Safety and immunogenicity of DNA and MVA HIV-1 subtype C vaccine prime-boost regimens: a phase I randomised Trial in HIV-uninfected Indian volunteers.
ABSTRACT: STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled phase I trial. METHODS: The trial was conducted in 32 HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers to assess the safety and immunogenicity of prime-boost vaccination regimens with either 2 doses of ADVAX, a DNA vaccine containing Chinese HIV-1 subtype C env gp160, gag, pol and nef/tat genes, as a prime and 2 doses of TBC-M4, a recombinant MVA encoding Indian HIV-1 subtype C env gp160, gag, RT, rev, tat, and nef genes, as a boost in Group A or 3 doses of TBC-M4 alone in Group B participants. Out of 16 participants in each group, 12 received vaccine candidates and 4 received placebos. RESULTS: Both vaccine regimens were found to be generally safe and well tolerated. The breadth of anti-HIV binding antibodies and the titres of anti-HIV neutralizing antibodies were significantly higher (p<0.05) in Group B volunteers at 14 days post last vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were detected mainly against Tier-1 subtype B and C viruses. HIV-specific IFN-? ELISPOT responses were directed mostly to Env and Gag proteins. Although the IFN-? ELISPOT responses were infrequent after ADVAX vaccinations, the response rate was significantly higher in group A after 1(st) and 2(nd) MVA doses as compared to the responses in group B volunteers. However, the priming effect was short lasting leading to no difference in the frequency, breadth and magnitude of IFN-?ELISPOT responses between the groups at 3, 6 and 9 months post-last vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Although DNA priming resulted in enhancement of immune responses after 1(st) MVA boosting, the overall DNA prime MVA boost was not found to be immunologically superior to homologous MVA boosting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trial Registry CTRI/2009/091/000051.
Project description:A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial was conducted in 32 HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers to assess the safety and immunogenicity of 3 doses of DNA vaccine (Advax) plus 1 dose of recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) (TBC-M4) or 3 doses of TBC-M4 alone (groups A and B, respectively). Both vaccine regimens were found to be safe and well tolerated. Gamma interferon (IFN-?) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay responses were detected in 1/10 (10%) individuals in group A after three Advax primes and in 9/9 individuals (100%) after the MVA boost. In group B, IFN-? ELISPOT responses were detected in 6/12 (50%) and 7/11 (64%) individuals after the second and third MVA vaccinations, respectively. Responses to all vaccine components, but predominantly to Env, were seen. The breadth and magnitude of the T cell response and viral inhibition were greater in group A than in group B, indicating that the quality of the T-cell response was enhanced by the DNA prime. Intracellular cytokine staining indicated that the T-cell responses were polyfunctional but were skewed toward Env with a CD4(+) phenotype. At 2 weeks after the last vaccination, HIV-specific antibody responses were detected in all (100%) group B and 1/11 (9.1%) group A vaccinees. Vaccinia virus-specific responses were detected in all (100%) group B and 2/11 (18.2%) group A vaccinees. In conclusion, HIV-specific T-cell responses were seen in the majority of volunteers in groups A and B but with a trend toward greater quality of the T-cell response in group A. Antibody responses were better in group B than in group A.
Project description:Effective vaccine design relies on accurate knowledge of protection against a pathogen, so as to be able to induce relevant and effective protective responses against it. An ideal Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine should induce humoral as well as cellular immune responses to prevent initial infection of host cells or limit early events of viral dissemination. A Phase I HIV-1 prophylactic vaccine trial sponsored by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) was conducted in India in 2009.The trial tested a HIV-1 subtype C vaccine in a prime-boost regimen, comprising of a DNA prime (ADVAX) and Modified Vaccine Ankara (MVA) (TBC-M4) boost. The trial reported that the vaccine regimen was safe, well tolerated, and resulted in enhancement of HIV-specific immune responses. However, preliminary immunological studies were limited to vaccine-induced IFN-? responses against the Env and Gag peptides. The present study is a retrospective study to characterize in detail the nature of the vaccine-induced cell mediated immune responses among volunteers, using Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) that were archived during the trial. ELISpot was used to measure IFN-? responses and polyfunctional T cells were analyzed by intracellular multicolor flow cytometry. It was observed that DNA priming and MVA boosting induced Env and Gag specific bi-functional and multi-functional CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2. The heterologous prime-boost regimen appeared to be slightly superior to the homologous prime-boost regimen in inducing favorable cell mediated immune responses. These results suggest that an in-depth analysis of vaccine-induced cellular immune response can aid in the identification of correlates of an effective immunogenic response, and inform future design of HIV vaccines.
Project description:We characterized prime-boost vaccine regimens using heterologous and homologous vector and gene inserts. Heterologous regimens offer a promising approach that focuses the cell-mediated immune response on the insert and away from vector-dominated responses. Ad35-GRIN/ENV (Ad35-GE) vaccine is comprised of two vectors containing sequences from HIV-1 subtype A gag, rt, int, nef (Ad35-GRIN) and env (Ad35-ENV). MVA-CMDR (MVA-C), MVA-KEA (MVA-K) and MVA-TZC (MVA-T) vaccines contain gag, env and pol genes from HIV-1 subtypes CRF01_AE, A and C, respectively. Balb/c mice were immunized with different heterologous and homologous vector and insert prime-boost combinations. HIV and vector-specific immune responses were quantified post-boost vaccination. Gag-specific IFN-? ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) (CD107a, IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-2), pentamer staining and T-cell phenotyping were used to differentiate responses to inserts and vectors. Ad35-GE prime followed by boost with any of the recombinant MVA constructs (rMVA) induced CD8+ Gag-specific responses superior to Ad35-GE-Ad35-GE or rMVA-rMVA prime-boost combinations. Notably, there was a shift toward insert-focus responses using heterologous vector prime-boost regimens. Gag-specific central and effector memory T cells were generated more rapidly and in greater numbers in the heterologous compared to the homologous prime-boost regimens. These results suggest that heterologous prime-boost vaccination regimens enhance immunity by increasing the magnitude, onset and multifunctionality of the insert-specific cell-mediated immune response compared to homologous vaccination regimens. This study supports the rationale for testing heterologous prime-boost regimens in humans.
Project description:We explored the duration of immune responses and the effect of a late third HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) boost in HIV-DNA primed and HIV-MVA boosted Tanzanian volunteers. Twenty volunteers who had previously received three HIV-DNA and two HIV-MVA immunizations were given a third HIV-MVA immunization 3 years after the second HIV-MVA boost. At the time of the third HIV-MVA, 90% of the vaccinees had antibodies to HIV-1 subtype C gp140 (median titer 200) and 85% to subtype B gp160 (median titer 100). The majority of vaccinees had detectable antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)-mediating antibodies, 70% against CRF01_AE virus-infected cells (median titer 239) and 84% against CRF01_AE gp120-coated cells (median titer 499). A high proportion (74%) of vaccinees had IFN-? ELISpot responses, 63% to Gag and 42% to Env, 3 years after the second HIV-MVA boost. After the third HIV-MVA, there was an increase in Env-binding antibodies and ADCC-mediating antibodies relative to the response seen at the time of the third HIV-MVA vaccination, p?<?.0001 and p?<?.05, respectively. The frequency of IFN-? ELISpot responses increased to 95% against Gag or Env and 90% to both Gag and Env, p?=?.064 and p?=?.002, respectively. In conclusion, the HIV-DNA prime/HIV-MVA boost regimen elicited potent antibody and cellular immune responses with remarkable durability, and a third HIV-MVA immunization significantly boosted both antibody and cellular immune responses relative to the levels detected at the time of the third HIV-MVA, but not to higher levels than after the second HIV-MVA.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We compared safety and immunogenicity of intradermal (ID) vaccination with and without electroporation (EP) in a phase I randomized placebo-controlled trial of an HIV-DNA prime HIV-MVA boost vaccine in healthy Swedish volunteers.<h4>Methods</h4>HIV-DNA plasmids encoding HIV-1 genes gp160 subtypes A, B and C; Rev B; Gag A and B and RTmut B were given ID at weeks 0, 6 and 12 in a dose of 0.6 mg. Twenty-five volunteers received vaccine using a needle-free device (ZetaJet) with (n=16) or without (n=9) ID EP (Dermavax). Five volunteers were placebo recipients. Boosting with recombinant MVA-CMDR expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol of CRF01_AE (HIV-MVA) or placebo was performed at weeks 24 and 40. Nine of the vaccinees received a subtype C CN54 gp140 protein boost together with HIV-MVA.<h4>Results</h4>The ID/EP delivery was very well tolerated. After three HIV-DNA immunizations, no statistically significant difference was seen in the IFN-? ELISpot response rate to Gag between HIV-DNA ID/EP recipients (5/15, 33%) and HIV-DNA ID recipients (1/7, 14%, p=0.6158). The first HIV-MVA or HIV-MVA+gp140 vaccination increased the IFN-? ELISpot response rate to 18/19 (95%). CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cell responses to Gag or Env were demonstrable in 94% of vaccinees. A balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response was noted, with 78% and 71% responders, respectively. IFN-? and IL-2 dominated the CD4+ T cell response to Gag and Env. The CD8+ response to Gag was broader with expression of IFN-?, IL-2, MIP-1? and/or CD107. No differences were seen between DNA vaccine groups. Binding antibodies were induced after the second HIV-MVA+/-gp140 in 93% of vaccinees to subtype C Env, with the highest titers among EP/gp140 recipients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Intradermal electroporation of HIV-DNA was well tolerated. Strong cell- and antibody-mediated immune responses were elicited by the HIV-DNA prime and HIV-MVA boosting regimen, with or without intradermal electroporation use.<h4>Trial registration</h4>International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) 60284968.
Project description:Heterologous prime-boost strategies are of interest for HIV vaccine development. The order of prime-boost components could be important for the induction of T-cell responses. In this phase I/II multi-arm trial, three vaccine candidates were used as prime or boost: MVA HIV-B (coding for Gag, Pol, Nef); HIV LIPO-5 (5 lipopeptides from Gag, Pol, Nef); DNA GTU-MultiHIV B (coding for Rev, Nef, Tat, Gag, Env gp160 clade B). Healthy volunteers (n=92) were randomized to four groups: 1) MVA at weeks (W) 0/8 + LIPO-5 at W20/28 (M/L); 2) LIPO-5 at W0/8 + MVA at W20/28 (L/M); 3) DNA at W0/4/12 + LIPO-5 at W20/28 (G/L); 4) DNA at W0/4/12 + MVA at W20/28 (G/M). Frequency of IFNγ-ELISpot responders at W30 was 33%, 43%, 0% and 74%, respectively. Only MVA-receiving groups were further analyzed. Gene expression profiles of 79 subjects at different timepoints were analyzed by Illumina Whole-Genome Gene Expression BeadChips. Significant whole blood gene expression changes were observed two weeks after the first MVA injection, regardless of its use as prime or boost. An MVA gene signature was identified, including 86 genes mainly related to cell cycle pathways. Three prime-boost strategies led to CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and to a whole blood gene expression signature primarily due to their MVA HIV-B component.
Project description:A Phase I HIV-1 vaccine trial sponsored by the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI) was conducted in India in 2009 to test a subtype C prophylactic vaccine in a prime-boost regimen comprising of a DNA prime (ADVAX) and MVA (TBC-M4) boost. The trial demonstrated that the regimen was safe and well tolerated and resulted in enhancement of HIV-specific immune responses. Preliminary observations on vaccine-induced immune responses were limited to analysis of neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ ELISPOT response. The present study involves a more detailed analysis of the nature of the vaccine-induced humoral immune response using specimens that were archived from the volunteers at the time of the trial. Interestingly, we found vaccine induced production of V1/V2 and V3 region-specific antibodies in a significant proportion of vaccinees. Variable region antibody levels correlated directly with the frequency of circulating T follicular helper cells (Tfh) and regulatory T cells (Treg). Our findings provide encouraging evidence to demonstrate the immunogenicity of the tested vaccine. Better insights into vaccine-induced immune responses can aid in informing future design of a successfulHIV-1 vaccine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We conducted a phase I/II randomized placebo-controlled trial with the aim of exploring whether priming with a low intradermal dose of a multiclade, multigene HIV-1 DNA vaccine could improve the immunogenicity of the same vaccine given intramuscularly prior to boosting with a heterologous HIV-1 MVA among healthy adults in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS:Sixty HIV-uninfected volunteers were randomized to receive DNA plasmid vaccine 1mg intradermally (id), n=20, or 3.8mg intramuscularly (im), n=20, or placebo, n=20, using a needle-free injection device. DNA plasmids encoding HIV-1 genes gp160 subtype A, B, C; rev B; p17/p24 gag A, B and Rtmut B were given at weeks 0, 4 and 12. Recombinant MVA (10(8)pfu) expressing HIV-1 Env, Gag, Pol of CRF01_AE or placebo was administered im at month 9 and 21. RESULTS:The vaccines were well tolerated. Two weeks after the third HIV-DNA injection, 22/38 (58%) vaccinees had IFN-? ELISpot responses to Gag. Two weeks after the first HIV-MVA boost all 35 (100%) vaccinees responded to Gag and 31 (89%) to Env. Two to four weeks after the second HIV-MVA boost, 28/29 (97%) vaccinees had IFN-? ELISpot responses, 27 (93%) to Gag and 23 (79%) to Env. The id-primed recipients had significantly higher responses to Env than im recipients. Intracellular cytokine staining for Gag-specific IFN-?/IL-2 production showed both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell responses. All vaccinees had HIV-specific lymphoproliferative responses. All vaccinees reacted in diagnostic HIV serological tests and 26/29 (90%) had antibodies against gp160 after the second HIV-MVA boost. Furthermore, while all of 29 vaccinee sera were negative for neutralizing antibodies against clade B, C and CRF01_AE pseudoviruses in the TZM-bl neutralization assay, in a PBMC assay, the response rate ranged from 31% to 83% positives, depending upon the clade B or CRF01_AE virus tested. CONCLUSIONS:This vaccine approach is safe and highly immunogenic. Low dose, id HIV-DNA priming elicited higher and broader cell-mediated immune responses to Env after HIV-MVA boost compared to a higher HIV-DNA priming dose given im. Three HIV-DNA priming immunizations followed by two HIV-MVA boosts efficiently induced Env-antibody responses.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of (i) an intradermal HIV-DNA regimen given with/without intradermal electroporation (EP) as prime and (ii) the impact of boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (HIV-MVA) administered with or without subtype C CN54rgp140 envelope protein adjuvanted with Glucopyranosyl Lipid A (GLA-AF) in volunteers from Tanzania and Mozambique. METHODS:Healthy HIV-uninfected adults (N = 191) were randomized twice; first to one of three HIV-DNA intradermal priming regimens by needle-free ZetaJet device at weeks 0, 4 and 12 (Group I: 2x0.1mL [3mg/mL], Group II: 2x0.1mL [3mg/mL] plus EP, Group III: 1x0.1mL [6mg/mL] plus EP). Second the same volunteers received 108 pfu HIV-MVA twice, alone or combined with CN54rgp140/GLA-AF, intramuscularly by syringe, 16 weeks apart. Additionally, 20 volunteers received saline placebo. RESULTS:Vaccinations and electroporation did not raise safety concerns. After the last vaccination, the overall IFN-? ELISpot response rate to either Gag or Env was 97%. Intradermal electroporation significantly increased ELISpot response rates to HIV-DNA-specific Gag (66% group I vs. 86% group II, p = 0.026), but not to the HIV-MVA vaccine-specific Gag or Env peptide pools nor the magnitude of responses. Co-administration of rgp140/GLA-AF with HIV-MVA did not impact the frequency of binding antibody responses against subtype B gp160, C gp140 or E gp120 antigens (95%, 99%, 79%, respectively), but significantly enhanced the magnitude against subtype B gp160 (2700 versus 300, p<0.001) and subtype C gp140 (24300 versus 2700, p<0.001) Env protein. At relatively low titers, neutralizing antibody responses using the TZM-bl assay were more frequent in vaccinees given adjuvanted protein boost. CONCLUSION:Intradermal electroporation increased DNA-induced Gag response rates but did not show an impact on Env-specific responses nor on the magnitude of responses. Co-administration of HIV-MVA with rgp140/GLA-AF significantly enhanced antibody responses.
Project description:We have previously shown that an HIV vaccine regimen including three doses of HIV-modified vaccinia virus Ankara vector expressing HIV-1 antigens from clade B (MVA-B) was safe and elicited moderate and durable (1 year) T-cell and antibody responses in 75% and 95% of HIV-negative volunteers (n = 24), respectively (RISVAC02 study). Here, we describe the long-term durability of vaccine-induced responses and the safety and immunogenicity of an additional MVA-B boost.13 volunteers from the RISVAC02 trial were recruited to receive a fourth dose of MVA-B 4 years after the last immunization. End-points were safety, cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-1 and vector antigens assessed by ELISPOT, intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) and ELISA performed before and 2, 4 and 12 weeks after receiving the boost.Volunteers reported 64 adverse events (AEs), although none was a vaccine-related serious AE. After 4 years from the 1st dose of the vaccine, only 2 volunteers maintained low HIV-specific T-cell responses. After the late MVA-B boost, a modest increase in IFN-? T-cell responses, mainly directed against Env, was detected by ELISPOT in 5/13 (38%) volunteers. ICS confirmed similar results with 45% of volunteers showing that CD4+ T-cell responses were mainly directed against Env, whereas CD8+ T cell-responses were similarly distributed against Env, Gag and GPN. In terms of antibody responses, 23.1% of the vaccinees had detectable Env-specific binding antibodies 4 years after the last MVA-B immunization with a mean titer of 96.5. The late MVA-B boost significantly improved both the response rate (92.3%) and the magnitude of the systemic binding antibodies to gp120 (mean titer of 11460). HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies were also enhanced and detected in 77% of volunteers. Moreover, MVA vector-specific T cell and antibody responses were boosted in 80% and 100% of volunteers respectively.One boost of MVA-B four years after receiving 3 doses of the same vaccine was safe, induced moderate increases in HIV-specific T cell responses in 38% of volunteers but significantly boosted the binding and neutralizing antibody responses to HIV-1 and to the MVA vector.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01923610.