Two dynamin-2 genes are required for normal zebrafish development.
ABSTRACT: Dynamin-2 (DNM2) is a large GTPase involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and related trafficking pathways. Mutations in human DNM2 cause two distinct neuromuscular disorders: centronuclear myopathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Zebrafish have been shown to be an excellent animal model for many neurologic disorders, and this system has the potential to inform our understanding of DNM2-related disease. Currently, little is known about the endogenous zebrafish orthologs to human DNM2. In this study, we characterize two zebrafish dynamin-2 genes, dnm2 and dnm2-like. Both orthologs are structurally similar to human DNM2 at the gene and protein levels. They are expressed throughout early development and in all adult tissues examined. Knockdown of dnm2 and dnm2-like gene products resulted in extensive morphological abnormalities during development, and expression of human DNM2 RNA rescued these phenotypes. Our findings suggest that dnm2 and dnm2-like are orthologs to human DNM2, and that they are required for normal zebrafish development.
Project description:Mutations in the dynamin-2 gene (DNM2) cause autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (CNM) and dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy type B (CMTDIB). As the relation between these DNM2-related diseases is poorly understood, we used zebrafish to investigate the effects of two different DNM2 mutations. First we identified a new alternatively spliced zebrafish dynamin-2a mRNA (dnm2a-v2) with greater similarity to human DNM2 than the deposited sequence. Then we knocked-down the zebrafish dnm2a, producing defects in muscle morphology. Finally, we expressed two mutated DNM2 mRNA by injecting zebrafish embryos with human mRNAs carrying the R522H mutation, causing CNM, or the G537C mutation, causing CMT. Defects arose especially in secondary motor neuron formation, with incorrect branching in embryos injected with CNM-mutated mRNA, and total absence of branching in those injected with CMT-mutated mRNA. Muscle morphology in embryos injected with CMT-mutated mRNA appeared less regularly organized than in those injected with CNM-mutated mRNA. Our results showing, a continuum between CNM and CMTDIB phenotypes in zebrafish, similarly to the human conditions, confirm this animal model to be a powerful tool to investigate mutations of DNM2 in vivo.
Project description:Heterozygous mutations in dynamin 2 (DNM2) have been linked to dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy and centronuclear myopathy. We report the first homozygous mutation in the DNM2 protein p.Phe379Val, in three consanguineous patients with a lethal congenital syndrome associating akinesia, joint contractures, hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, and brain and retinal hemorrhages. In vitro membrane tubulation, trafficking and GTPase assays are consistent with an impact of the DNM2p.Phe379Val mutation on endocytosis. Although DNM2 has been previously implicated in axonal and muscle maintenance, the clinical manifestation in our patients taken together with our expression analysis profile during mouse embryogenesis and knockdown approaches in zebrafish resulting in defects in muscle organization and angiogenesis support a pleiotropic role for DNM2 during fetal development in vertebrates and humans.
Project description:Dynamin 2 (DNM2) belongs to a family of large GTPases that are well known for mediating membrane fission by oligomerizing at the neck of membrane invaginations. Autosomal dominant mutations in the ubiquitously expressed DNM2 cause 2 discrete neuromuscular diseases: autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (ADCNM) and dominant intermediate Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT). CNM and CMT mutations may affect DNM2 in distinct manners: CNM mutations may cause protein hyperactivity with elevated GTPase and fission activities, while CMT mutations could impair DNM2 lipid binding and activity. DNM2 is also a modifier of the X-linked and autosomal recessive forms of CNM, as DNM2 protein levels are upregulated in animal models and patient muscle samples. Strikingly, reducing DNM2 has been shown to revert muscle phenotypes in preclinical models of CNM. As DNM2 emerges as the key player in CNM pathogenesis, the role(s) of DNM2 in skeletal muscle remains unclear. This review aims to provide insights into potential pathomechanisms related to DNM2-CNM mutations, and discuss exciting outcomes of current and future therapeutic approaches targeting DNM2 hyperactivity.
Project description:Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder associated with general skeletal muscle weakness, type I fiber predominance and atrophy, and abnormally centralized nuclei. Autosomal dominant CNM is due to mutations in the large GTPase dynamin 2 (DNM2), a mechanochemical enzyme regulating cytoskeleton and membrane trafficking in cells. To date, 40 families with CNM-related DNM2 mutations have been described, and here we report 60 additional families encompassing a broad genotypic and phenotypic spectrum. In total, 18 different mutations are reported in 100 families and our cohort harbors nine known and four new mutations, including the first splice-site mutation. Genotype-phenotype correlation hypotheses are drawn from the published and new data, and allow an efficient screening strategy for molecular diagnosis. In addition to CNM, dissimilar DNM2 mutations are associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathy (CMTD1B and CMT2M), suggesting a tissue-specific impact of the mutations. In this study, we discuss the possible clinical overlap of CNM and CMT, and the biological significance of the respective mutations based on the known functions of dynamin 2 and its protein structure. Defects in membrane trafficking due to DNM2 mutations potentially represent a common pathological mechanism in CNM and CMT.
Project description:Dynamin 2 (DNM2) is a large GTPase implicated in many cellular functions, including cytoskeleton regulation and endocytosis. Although ubiquitously expressed, DNM2 was found mutated in two genetic disorders affecting different tissues: autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (ADCNM; skeletal muscle) and peripheral Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (peripheral nerve). To gain insight into the function of DNM2 in skeletal muscle and the pathological mechanisms leading to ADCNM, we introduced wild-type DNM2 (WT-DNM2) or R465W DNM2 (RW-DNM2), the most common ADCNM mutation, into adult wild-type mouse skeletal muscle by intramuscular adeno-associated virus injections. We detected altered localization of RW-DNM2 in mouse muscle. Several ADCNM features were present in RW-DNM2 mice: fiber atrophy, nuclear mislocalization, and altered mitochondrial staining, with a corresponding reduction in specific maximal muscle force. The sarcomere and triad structures were also altered. We report similar findings in muscle biopsy specimens from an ADCNM patient with the R465W mutation. In addition, expression of wild-type DNM2 induced some muscle defects, albeit to a lesser extent than RW-DNM2, suggesting that the R465W mutation has enhanced activity in vivo. In conclusion, we show the RW-DNM2 mutation acts in a dominant manner to cause ADCNM in adult muscle, and the disease arises from a primary defect in skeletal muscle rather than secondary to peripheral nerve involvement. Therefore, DNM2 plays important roles in the maintenance of adult muscle fibers.
Project description:Rapid advances in allele-specific silencing by RNA interference established a strategy of choice to cure dominant inherited diseases by targeting mutant alleles. We used this strategy for autosomal-dominant centronuclear myopathy (CNM), a rare neuromuscular disorder without available treatment due to heterozygous mutations in the DNM2 gene encoding Dynamin 2. Allele-specific siRNA sequences were developed in order to specifically knock down the human and murine DNM2-mRNA harbouring the p.R465W mutation without affecting the wild-type allele. Functional restoration was achieved in muscle from a knock-in mouse model and in patient-derived fibroblasts, both expressing the most frequently encountered mutation in patients. Restoring either muscle force in a CNM mouse model or DNM2 function in patient-derived cells is an essential breakthrough towards future gene-based therapy for dominant centronuclear myopathy.
Project description:The large GTPase dynamin 2 is a key player in membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics mutated in centronuclear myopathy (CNM) and Charcot-Marie Tooth (CMT) neuropathy, two discrete dominant neuromuscular disorders affecting skeletal muscle and peripheral nerves respectively. The molecular basis for the tissue-specific phenotypes observed and the physiopathological mechanisms linked to dynamin 2 mutations are not well established. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of CNM and CMT implicated dynamin 2 mutants using ectopic expression of four CNM and two CMT mutations, and patient fibroblasts harboring two dynamin 2 CNM mutations in established cellular processes of dynamin 2 action. Wild type and CMT mutants were seen in association with microtubules whereas CNM mutants lacked microtubules association and did not disrupt interphase microtubules dynamics. Most dynamin 2 mutants partially decreased clathrin-mediated endocytosis when ectopically expressed in cultured cells; however, experiments in patient fibroblasts suggested that endocytosis is overall not defective. Furthermore, CNM mutants were seen in association with enlarged clathrin stained structures whereas the CMT mutant constructs were associated with clathrin structures that appeared clustered, similar to the structures observed in Dnm1 and Dnm2 double knock-out cells. Other roles of dynamin 2 including its interaction with BIN1 (amphiphysin 2), and its function in Golgi maintenance and centrosome cohesion were not significantly altered. Taken together, these mild functional defects are suggestive of differences between CMT and CNM disease-causing dynamin 2 mutants and suggest that a slight impairment in clathrin-mediated pathways may accumulate over time to foster the respective human diseases.
Project description:Dynamin 2 gene (DNM2) mutations result in an autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy (CNM) and a Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy. DNM2-CMT but not DNM2-CNM patients were noted to have neutropenia. We here report a man with paravertebral muscles hypertrophy and mild neutropenia. His muscle biopsy was typical for CNM with additional "necklace" fibers. Sequencing of DNM2 revealed a known heterozygous c.1269C>T (p.Arg369Trp) mutation. Necklace fibers were considered as a pathological hallmark of late onset X-linked CNM due to mutations in MTM1 but have not been observed in DNM2-CNM. The findings broaden the features of DNM2-myopathy.
Project description:Dynamin 2 (DNM2) is a large GTPase, ubiquitously expressed, involved in membrane trafficking and regulation of actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. DNM2 mutations cause autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy which is a rare congenital myopathy characterized by skeletal muscle weakness and histopathological features including nuclear centralization in absence of regeneration. No curative treatment is currently available for the DNM2-related autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy. In order to develop therapeutic strategy, we evaluated here the potential of Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing technology to reprogram the Dnm2-mRNA in vitro and in vivo in mice. We show that classical 3'-trans-splicing strategy cannot be considered as accurate therapeutic strategy regarding toxicity of the pre-trans-splicing molecules leading to low rate of trans-splicing in vivo. Thus, we tested alternative strategies devoted to prevent this toxicity and enhance frequency of trans-splicing events. We succeeded to overcome the toxicity through a 5'-trans-splicing strategy which also allows detection of trans-splicing events at mRNA and protein levels in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that the Spliceosome-Mediated RNA Trans-splicing strategy may be used to reprogram mutated Dnm2-mRNA but highlight the potential toxicity linked to the molecular tools which have to be carefully investigated during preclinical development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) represents a large group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders linked to over 70 different loci and more than 60 recognized disease-causing genes. A heightened vulnerability to disruption of various cellular processes inherent to the unique function and morphology of corticospinal neurons may account, at least in part, for the genetic heterogeneity. METHODS:Whole exome sequencing was utilized to identify candidate genetic variants in a four-generation Siberian kindred that includes nine individuals showing clinical features of HSP. Segregation of candidate variants within the family yielded a disease-associated mutation. Functional as well as in-silico structural analyses confirmed the selected candidate variant to be causative. RESULTS:Nine known patients had young-adult onset of bilateral slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity, weakness and hyperreflexia progressing over two-to-three decades to wheel-chair dependency. In the advanced stage of the disease, some patients also had distal wasting of lower leg muscles, pes cavus, mildly decreased vibratory sense in the ankles, and urinary urgency along with electrophysiological evidence of a mild distal motor/sensory axonopathy. Molecular analyses uncovered a missense c.2155C > T, p.R719W mutation in the highly conserved GTP-effector domain of dynamin 2. The mutant DNM2 co-segregated with HSP and affected endocytosis when expressed in HeLa cells. In-silico modeling indicated that this HSP-associated dynamin 2 mutation is located in a highly conserved bundle-signaling element of the protein while dynamin 2 mutations associated with other disorders are located in the stalk and PH domains; p.R719W potentially disrupts dynamin 2 assembly. CONCLUSION:This is the first report linking a mutation in dynamin 2 to a HSP phenotype. Dynamin 2 mutations have previously been associated with other phenotypes including two forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy and centronuclear myopathy. These strikingly different pathogenic effects may depend on structural relationships the mutations disrupt. Awareness of this distinct association between HSP and c.2155C > T, p.R719W mutation will facilitate ascertainment of additional DNM2 HSP families and will direct future research toward better understanding of cell biological processes involved in these partly overlapping clinical syndromes.