Identifying latent trajectories of personality disorder symptom change: growth mixture modeling in the longitudinal study of personality disorders.
ABSTRACT: Although previous reports have documented mean-level declines in personality disorder (PD) symptoms over time, little is known about whether personality pathology sometimes emerges among nonsymptomatic adults, or whether rates of change differ qualitatively among symptomatic persons. Our study sought to characterize heterogeneity in the longitudinal course of PD symptoms with the goal of testing for and describing latent trajectories. Participants were 250 young adults selected into two groups using a PD screening measure: those who met diagnostic criteria for a DSM-III-R PD (PPD, n = 129), and those with few PD symptoms (NoPD, n = 121). PD symptoms were assessed three times over a 4-year study using semistructured interviews. Total PD symptom counts and symptoms of each DSM-III-R PD were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. In the NoPD group, latent trajectories were characterized by stable, minor symptoms; the rapid or gradual remission of subclinical symptoms; or the emergence of symptoms of avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, or paranoid PD. In the PPD group, three latent trajectories were evident: rapid symptom remission, slow symptom decline, or a relative absence of symptoms. Rapid remission of PD symptoms was associated with fewer comorbid disorders, lower Negative Emotionality, and greater Positive Emotionality and Constraint, whereas emergent personality dysfunction was associated with comorbid PD symptoms and lower Positive Emotionality. In most cases, symptom change for one PD was associated with concomitant changes in other PDs, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. These results indicate that the longitudinal course of PD symptoms is heterogeneous, with distinct trajectories evident for both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic individuals. The prognosis of PD symptoms may be informed by an assessment of personality and comorbid psychopathology.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders, particularly major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study examined longitudinal trajectories of PTSD and MDD symptoms among service members and veterans with comorbid PTSD/MDD. METHODS:Eligible participants (n?=?1704) for the Millennium Cohort Study included those who screened positive at baseline for both PTSD (PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version) and MDD (Patient Health Questionnaire). Between 2001 and 2016, participants completed a baseline assessment and up to 4 follow-up assessments approximately every 3?years. Mixture modeling simultaneously determined trajectories of comorbid PTSD and MDD symptoms. Multinomial regression determined factors associated with latent class membership. RESULTS:Four distinct classes (chronic, relapse, gradual recovery, and rapid recovery) described symptom trajectories of PTSD/MDD. Membership in the chronic class was associated with older age, service branch, deployment with combat, anxiety, physical assault, disabling injury/illness, bodily pain, high levels of somatic symptoms, and less social support. CONCLUSIONS:Comorbid PTSD/MDD symptoms tend to move in tandem, and, although the largest class remitted symptoms, almost 25% of participants reported chronic comorbid symptoms across all time points. Results highlight the need to assess comorbid conditions in the context of PTSD. Future research should further evaluate the chronicity of comorbid symptoms over time.
Project description:Developmental theories of borderline personality disorder (BPD) propose that harsh, invalidating parenting of a child with poor self-control and heightened negative emotionality often leads to a coercive cycle of parent-child transactions that increase risk for BPD symptoms such as emotion dysregulation. Although parenting practices and child temperament have previously been linked with BPD, less is known about the prospective influences of caregiver and child characteristics. Using annual longitudinal data from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (n = 2,450), our study examined how reciprocal influences among harsh parenting, self-control, and negative emotionality between ages 5 and 14 predicted the development of BPD symptoms in adolescent girls ages 14 to 17. Consistent with developmental theories, we found that harsh punishment, poor self-control, and negative emotionality predicted BPD symptom severity at age 14. Only worsening self-control between ages 12 and 14, however, predicted growth in BPD symptoms from 14 to 17. Furthermore, the effects of harsh punishment and poor self-control on age 14 BPD symptoms were partially mediated by their earlier reciprocal effects on each other between ages 5 and 14. Our findings underscore the need to address both child and parental contributions to dysfunctional transactions in order to stem the development of BPD symptoms. Moreover, problems with self-regulation in early adolescence may indicate heightened risk for subsequent BPD. Altogether, these results increase our understanding of developmental trajectories associated with BPD symptoms in adolescent girls.
Project description:This analysis aims to identify and characterize symptom trajectories in primary care patients with panic disorder with/without agoraphobia (PD/AG) who participated in a primary care team based training involving elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Growth Mixture Modeling was used to identify different latent classes of change in patients with PD/AG (N = 176) who underwent treatment including CBT elements. We identified three patient classes with distinct similar trajectories. Class 1 (n = 58, mean age: 46.2 years ± 13.4 years, 81% women) consisted of patients with an initially high symptom burden, but symptoms declined constantly over the intervention period. Symptoms of patients in class 2 (n = 89, mean age: 44.2 years ± 14.5 years, 67.4% women) declined rapidly at the beginning, then patients went into a plateau-phase. The third class (n = 29, mean age: 47.0 years ± 12.4 years, 65.5% women) was characterized by an unstable course and had the worse outcome. Our findings show that only a minority did not respond to the treatment. To identify this minority and refer to a specialist would help patients to get intensive care in time.
Project description:We explored patterns of self-reported personality trait change across late childhood through young adulthood in a sample assessed up to 4 times on the lower-order facets of Positive Emotionality (PEM), Negative Emotionality (NEM), and Constraint (CON). Multilevel modeling analyses were used to describe both group- and individual-level change trajectories across this time span. There was evidence for nonlinear age-related change in most traits, and substantial individual differences in change for all traits. Gender differences were detected in the change trajectories for several facets of NEM and CON. Findings add to the literature on personality development by demonstrating robust nonlinear change in several traits across late childhood to young adulthood, as well as deviations from normative patterns of maturation at the earliest ages.
Project description:Depression carries serious psychosocial, physical, and economic consequences for cancer survivors. Study goals were to characterize patterns and predictors of depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes in recently diagnosed breast cancer patients. Consecutively recruited women (N = 460) completed a validated interview (CIDI) and questionnaire measure (CES-D) of depression within 4 months after invasive breast cancer diagnosis and at six additional assessments across 12 months. Outcomes were major depressive episodes, continuous symptom scores, and latent symptom trajectory classes. Across 12 months, 16.6 % of women met criteria for a major depressive episode. Unemployment predicted depressive episodes after other correlates were controlled. Distinct trajectory classes were apparent: an estimated 38 % of women had chronically elevated symptoms (High trajectory), 20 % recovered from elevated symptoms (Recovery), and 43 % had lower symptoms (Low and Very Low trajectories). Although 96 % of episodes occurred in the High or Recovery classes, 66 % of women in the High trajectory did not have an episode. Women in the Low (vs High) trajectory were more likely to be older, retired, more affluent, and have fewer comorbid diseases and briefer oncologic treatment. Women in the Recovery trajectory (vs High) were more likely to be married and more affluent and have fewer comorbid diseases. Assuming available therapeutic resources, assessment of both depressive symptoms and episodes over several months after diagnosis is important. Identification of patients at risk for persistently high depressive symptoms (e.g., younger, longer treatment course) opens targeted opportunities to prevent and promote rapid recovery from depression.
Project description:After patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) respond to acute-phase cognitive therapy (CT), continuation-phase treatments may be applied to improve long-term outcomes. We clarified which CT responders experience remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence by testing baseline demographic, clinical, and personality variables. The sample of CT responders at higher risk of relapse (N = 241) was randomized to 8 months of continuation-phase CT, double-blinded fluoxetine, or pill placebo, and followed 24 months (Jarrett & Thase, 2010). Patients with lower positive emotionality and behavioral activation at the end of acute-phase CT showed increased risk for relapse/recurrence of MDD. In addition, patients with lower positive emotionality and behavioral activation, as well as higher residual depression (including emotional, cognitive, and social facets), showed decreased probability of remission (?6 continuous weeks of minimal or absent symptoms) after acute-phase CT. Finally, patients with greater residual depression, as well as younger age and earlier MDD onset, showed decreased probability of recovery (?35 continuous weeks of minimal or absent symptoms) after acute-phase CT. Moderator analyses did not reveal differential prediction across the continuation phase treatment arms. These results may help clinicians gauge the prognoses and need for continuation treatment among MDD patients who respond to acute-phase CT.
Project description:In the transition from childhood to adolescence, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) developmental trajectories diverge. Family environment, as indexed by parental expressed emotion, may moderate these trajectories. 388 children with ADHD and 127 controls were assessed using multi-informant, multimethod diagnostic procedures at up to 3 time points 1 year apart in an accelerated longitudinal design spanning ages 7-13 years. Latent-class growth analysis was used to identify developmental trajectories for parent- and teacher-rated ADHD and oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms within the ADHD sample. Parental expressed emotion, criticism, and emotional overinvolvement were coded from a 5-min speech sample at 2 time points, 1 year apart, for 208 of these children and compared among ADHD trajectory groups.Parent-rated hyperactivity yielded a 4-class trajectory solution in latent-class growth analysis; teacher-rated inattention yielded a 3-trajectory solution. Teacher-rated ODD also yielded 3-trajectory solution. A parent-rated high persistent hyperactive group was more likely than the other ADHD groups to have parents with stable high criticism (34.6%, p < .001), with ODD symptoms controlled. A teacher-identified high ODD-worsening group was more likely to experience high criticism, particularly the initial time point; (87.5%, p < .001), with hyperactivity controlled. Parental criticism, an index of the family environment, is uniquely associated with divergent developmental trajectories among children with ADHD in addition to those associated with ODD symptoms. Lay summary: For many children, ADHD symptoms decrease as they transition to adolescence. Family environmental factors, such as parental criticism, may help explain for whom symptom remission is less likely.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine the relationships over time between dual trajectories of depressive symptoms and several cognitive domains. METHODS:In a 5-year longitudinal study, 1,978 randomly selected individuals aged 65+ years at recruitment were assessed annually. Repeated measures were of depressive symptoms on the modified Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and composite scores in the cognitive domains of attention, executive function, memory, language, and visuospatial function. Latent class trajectories were identified for depression and for each cognitive domain and their associations investigated using dual trajectory modeling. Cognitive trajectories with z scores below -1 were designated as persistently low. RESULTS:Five depressive symptom trajectories were observed: rarely depressed (60.5%); low-grade, decreasing symptoms (18.5%); low-grade, increasing symptoms (9.6%); moderate-grade symptoms (7.4%); and consistent higher-grade symptoms (4.0%). For each cognitive domain six trajectories were observed. The rarely depressed and low-grade decreasing symptom groups were the least likely to have persistently low cognition. The symptom trajectory most strongly associated with persistently low functioning in each domain was not the higher-grade group but rather the low-grade increasing group in the case of attention and the moderate-grade trajectory in the other four domains. CONCLUSION:Consistently higher-grade depressive symptoms are less strongly associated with poor cognitive functioning than with either moderate- or low-grade increasing depressive symptom trajectories, over time and across different domains. Examining both depression and cognition longitudinally allows heterogeneity of both to be addressed, revealing latent groups with potential diagnostic and prognostic implications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postpartum depression is a heterogeneous disorder in phenotype and etiology. Characterizing the longitudinal course of depressive symptoms over the first year after birth and identifying variables that predict distinct symptom trajectories will expedite efficient mental health treatment planning. The purpose was to determine 12-month trajectories of postpartum depressive symptoms, identify characteristics that predict the trajectories, and provide a computational algorithm that predicts trajectory membership. METHODS:A prospective cohort of women delivering at an academic medical center (2006-2011) was recruited from an urban women's hospital in Pittsburgh, PA. Women with a postpartum depressive disorder (n = 507) participated and completed symptom severity assessments at 4-8 weeks (intake), 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Women were predominantly Caucasian (71.8%), married (53.3%), and college educated (38.7%). Clinician interviews of depressive symptom severity, medical and psychiatric history, assessment of function, obstetric experience, and infant status were conducted. RESULTS:Analyses resulted in identification of three distinct trajectories of depressive symptoms: (1) gradual remission (50.4%), (2) partial improvement (41.8%), and (3) chronic severe (7.8%). Key predictive characteristics of the chronic severe versus gradual remission and partial improvement trajectories included parity, education, and baseline global functioning and depression severity. We were able to predict trajectory membership with 72.8% accuracy from these characteristics. CONCLUSIONS:Four maternal characteristics predicted membership in the chronic severe versus gradual remission and partial improvement trajectories with 72.8% accuracy. The trajectory groups comprise clinically relevant subgroups with the potential for tailored treatments to reduce the disease burden of postpartum depression.
Project description:Clarifying individual differences that predict resilience or vulnerability to emotional distress is crucial for identifying etiological factors contributing to affective disturbances, and to promoting emotional well-being. Despite recent progress identifying specific brain regions and personality traits, it remains unclear whether there are common factors underlying the structural aspects of the brain and the personality traits that, in turn, protect against symptoms of emotional distress. In the present study, an integrative structural equation model was developed to examine the associations among (1) a latent construct of Control, representing the volumes of a system of prefrontal cortical (PFC) regions including middle, inferior, and orbital frontal cortices; (2) a latent construct of Resilience personality traits including cognitive reappraisal, positive affectivity, and optimism; and (3) Anxiety and Depression symptoms, in a sample of 85 healthy young adults. Results showed that the latent construct of PFC volumes positively predicted the latent construct of Resilience, which in turn negatively predicted Anxiety. Mediation analysis confirmed that greater latent PFC volume is indirectly associated with lower Anxiety symptoms through greater latent trait Resilience. The model did not show a significant mediation for Depression. These results support the idea that there are common volumetric and personality factors that help protect against symptoms of emotional distress. These findings provide strong evidence that such brain-personality-symptom approaches can provide novel insights with valuable implications for understanding the interaction of these factors in healthy and clinically diagnosed individuals.