null mice. We also demonstrate that MAFA is produced specifically in beta cells of human islets. Glucose influenced DNA-binding activity of MAFA in rat islets in a bell-shaped manner. MAFA thus qualifies as a master regulator of beta-cell-specific gene expression and function.
Project description:The transcription factor MafA regulates glucose-responsive expression of insulin. MafA-deficient mice have a normal proportion of insulin+ cells at birth but develop diabetes gradually with age, suggesting that MafA is required for maturation and not specification of pancreatic beta-cells. However, several studies show that ectopic expression of MafA may have a role in specification as it induces insulin+ cells in chicken gut epithelium, reprograms adult murine acinar cells into insulin+ cells in combination with Ngn3 and Pdx1, and triggers the lens differentiation. Hence, we examined whether MafA can induce specification of beta-cells during pancreatic development. When the MafA transgene is expressed in Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitors, both pancreatic mass and proliferation of progenitors are reduced, at least partially due to induction of cyclin kinase inhibitors p27 and p57. Expression of MafA in Pdx1+ cells until E12.5 was sufficient to cause these effects and to disproportionately inhibit the formation of endocrine cells in the remnant pancreas. Thus, in mice, MafA expression in Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitors is not sufficient to specify insulin+ cells but in fact deters pancreatic development and the differentiation of endocrine cells. These findings imply that MafA should be used to enhance maturation, rather than specification, of beta-cells from stem/progenitor cells.
Project description:Pancreatic-duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1) is highly enriched in islet beta cells and integral to proper cell development and adult function. Of the four conserved 5'-flanking sequence blocks that contribute to transcription in vivo, Area II (mouse base pairs -2153/-1923) represents the only mammalian specific control domain. Here we demonstrate that regulation of beta-cell-enriched Pdx1 expression by the MafA and MafB transcription factors is exclusively through Area II. Thus, these factors were found to specifically activate through Area II in cell line transfection-based assays, and MafA, which is uniquely expressed in adult islet beta cells was only bound to this region in quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. MafA and MafB are produced in beta cells during development and were both bound to Area II at embryonic day 18.5. Expression of a transgene driven by Pdx1 Areas I and II was also severely compromised during insulin+ cell formation in MafB(-/-) mice, consistent with the importance of this large Maf in beta-cell production and Pdx1 expression. These findings illustrate the significance of large Maf proteins to Pdx1 expression in beta cells, and in particular MafB during pancreatic development.
Project description:The protein MENIN is the product of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN1) gene. Altered MENIN expression is one of the few events that are clearly associated with foregut neuroendocrine tumours (NETs), classical oncogenes or tumour suppressors being not involved. One of the current challenges is to understand how alteration of MENIN expression contributes to the development of these tumours. We hypothesised that MENIN might regulate factors maintaining endocrine-differentiated functions. We chose the insulinoma model, a paradigmatic example of well-differentiated pancreatic NETs, to study whether MENIN interferes with the expression of v-MAF musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A (MAFA), a master glucose-dependent transcription factor in differentiated ?-cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of a series of human insulinomas revealed a correlated decrease in both MENIN and MAFA. Decreased MAFA expression resulting from targeted Men1 ablation was also consistently observed in mouse insulinomas. In vitro analyses using insulinoma cell lines showed that MENIN regulated MAFA protein and mRNA levels, and bound to Mafa promoter sequences. MENIN knockdown concomitantly decreased mRNA expression of both Mafa and ?-cell differentiation markers (Ins1/2, Gck, Slc2a2 and Pdx1) and, in parallel, increased the proliferation rate of tumours as measured by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation. Interestingly, MAFA knockdown alone also increased proliferation rate but did not affect the expression of candidate proliferation genes regulated by MENIN. Finally, MENIN variants with missense mutations detected in patients with MEN1 lost the WT MENIN properties to regulate MAFA. Together, our findings unveil a previously unsuspected MENIN/MAFA connection regarding control of the ?-cell differentiation/proliferation balance, which could contribute to tumorigenesis.
Project description:Neonatal beta cells lack glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and are thus functionally immature. We hypothesised that this lack of glucose responsiveness results from a generalised low expression of genes characteristic of mature functional beta cells. Important glucose-responsive transcription factors, Mafa and Pdx1, regulate genes involved in insulin synthesis and secretion, and have been implicated in late beta cell development. The aim of this study was to assess whether Mafa and/or Pdx1 regulates the postnatal functional maturation of beta cells.By quantitative PCR we evaluated expression of these and other beta cell genes over the first month compared with adult. After infection with adenovirus expressing MAFA, Pdx1 or green fluorescent protein (Gfp), P2 rat islets were evaluated by RT-PCR and insulin secretion with static incubation and reverse haemolytic plaque assay (RHPA).At P2 most beta cell genes were expressed at about 10% of adult, but by P7 Pdx1 and Neurod1 no longer differ from adult; by contrast, Mafa expression remained significantly lower than adult through P21. Overexpression of Pdx1 increased Mafa, Neurod1, glucokinase (Gck) mRNA and insulin content but failed to enhance glucose responsiveness. Similar overexpression of MAFA resulted in increased Neurod1, Nkx6-1, Gck and Glp1r mRNAs and no change in insulin content but, importantly, acquisition of glucose-responsive insulin secretion. Both the percentage of secreting beta cells and the amount of insulin secreted per beta cell increased, approaching that of adult beta cells.In the process of functional maturation acquiring glucose-responsive insulin secretion, neonatal beta cells undergo a coordinated gene expression programme in which Mafa plays a crucial role.
Project description:Synthetic biology has advanced the design of standardized transcription control devices that programme cellular behaviour. By coupling synthetic signalling cascade- and transcription factor-based gene switches with reverse and differential sensitivity to the licensed food additive vanillic acid, we designed a synthetic lineage-control network combining vanillic acid-triggered mutually exclusive expression switches for the transcription factors Ngn3 (neurogenin 3; OFF-ON-OFF) and Pdx1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1; ON-OFF-ON) with the concomitant induction of MafA (V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue A; OFF-ON). This designer network consisting of different network topologies orchestrating the timely control of transgenic and genomic Ngn3, Pdx1 and MafA variants is able to programme human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting beta-like cells, whose glucose-stimulated insulin-release dynamics are comparable to human pancreatic islets. Synthetic lineage-control networks may provide the missing link to genetically programme somatic cells into autologous cell phenotypes for regenerative medicine.
Project description:Analyses in mouse models have revealed crucial roles for MafA (musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family A) and MafB in islet ? cells, with MafB being required during development and MafA in adults. These two closely related transcription factors regulate many genes essential for glucose sensing and insulin secretion in a cooperative and sequential manner. Significantly, the switch from MafB to MafA expression also appears to be vital for functional maturation of ? cells produced by human embryonic stem (hES) cell differentiation. This review summarizes the discovery, distribution, and function of MafA and MafB in rodent pancreatic ? cells, and describes some key questions regarding their importance to ? cells.
Project description:To develop surrogate insulin-producing cells for diabetes therapy, adult stem cells have been identified in various tissues and studied for their conversion into ?-cells. Pancreatic progenitor cells are derived from the endodermal epithelium and formed in a manner similar to gut progenitor cells. Here, we generated insulin-producing cells from the intestinal epithelial cells that induced many of the specific pancreatic transcription factors using adenoviral vectors carrying three genes: PMB (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 [Pdx1], V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A [MafA], and BETA2/NeuroD).By direct injection into the intestine through the cranial mesenteric artery, adenoviruses (Ad) were successfully delivered to the entire intestine. After virus injection, we could confirm that the small intestine of the mouse was appropriately infected with the Ad-Pdx1 and triple Ad-PMB.Four weeks after the injection, insulin mRNA was expressed in the small intestine, and the insulin gene expression was induced in Ad-Pdx1 and Ad-PMB compared to control Ad-green fluorescent protein. In addition, the conversion of intestinal cells into insulin-expressing cells was detected in parts of the crypts and villi located in the small intestine.These data indicated that PMB facilitate the differentiation of mouse intestinal cells into insulin-expressing cells. In conclusion, the small intestine is an accessible and abundant source of surrogate insulin-producing cells.
Project description:Upon functional loss of insulin producing islet ?-cells, some patients with diabetes become dependent on life-long insulin supplementation therapy. Bioengineering surrogate insulin producing cells is an alternative replacement strategy. We have developed a novel approach using short-activating RNA oligonucleotides to differentiate adult human CD34(+) cells into insulin-secreting cells. By transfecting RNA to increase transcript levels of the master regulator of insulin biosynthesis, v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), several pancreatic endodermal genes were upregulated during the differentiation procedure. These included Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene-1 (PDX1), Neurogenin 3, NeuroD, and NK6 homeobox 1 (NKx6-1). Differentiated CD34(+) cells also expressed glucokinase, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R), sulfonylurea receptor-1 (SUR1) and phogrin-all essential for glucose sensitivity and insulin secretion. The differentiated cells appropriately processed C-peptide and insulin in response to increasing glucose stimulation as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. We provide a new approach using short-activating RNA in developing insulin producing surrogate cells for treating diabetes.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e97; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.23; advance online publication 4 June 2013.