Identification of Map4k4 as a novel suppressor of skeletal muscle differentiation.
ABSTRACT: Myoblast differentiation into mature myotubes is a critical step in the development and repair of human skeletal muscle. Here we show that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based silencing of the Ste20-like mitogen-activated protein 4 kinase 4 (Map4k4) in C2C12 myoblasts markedly enhances expression of myogenic differentiation genes, myoblast fusion, and myotube diameter. In contrast, adenovirus-mediated expression of native Map4k4 in C2C12 cells attenuates each of these processes, indicating that Map4k4 is a negative regulator of myogenic differentiation and hypertrophy. Expression of a Map4k4 kinase-inactive mutant enhances myotube formation, suggesting that the kinase activity of Map4k4 is essential for its inhibition of muscle differentiation. Map4k4 regulation of myogenesis is unlikely to be mediated by classic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, because no significant difference in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is observed in Map4k4-silenced cells. Furthermore, silencing of these other MAPKs does not result in a hypertrophic myotube phenotype like that seen with Map4k4 depletion. Uniquely, Map4k4 silencing upregulates the expression of the myogenic regulatory factor Myf5, whose depletion inhibits myogenesis. Furthermore, Myf5 is required for enhancement of myotube formation in Map4k4-silenced cells, while Myf5 overexpression rescues Map4k4-mediated inhibition of myogenic differentiation. These results demonstrate that Map4k4 is a novel suppressor of skeletal muscle differentiation, acting through a Myf5-dependent mechanism.
Project description:Skeletal muscle contains long multinucleated and contractile structures known as muscle fibers, which arise from the fusion of myoblasts into multinucleated myotubes during myogenesis. The myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) MYF5 is the earliest to be expressed during myogenesis and functions as a transcription factor in muscle progenitor cells (satellite cells) and myocytes. In mouse C2C12 myocytes, MYF5 is implicated in the initial steps of myoblast differentiation into myotubes. Here, using ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP) analysis, we discovered a novel function for MYF5 as an RNA-binding protein which associated with a subset of myoblast mRNAs. One prominent MYF5 target was Ccnd1 mRNA, which encodes the key cell cycle regulator CCND1 (Cyclin D1). Biotin-RNA pulldown, UV-crosslinking and gel shift experiments indicated that MYF5 was capable of binding the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and the coding region (CR) of Ccnd1 mRNA. Silencing MYF5 expression in proliferating myoblasts revealed that MYF5 promoted CCND1 translation and modestly increased transcription of Ccnd1 mRNA. Accordingly, overexpressing MYF5 in C2C12 cells upregulated CCND1 expression while silencing MYF5 reduced myoblast proliferation as well as differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. Moreover, MYF5 silencing reduced myogenesis, while ectopically restoring CCND1 abundance partially rescued the decrease in myogenesis seen after MYF5 silencing. We propose that MYF5 enhances early myogenesis in part by coordinately elevating Ccnd1 transcription and Ccnd1 mRNA translation.
Project description:Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are the main components of cell membrane affecting its fluidity, signaling processes and play a vital role in muscle cell development. The effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on myogenesis are well known, while the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) are largely unclear. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of two PUFAs (DHA and AA) on cell fate during myogenic processes, Wnt signaling and energy metabolism by using the C2C12 cells. The cells were treated with different concentrations of AA or DHA for 48 h during the differentiation period. PUFA treatment increased mRNA level of myogenic factor 5 (<i>Myf5</i>), which is involved in early stage of myoblast proliferation. Additionally, PUFA treatment prevented myoblast differentiation, indicated by decreased myotube fusion index and differentiation index in parallel with reduced mRNA levels of myogenin (<i>MyoG</i>). After PUFA withdrawal, some changes in cell morphology and myosin heavy chain mRNA levels were still observed. Expression of genes associated with Wnt signaling pathway, and energy metabolism changed in PUFA treatment in a dose and time dependent manner. Our data suggests that PUFAs affect the transition of C2C12 cells from proliferation to differentiation phase by prolonging proliferation and preventing differentiation.
Project description:Estrogen (E2) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) supplements independently support general wellbeing and enhance muscle regeneration in-vivo and myotube formation in-vitro. However, the combined effect of E2 and n-3PUFA on myoblast differentiation is not known. The purpose of the study was to identify whether E2 and n-3PUFA possess a synergistic effect on in-vitro myogenesis. Mouse C2C12 myoblasts, a reliable model to reiterate myogenic events in-vitro, were treated with 10nM E2 and 50?M eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) independently or combined, for 0-24 h or 0-120 h during differentiation. Immunofluorescence, targeted qPCR and next generation sequencing (NGS) were used to characterize morphological changes and differential expression of key genes involved in the regulation of myogenesis and muscle function pathways. E2 increased estrogen receptor ? (Er?) and the expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 (Mapk11) within 1 h of treatment and improved myoblast differentiation and myotube formation. A significant reduction (p < 0.001) in myotube formation and in the expression of myogenic regulatory factors Mrfs (MyoD, Myog and Myh1) and the myoblast fusion related gene, Tmem8c, was observed in the presence of EPA and the combined E2/EPA treatment. Additionally, EPA treatment at 48 h of differentiation inhibited the majority of genes associated with the myogenic and striated muscle contraction pathways. In conclusion, EPA and E2 had no synergistic effect on myotube formation in-vitro. Independently, EPA inhibited myoblast differentiation and overrides the stimulatory effect of E2 when used in combination with E2.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Mixed lineage leukaemia protein-1 (MLL1) mediates histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation (me3) and plays vital roles during early embryonic development and hematopoiesis. In our previous study, we found its expression was positively correlated with embryonic myogenic ability in pigs, indicating its potential roles in mammalian muscle development. The present work aimed to explore the roles and regulation mechanisms of MLL1 in myogenesis.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>The expression of MLL1 in C2C12 cells was experimentally manipulated using small interfering RNAs (siRNA). 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay, cell cycle assay, immunofluorescence, qRT-PCR and Western blot were performed to assess myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was conducted to detect H3K4me3 enrichment on myogenic factor 5 (Myf5) promoter. A cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated muscle regeneration model was used to investigate the effects of MLL1 on myogenesis in vivo.<h4>Results</h4>MLL1 was highly expressed in proliferating C2C12 cells, and expression decreased after differentiation. Knocking down MLL1 suppressed myoblast proliferation and impaired myoblast differentiation. Furthermore, knockdown of MLL1 resulted in the arrest of cell cycle in G1 phase, with decreased expressions of Myf5 and Cyclin D1. Mechanically, MLL1 transcriptionally regulated Myf5 by mediating H3K4me3 on its promoter. In vivo data implied that MLL1 was required for Pax7-positive satellite cell proliferation and muscle repair.<h4>Conclusion</h4>MLL1 facilitates proliferation of myoblasts and Pax7-positive satellite cells by epigenetically regulating Myf5 via mediating H3K4me3 on its promoter.
Project description:Skeletal myogenesis is a complex process that is finely regulated by myogenic transcription factors. Recent studies have shown that saturated fatty acids (SFA) can suppress the activation of myogenic transcription factors and impair the myogenic differentiation of progenitor cells. Despite the increasing evidence of the roles of miRNAs in myogenesis, the targets and myogenic regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs are largely unknown, particularly when myogenesis is dysregulated by SFA deposition. This study examined the implications of SFA-induced miR-183-5p on the myogenic differentiation in C2C12 myoblasts. Long-chain SFA palmitic acid (PA) drastically reduced myogenic transcription factors, such as myoblast determination protein (MyoD), myogenin (MyoG), and myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C), and inhibited FHL1 expression and myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts, accompanied by the induction of miR-183-5p. The knockdown of FHL1 by siRNA inhibited myogenic differentiation of myoblasts. Interestingly, miR-183-5p inversely regulated the expression of FHL1, a crucial regulator of skeletal myogenesis, by targeting the 3'UTR of FHL1 mRNA. Furthermore, the transfection of miR-183-5p mimic suppressed the expression of MyoD, MyoG, MEF2C, and MyHC, and impaired the differentiation and myotube formation of myoblasts. Overall, this study highlights the role of miR-183-5p in myogenic differentiation through FHL1 repression and suggests a novel miRNA-mediated mechanism for myogenesis in a background of obesity. [BMB Reports 2020; 53(11): 605-610].
Project description:Skeletal muscle contains long multinucleated and contractile structures known as muscle fibers, which arise from the fusion of myoblasts into nucleated myotubes during myogenesis. The myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) MYF5 is the earliest to be expressed during myogenesis and functions as a transcription factor in muscle progenitor cells (satellite cells) and myocytes. In mouse C2C12 myocytes, MYF5 is implicated in the initial steps of myoblast differentiation into myotubes. Ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP) analysis showed that MYF5 bound a subset of myoblast mRNAs; prominent among them was Ccnd1 mRNA, which encodes the key cell cycle regulator CCND1 (Cyclin D1). Biotin-RNA pulldown, UV-crosslinking, and gel shift experiments indicated that MYF5 was capable of binding the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and the coding region (CR) of Ccnd1 mRNA. MYF5 silencing in proliferating growing myoblasts revealed that and MYF5 promoted CCND1 translation, and it also modestly increased transcription of Ccnd1 mRNA. Importantly, silencing MYF5 reduced myoblast growth as well as differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes, while overexpressing MYF5 in C2C12 cells upregulated CCND1 expression. We propose that MYF5 enhances early myogenesis in part by coordinately elevating Ccnd1 transcription and Ccnd1 mRNA translation. Four replicates were utilized from either Control (IgG) or MYF5-immunoprecipitated RNA samples from C2C12 cells growing in either growth medium (GM) or differentiation medium (DM) for a total of sixteen samples.
Project description:Toxoplasma gondii is the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease with a wide global prevalence. The parasite forms cysts in skeletal muscle cells and neurons, although no evident association with inflammatory infiltrates has been typically found. We studied the impact of T. gondii infection on the myogenic program of mouse skeletal muscle cells (SkMC). The C2C12 murine myoblast cell line was infected with T. gondii tachyzoites (ME49 strain) for 24 h followed by myogenic differentiation induction. T. gondii infection caused a general decrease in myotube differentiation, fusion and maturation, along with decreased expression of myosin heavy chain. The expression of Myogenic Regulatory Factors Myf5, MyoD, Mrf4 and myogenin was modulated by the infection. Infected cultures presented increased proliferation rates, as assessed by Ki67 immunostaining, whereas neither host cell lysis nor apoptosis were significantly augmented in infected dishes. Cytokine Bead Array indicated that IL-6 and MCP-1 were highly increased in the medium from infected cultures, whereas TGF-?1 was consistently decreased. Inhibition of the IL-6 receptor or supplementation with recombinant TGF-? failed to reverse the deleterious effects caused by the infection. However, conditioned medium from infected cultures inhibited myogenesis in C2C12 cells. Activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway was impaired in T. gondii-infected cultures. Our data indicate that T. gondii leads SkMCs to a pro-inflammatory phenotype, leaving cells unresponsive to ?-catenin activation, and inhibition of the myogenic differentiation program. Such deregulation may suggest muscle atrophy and molecular mechanisms similar to those involved in myositis observed in human patients.
Project description:Aim: Salidroside is an active compound extracted from Rhodiola rosea which is used to alleviate fatigue and enhance endurance in high altitude regions. Some studies have demonstrated that salidroside can affect precursor cell differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells, erythrocytes, and osteoblasts. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of salidroside on myoblast differentiation and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of this effect. Methods: C2C12 myoblast cells were treated with different concentrations of salidroside in differentiation media. Real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunofluorescence assay were employed to evaluate the effects of salidroside on C2C12 differentiation. RNA interference was used to reveal the important role of Myf5 in myogenesis inhibited by salidroside. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and dual-luciferase reporter assay were utilized to explore the underlying mechanisms of salidroside-induced upregulation of Myf5. Results: We found that salidroside inhibits myogenesis by downregulating MyoD and myogenin, preserves undifferentiated reserve cell pools by upregulating Myf5. Knocking down Myf5 expression significantly rescued the myogenesis inhibited by salidroside. The effect of salidroside on myogenesis was associated with increased phosphorylated Smad3 (p-Smad3). Both SIS3 (Specific inhibitor of p-Smad3) and dominant negative Smad3 plasmid (DN-Smad3) attenuated the inhibitory effect of salidroside on C2C12 differentiation. Moreover, the induction of Myf5 transcription by salidroside was dependent on a Smad-binding site in the promoter region of Myf5 gene. Conclusion and Implications: Our findings identify a novel role and mechanism for salidroside in regulating myogenesis through p-Smad3-induced Myf5 transcription, which may have implications for its further application in combating degenerative muscular diseases caused by depletion of muscle stem cells, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy or sarcopenia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effective therapies with demonstrated antineoplastic activity. Nilotinib is a second-generation FDA-approved TKI designed to overcome Imatinib resistance and intolerance in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Interestingly, TKIs have also been shown to be an efficient treatment for several non-malignant disorders such fibrotic diseases, including those affecting skeletal muscles. METHODS:We investigated the role of Nilotinib on skeletal myogenesis using the well-established C2C12 myoblast cell line. We evaluated the impact of Nilotinib during the time course of skeletal myogenesis. We compared the effect of Nilotinib with the well-known p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. MEK1/2 UO126 and PI3K/AKT LY294002 inhibitors were used to identify the signaling pathways involved in Nilotinib-related effects on myoblast. Adult primary myoblasts were also used to corroborate the inhibition of myoblasts fusion and myotube-nuclei positioning by Nilotinib. RESULTS:We found that Nilotinib inhibited myogenic differentiation, reducing the number of myogenin-positive myoblasts and decreasing myogenin and MyoD expression. Furthermore, Nilotinib-mediated anti-myogenic effects impair myotube formation, myosin heavy chain expression, and compromise myotube-nuclei positioning. In addition, we found that p38 MAPK is a new off-target protein of Nilotinib, which causes inhibition of p38 phosphorylation in a similar manner as the well-characterized p38 inhibitor SB203580. Nilotinib induces the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT on myoblasts but not in myotubes. We also found that Nilotinib stimulates myoblast proliferation, a process dependent on ERK1/2 and AKT activation. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest that Nilotinib may have important negative effects on muscle homeostasis, inhibiting myogenic differentiation but stimulating myoblasts proliferation. Additionally, we found that Nilotinib stimulates the activation of ERK1/2 and AKT. On the other hand, we suggest that p38 MAPK is a new off-target of Nilotinib. Thus, there is a necessity for future studies to investigate the long-term effects of TKIs on skeletal muscle homeostasis, along with potential detrimental effects in cell differentiation and proliferation in patients receiving TKI therapies.
Project description:Skeletal muscle satellite cells can sense various forms of environmental cues and initiate coordinated signaling that activates myogenesis. Although this process involves cellular membrane receptor integrins, the role of integrins in myogenesis is not well defined. Here, we report a regulatory role of ?3-integrin, which was previously thought not expressed in muscle, in the initiation of satellite cell differentiation. Undetected in normal muscle, ?3-integrin expression in mouse hindlimb muscles is induced dramatically from 1 to 3 d after injury by cardiotoxin. The source of ?3-integrin expression is found to be activated satellite cells. Proliferating C2C12 myoblasts also express ?3-integrin, which is further up-regulated transiently on differentiation. Knockdown of ?3-integrin expression attenuates Rac1 activity, impairs myogenic gene expression, and disrupts focal adhesion formation and actin organization, resulting in impaired myoblast migration and myotube formation. Conversely, overexpression of constitutively active Rac1 rescues myotube formation. In addition, a ?3-integrin-neutralizing antibody similarly blocked myotube formation. Comparing with wild-type littermates, myogenic gene expression and muscle regeneration in cardiotoxin-injured ?3-integrin-null mice are impaired, as indicated by depressed expression of myogenic markers and morphological disparities. Thus, ?3-integrin is a mediator of satellite cell differentiation in regenerating muscle.