MiR-135a contributes to paclitaxel resistance in tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT: Cancer cell resistance to paclitaxel continues to be a major clinical problem. In this study, we utilized microRNA (miRNA) arrays to screen for differentially expressed miRNAs in paclitaxel-resistant cell lines established in vitro. We observed concordant upregulation of miR-135a in paclitaxel-resistant cell lines representing three human malignancies. Subsequently, the role of miRNA-135a was evaluated in an in vivo model of paclitaxel resistance. In this model, mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line and treated with paclitaxel for a prolonged period. In paclitaxel-resistant cell lines, established either in vitro or in vivo, blockage of miR-135a sensitized resistant cell lines to paclitaxel-induced cell death. We further demonstrated a correlation between paclitaxel response and miR-135a expression in paclitaxel-resistant subclones that were established in vivo. The paclitaxel-resistant phenotype of these subclones was maintained upon retransplantation in new mice, as shown by decreased tumor response upon paclitaxel treatment compared with controls. Upregulation of miR-135a was associated with reduced expression of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC). APC knockdown increased paclitaxel resistance in parental cell lines. Our results indicate that paclitaxel resistance is associated with upregulation of miR-135a, both in vitro and in vivo, and is in part determined by miR-135a-mediated downregulation of APC.
Project description:Paclitaxel is a first-line drug for treating epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, prognosis for patients with advanced stage cancer remains poor due to primary or acquired drug resistance. Therefore, overcoming chemoresistance is one of the greatest challenges in treating EOC. In this study, we identified microRNAs (miRNA) that regulate paclitaxel resistance and tested their potential utility as therapeutic targets. Paclitaxel-resistant cell lines were established using two EOC cell lines: SKVO3ip1 and HeyA8. miRNA PCR arrays showed that miR-194-5p was downregulated in paclitaxel-resistant cells. Forced expression of miR-194-5p resensitized resistant cells to paclitaxel. Conversely, miR-194-5p inhibition induced paclitaxel resistance in parental cells. In silico analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed that MDM2 is a direct target of miR-194-5p. MDM2 was upregulated in paclitaxel resistant cells compared with parental cells. MDM2 inhibition also resensitized resistant cells to paclitaxel and forced MDM2 induced paclitaxel resistance in parental cells. miR-194-5p induced p21 upregulation and G1 phase arrest in resistant cells by downregulating MDM2. Furthermore, a public database showed that high MDM2 expression was associated with a shorter progression-free survival in EOC patients treated with paclitaxel. Collectively, our results show that restoring miR-194-5p expression resensitizes EOCs to paclitaxel, and this may be exploited as a therapeutic option.
Project description:The main challenge in the treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) is that the majority of patients inevitably develop resistance to androgen deprivation. However, the mechanisms involved in hormone independent behavior of PCa remain unclear. In the present study, we identified androgen-induced miR-135a as a direct target of AR. Functional studies revealed that overexpression of miR-135a could significantly decrease cell proliferation and migration, and induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PCa. We identified RBAK and MMP11 as direct targets of miR-135a in PCa by integrating bioinformatics analysis and experimental assays. Mechanistically, miR-135a repressed PCa migration through downregulating MMP11 and induced PCa cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by suppressing RBAK. Consistently, inverse correlations were also observed between the expression of miR-135a and RBAK or MMP11 in PCa samples. In addition, low miR-135a and high RBAK and MMP11 expression were positively correlated with PCa progression. Also, PI3K/AKT pathway was confirmed to be an upstream regulation signaling of miR-135a in androgen-independent cell lines. Accordingly, we reported a resistance mechanism to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) mediated by miR-135a which might be downregulated by androgen depletion and/or PI3K/AKT hyperactivation, in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), thus promoting tumor progression. Taken together, miR-135a may represent a new diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker for castration-resistant PCa.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. In this way they might influence whether a cell is sensitive or resistant to a certain drug. So far, only a limited number of relatively small scale studies comprising few cell lines and/or drugs have been performed. To obtain a broader view on miRNAs and their association with drug response, we investigated the expression levels of 411 miRNAs in relation to drug sensitivity in 36 breast cancer cell lines. For this purpose IC50 values of a drug screen involving 34 drugs were associated with miRNA expression data of the same breast cancer cell lines. Since molecular subtype of the breast cancer cell lines is considered a confounding factor in drug association studies, multivariate analysis taking subtype into account was performed on significant miRNA-drug associations which retained 13 associations. These associations consisted of 11 different miRNAs and eight different drugs (among which Paclitaxel, Docetaxel and Veliparib). The taxanes, Paclitaxel and Docetaxel, were the only drugs having miRNAs in common: hsa-miR-187-5p and hsa-miR-106a-3p indicative of drug resistance while Paclitaxel sensitivity alone associated with hsa-miR-556-5p. Tivantinib was associated with hsa-let-7d-5p and hsa-miR-18a-5p for sensitivity and hsa-miR-637 for resistance. Drug sensitivity was associated with hsa-let-7a-5p for Bortezomib, hsa-miR-135a-3p for JNJ-707 and hsa-miR-185-3p for Panobinostat. Drug resistance was associated with hsa-miR-182-5p for Veliparib and hsa-miR-629-5p for Tipifarnib. Pathway analysis for significant miRNAs was performed to reveal biological roles, aiding to find a potential mechanistic link for the observed associations with drug response. By doing so hsa-miR-187-5p was linked to the cell cycle G2-M checkpoint in line with this checkpoint being the target of taxanes. In conclusion, our study shows that miRNAs could potentially serve as biomarkers for intrinsic drug resistance and that pathway analyses can provide additional information in this context.
Project description:Paclitaxel is a first-line drug for treating epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, prognosis for patients with advanced stage cancer remains poor due to primary or acquired drug resistance. Therefore, overcoming chemoresistance is one of the greatest challenges in treating EOC. In this study, we identified microRNAs (miRNA) that regulate paclitaxel resistance and tested their potential utility as therapeutic targets. Paclitaxel-resistant cell lines were established using two EOC cell lines: SKVO3ip1 and HeyA8. miRNA PCR arrays showed that miR-194-5p was downregulated in paclitaxel-resistant cells. Forced expression of miR-194-5p resensitized resistant cells to paclitaxel. Conversely, miR-194-5p inhibition induced paclitaxel resistance in parental cells. In silico analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed that MDM2 is a direct target of miR-194-5p. MDM2 was upregulated in paclitaxel resistant cells compared with parental cells. MDM2 inhibition also resensitized resistant cells to paclitaxel and forced MDM2 induced paclitaxel resistance in parental cells. miR-194-5p induced p21 upregulation and G1 phase arrest in resistant cells by downregulating MDM2. Furthermore, a public database showed that high MDM2 expression was associated with a shorter progression-free survival in EOC patients treated with paclitaxel. Collectively, our results show that restoring miR-194-5p expression resensitizes EOCs to paclitaxel, and this may be exploited as a therapeutic option. Overall design: We established paclitaxel resistant high grade serous ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3ip1-TR and HeyA8-TR) from 2 parental cell lines (SKOV3ip1 and HeyA8),. Then miRNA expression profiles were assessed in these 4 ovarian cancer cell lines by TaqMan miRNA arrays. Relative expression of miRNAs in paclitaxel resistant sublines were calculated when compared with parental cell lines.
Project description:Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of all skin cancers. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by targeted repression of transcription and translation and play essential roles during cancer development. Our study showed that miR-135a is upregulated in malignant melanoma tissues and cell lines by using Real-time PCR assay. Enforced expression of miR-135a in malignant melanoma cells promotes cell proliferation, tumorigenicity, and cell cycle progression, whereas inhibition of miR-135a reverses the function. Additionally, we demonstrated FOXO1 is a direct target of miR-135a and transcriptionally down-regulated by miR-135a. Ectopic expression of miR-135a led to downregulation of the FOXO1 protein, resulting in upregulation of Cyclin D1, and downregulation of P21(Cip1) and P27(Kip1) through AKT pathway. Our findings suggested that miR-135a represents a potential onco-miRNA and plays an important role in malignant melanoma progression by suppressing FOXO1 expression.
Project description:Paclitaxel resistance is a critical challenge in ovarian cancer treatment. This study aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that modulate paclitaxel resistance for use as potential therapeutic targets in such settings. Paclitaxel-resistant cell lines were established using two ovarian cancer cell lines: SKOV3ip1 and HeyA8. The evaluation of miRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays indicated that the expression of miR-522-3p was downregulated in paclitaxel-resistant cells. The restoration of miR-522-3p sensitized the resistant cells to paclitaxel, and its downregulation desensitized the parental cells. Using PCR arrays, we focused on E2F2, with the luciferase reporter assay revealing that it was a direct target for miR-522-3p. The paclitaxel-resistant cells showed stronger E2F2 expression than the parental cells, while E2F2 inhibition sensitized the resistant cells to paclitaxel. Forced E2F2 expression in the parental cells led to the acquisition of paclitaxel resistance, while miR-522-3p inhibited E2F2 expression and was associated with retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation attenuation, which resulted in G0/G1 arrest. The effects of miR-522-3p and E2F2 in ovarian cancer were examined using public databases, revealing that low miR-522-3p expression and high E2F2 expression were associated with significantly poorer overall survival. In conclusion, miR-522-3p attenuated the degree of paclitaxel resistance in vitro through the downregulation of E2F2; miR-522-3p supplementation may be a therapeutic target for paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer.
Project description:Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common malignancies in women. Paclitaxel is the front-line chemotherapeutic agent for treating CC. However, its therapeutic efficacy is limited because of chemoresistance, the mechanism of which remains poorly understood. Here, we used microRNA (miRNA) arrays to compare miRNA expression levels in the CC cell lines, HeLa and CaSki, with their paclitaxel resistance counterparts, HeLa/PR and CaSki/PR. We demonstrate that miR-125a was one of most significantly downregulated miRNAs in paclitaxel-resistant cells, which also acquired cisplatin resistance. And that the upregulation of miR-125a sensitized HeLa/PR and CaSki/PR cells to paclitaxel both in vitro and in vivo and to cisplatin in vitro. Moreover, we determined that miR-125a increased paclitaxel and cisplatin sensitivity by downregulating STAT3. MiR-125a enhanced paclitaxel and cisplatin sensitivity by promoting chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Clinically, miR-125a expression was associated with an increased responsiveness to paclitaxel combined with cisplatin and a more favorable outcome. These data indicate that miR-125a may be a useful method to enable treatment of chemoresistant CC and may also provide a biomarker for predicting paclitaxel and cisplatin responsiveness in CC.
Project description:Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the most leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Paclitaxel based combination therapies have long been used as a standard treatment in aggressive NSCLCs. But paclitaxel resistance has emerged as a major clinical problem in combating non-small-cell lung cancer and autophagy is one of the important mechanisms involved in this phenomenon. In this study, we used microRNA (miRNA) arrays to screen differentially expressed miRNAs between paclitaxel sensitive lung cancer cells A549 and its paclitaxel-resistant cell variant (A549-T24). We identified miR-17-5p was one of most significantly downregulated miRNAs in paclitaxel-resistant lung cancer cells compared to paclitaxel sensitive parental cells. We found that overexpression of miR-17-5p sensitized paclitaxel resistant lung cancer cells to paclitaxel induced apoptotic cell death. Moreover, in this report we demonstrated that miR-17-5p directly binds to the 3'-UTR of beclin 1 gene, one of the most important autophagy modulator. Overexpression of miR-17-5p into paclitaxel resistant lung cancer cells reduced beclin1 expression and a concordant decease in cellular autophagy. We also observed similar results in another paclitaxel resistant lung adenosquamous carcinoma cells (H596-TxR). Our results indicated that paclitaxel resistance of lung cancer is associated with downregulation of miR-17-5p expression which might cause upregulation of BECN1 expression.
Project description:Chemotherapy resistance is a major obstacle to curing cancer patients. Combination drug regimens have shown promise as a method to overcome resistance; however, to date only some cancers have been cured with this method. Collateral sensitivity – the phenomenon whereby resistance to one drug is co-occurrent with sensitivity to a second drug – has been gaining traction as a promising new concept to guide rational design of combination regimens. Here we evolved over 100 subclones of the Eµ-Myc; p19ARF -/- cell line to be resistant to one of four classical chemotherapy agents: doxorubicin, vincristine, paclitaxel, and cisplatin. We then surveyed collateral responses to acquisition of resistance to these agents. Although numerous collateral sensitivities have been documented for antibiotics and targeted cancer therapies, we observed only one collateral sensitivity: half of cell lines that acquired resistance to paclitaxel also acquired a collateral sensitivity to verapamil. However, we found that the mechanism of this collateral sensitivity was unrelated to the mechanism of paclitaxel resistance. Interestingly, we observed heterogeneity in the phenotypic response to acquisition of resistance to most of the drugs we tested, most notably for paclitaxel, suggesting the existence of multiple different states of resistance. Surprisingly, this phenotypic heterogeneity in paclitaxel resistant cell lines was unrelated to transcriptomic heterogeneity among those cell lines. These features of phenotypic and transcriptomic heterogeneity must be taken into account in future studies of treated tumor subclones and in design of chemotherapy combinations. Overall design: Gene expression in 17 paclitaxel resistant cell lines, 12 DMSO control lines, and one parental line.
Project description:Tumor metastasis has been the major cause of recurrence and death in patients with gastric cancer. Here, we find miR-135a has a decreased expression in the metastatic cell lines compared with its parental cell lines by analyzing microRNA array. Further results show that miR-135a is downregulated in the majority of human gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Decreased expression of miR-135a is associated with TNM stage and poor survival. Besides, regaining miR-135a in gastric cancer cells obviously inhibits tumor growth, migration, invasion and angiogenesis by targeting focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway. Bioinformatics analysis and molecular experiments further prove that miR-135a is a novel downstream gene of tumor suppressor p53. Blocking FAK with its inhibitor can also enhance miR-135a expression through inducing p53. In summary, this study reveals the expression and function of miR-135a in gastric cancer and uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism of miR-135a.