CD36-dependent signaling mediates fatty acid-induced gut release of secretin and cholecystokinin.
ABSTRACT: Genetic variants in the fatty acid (FA) translocase FAT/CD36 associate with abnormal postprandial lipids and influence risk for the metabolic syndrome. CD36 is abundant on apical enterocyte membranes in the proximal small intestine, where it facilitates FA uptake and FA-initiated signaling. We explored whether CD36 signaling influences FA-mediated secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin, peptides released by enteroendocrine cells (EECs) in the duodenum/jejunum, which regulate events important for fat digestion and homeostasis. CD36 was immunodetected on apical membranes of secretin- and CCK-positive EECs and colocalized with cytosolic granules. Intragastric lipid administration to CD36 mice released less secretin (-60%) and CCK (-50%) compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, diminished secretin and CCK responses to FA were observed with CD36 intestinal segments in vitro, arguing against influence of alterations in fat absorption. Signaling mechanisms underlying peptide release were examined in STC-1 cells stably expressing human CD36 or a signaling-impaired mutant (CD36K/A). FA stimulation of cells expressing CD36 (vs. vector or CD36K/A) released more secretin (3.5- to 4-fold) and CCK (2- to 3-fold), generated more cAMP (2- to 2.5-fold), and enhanced protein kinase A activation. Protein kinase A inhibition (H-89) blunted secretin (80%) but not CCK release, which was reduced (50%) by blocking of calmodulin kinase II (KN-62). Coculture of STC-1 cells with Caco-2 cells stably expressing CD36 did not alter secretin or CCK release, consistent with a minimal effect of adjacent enterocytes. In summary, CD36 is a major mediator of FA-induced release of CCK and secretin. These peptides contribute to the role of CD36 in fat absorption and to its pleiotropic metabolic effects.
Project description:CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36) is a scavenger receptor that functions in high-affinity tissue uptake of long-chain fatty acids (FAs) and contributes under excessive fat supply to lipid accumulation and metabolic dysfunction. This review describes recent evidence regarding the CD36 FA binding site and a potential mechanism for FA transfer. It also presents the view that CD36 and FA signaling coordinate fat utilization, a view that is based on newly identified CD36 actions that involve oral fat perception, intestinal fat absorption, secretion of the peptides cholecystokinin and secretin, regulation of hepatic lipoprotein output, activation of beta oxidation by muscle, and regulation of the production of the FA-derived bioactive eicosanoids. Thus abnormalities of fat metabolism and the associated pathology might involve dysfunction of CD36-mediated signal transduction in addition to the changes in FA uptake.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:It is important to increase our understanding of gustatory detection of dietary fat and its contribution to fat preference. We studied the roles of the fat taste receptors CD36 and GPR120 and their interactions via Ca(2+) signaling in fungiform taste bud cells (TBC). METHODS:We measured Ca(2+) signaling in human TBC, transfected with small interfering RNAs against messenger RNAs encoding CD36 and GPR120 (or control small interfering RNAs). We also studied Ca(2+) signaling in TBC from CD36(-/-) mice and from wild-type lean and obese mice. Additional studies were conducted with mouse enteroendocrine cell line STC-1 that express GPR120 and stably transfected with human CD36. We measured release of serotonin and glucagon-like peptide-1 from human and mice TBC in response to CD36 and GPR120 activation. RESULTS:High concentrations of linoleic acid induced Ca(2+) signaling via CD36 and GPR120 in human and mice TBC, as well as in STC-1 cells, and low concentrations induced Ca(2+) signaling via only CD36. Incubation of human and mice fungiform TBC with lineoleic acid down-regulated CD36 and up-regulated GPR120 in membrane lipid rafts. Obese mice had decreased spontaneous preference for fat. Fungiform TBC from obese mice had reduced Ca(2+) and serotonin responses, but increased release of glucagon-like peptide-1, along with reduced levels of CD36 and increased levels of GPR120 in lipid rafts. CONCLUSIONS:CD36 and GPR120 have nonoverlapping roles in TBC signaling during orogustatory perception of dietary lipids; these are differentially regulated by obesity.
Project description:The short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, butyrate and propionate, are produced by fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates by the gut microbiota and regulate appetite, adiposity, metabolism, glycemic control, and immunity. SCFAs act at two distinct G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), FFAR2 and FFAR3 and are expressed in intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EECs), where they mediate anorectic gut hormone release. EECs also express other GPCRs that act as nutrient sensors, thus SCFAs may elicit some of their health-promoting effects by altering GPCR expression in EECs and enhance gut sensitivity to dietary molecules. Here, we identify that exposure of the murine EEC STC-1 cell line or intestinal organoids to physiological concentrations of SCFAs enhances mRNA levels of the umami taste receptors TASR1 and TASR3, without altering levels of the SCFA GPCRs, FFAR2 and FFAR3. Treatment of EECs with propionate or butyrate, but not acetate, increased levels of umami receptor transcripts, while propionate also reduced CCK expression. This was reversed by inhibiting G?i/o signaling with pertussis toxin, suggesting that SCFAs act through FFAR2/3 to alter gene expression. Surprisingly, neither a FFAR3 nor a FFAR2 selective ligand could increase TASR1/TASR3 mRNA levels. We assessed the functional impact of increased TASR1/TASR3 expression using unique pharmacological properties of the umami taste receptor; namely, the potentiation of signaling by inosine monophosphate. Activation of umami taste receptor induced inositol-1-phosphate and calcium signaling, and butyrate pretreatment significantly enhanced such signaling. Our study reveals that SCFAs may contribute to EEC adaptation and alter EEC sensitivity to bioactive nutrients.
Project description:FAT/CD36 is a multifunctional glycoprotein that facilitates long-chain fatty acid (FA) uptake by cardiomyocytes and adipocytes and uptake of oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) by macrophages. CD36 also mediates FA-induced signaling to increase intracellular calcium in various cell types. The membrane-impermeable sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) ester of oleate (SSO) irreversibly binds CD36 and has been widely used to inhibit CD36-dependent FA uptake and signaling to calcium. The inhibition mechanism and whether SSO modification of CD36 involves the FA-binding site remain unexplored. CHO cells expressing human CD36 were SSO-treated, and the protein was pulled down, deglycosylated, and resolved by electrophoresis. The CD36 band was extracted from the gel and digested for analysis by mass spectrometry. NHS derivatives react with primary or secondary amines on proteins to yield stable amide or imide bonds. Two oleoylated peptides, found only in SSO-treated samples, were identified with high contribution and confidence scores as carrying oleate modification of Lys-164. Lysine 164 lies within a predicted CD36 binding domain for FA and oxLDL. CHO cells expressing CD36 with mutated Lys-164 had impaired CD36 function in FA uptake and FA-induced calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, supporting the importance of Lys-164 for both FA effects. Furthermore, consistent with the importance of Lys-164 for oxLDL binding, SSO inhibited oxLDL uptake by macrophages. In conclusion, SSO accesses Lys-164 in the FA-binding site on CD36, and initial modeling of this site is presented. The data suggest competition between FA and oxLDL for access to the CD36 binding pocket.
Project description:Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an archetypal incretin hormone secreted by intestinal enteroendocrine cells (EEC) in response to ingested nutrients. The aim of this study was to determine whether CCK modulates enterocyte fatty acid uptake by primary mouse duodenal cells. Exposure of primary mouse duodenal cells to 10 pM sulfated CCK-8 caused a two fold increase in dodecanoic acid fatty acid (FA) uptake. The selective CCK A receptor antagonist loxiglumide (100 ?M) completely abolished the CCK-8 induced FA uptake. The CD36 fatty acid translocase-specific inhibitor sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (1 ?M) also completely inhibited CCK-8 induced FA uptake, as did treatment with 200 ?M phloretin. Together these data show CCK induces FA uptake into duodenal enterocytes; this action involves the CCK-RA receptor and is carrier mediated by CD36.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) of the large intestine, found scattered in the epithelial layer, are known to express different hormones, with at least partial co-expression of different hormones in the same cell. Here we aimed to categorize colonic EECs and to identify possible targets for selective recruitment of hormones. METHODS:Single cell RNA-sequencing of sorted enteroendocrine cells, using NeuroD1-Cre x Rosa26-EYFP mice, was used to cluster EECs from the colon and rectum according to their transcriptome. G-protein coupled receptors differentially expressed across clusters were identified, and, as a proof of principle, agonists of Agtr1a and Avpr1b were tested as candidate EEC secretagogues in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS:EECs from the large intestine separated into 7 clear clusters, 4 expressing higher levels of Tph1 (enzyme required for serotonin (5-HT) synthesis; enterochromaffin cells), 2 enriched for Gcg (encoding glucagon-like peptide-1, GLP-1, L-cells), and the 7th expressing somatostatin (D-cells). Restricted analysis of L-cells identified 4 L-cell sub-clusters, exhibiting differential expression of Gcg, Pyy (Peptide YY), Nts (neurotensin), Insl5 (insulin-like peptide 5), Cck (cholecystokinin), and Sct (secretin). Expression profiles of L- and enterochromaffin cells revealed the clustering to represent gradients along the crypt-surface (cell maturation) and proximal-distal gut axes. Distal colonic/rectal L-cells differentially expressed Agtr1a and the ligand angiotensin II was shown to selectively increase GLP-1 and PYY release in vitro and GLP-1 in vivo. CONCLUSION:EECs in the large intestine exhibit differential expression gradients along the crypt-surface and proximal-distal axes. Distal L-cells can be differentially stimulated by targeting receptors such as Agtr1a.
Project description:Various subtypes of enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are present in the gut epithelium. EECs and pancreatic ?-cells share similar pathways of differentiation during embryonic development and after birth. In this study, similarities between EECs and ?-cells were evaluated in detail. To obtain specific subtypes of EECs, cell sorting by flow cytometry was conducted from STC-1 cells (a heterogenous EEC line), and each single cell was cultured and passaged. Five EEC subtypes were established according to hormone expression, measured by quantitative RT-PCR and immunostaining: L, K, I, G and S cells expressing glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, cholecystokinin, gastrin and secretin, respectively. Each EEC subtype was found to express not only the corresponding gut hormone but also other gut hormones. Global microarray gene expression profiles revealed a higher similarity between each EEC subtype and MIN6 cells (a ?-cell line) than between C2C12 cells (a myoblast cell line) and MIN6 cells, and all EEC subtypes were highly similar to each other. Genes for insulin secretion-related proteins were mostly enriched in EECs. However, gene expression of transcription factors crucial in mature ?-cells, such as PDX1, MAFA and NKX6.1, were remarkably low in all EEC subtypes. Each EEC subtype showed variable methylation in three cytosine-guanosine dinucleotide sites in the insulin gene (Ins2) promoter, which were fully unmethylated in MIN6 cells. In conclusion, our data confirm that five EEC subtypes are closely related to ?-cells, suggesting a potential target for cell-based therapy in type 1 diabetes.
Project description:Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a satiety hormone produced by discrete enteroendocrine cells scattered among absorptive cells of the small intestine. CCK is released into blood following a meal; however, the mechanisms inducing hormone secretion are largely unknown. Ingested fat is the major stimulant of CCK secretion. We recently identified a novel member of the lipoprotein remnant receptor family known as immunoglobulin-like domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1) in intestinal CCK cells and postulated that this receptor conveyed the signal for fat-stimulated CCK secretion. In the intestine, ILDR1 is expressed exclusively in CCK cells. Orogastric administration of fatty acids elevated blood levels of CCK in wild type but not ILDR1-deficient mice, although the CCK secretory response to trypsin inhibitor was retained. The uptake of fluorescently labeled lipoproteins in ILDR1-transfected CHO cells and release of CCK from isolated intestinal cells required a unique combination of fatty acid plus HDL. CCK secretion secondary to ILDR1 activation is associated with increased [Ca2+]i consistent with regulated hormone release. These findings demonstrate that ILDR1 regulates CCK release through a mechanism dependent on fatty acids and lipoproteins and that absorbed fatty acids regulate gastrointestinal hormone secretion. GFP positive cells from CCK-EGFP transgenic mice were isolated by FACS and the expression profile was compared with an equal number of non-fluorescent intestinal cells.
Project description:Food refusal is a hallmark of exposure of experimental animals to the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a common foodborne contaminant. Although studies in the mouse suggest that DON suppresses food intake by aberrantly inducing the release of satiety hormones from enteroendocrine cells (EECs) found in the gut epithelium, the underlying mechanisms for this effect are not understood. To address this gap, we employed the murine neuroendocrine tumor STC-1 cell line, a widely used EEC model, to test the hypothesis that DON-induced hormone exocytosis is mediated by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated Ca(2+) signaling. The results indicate for the first time that DON elicits Ca(2)-dependent secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36) amide (GLP-1), hormones that regulate food intake and energy homeostasis and that are products of 2 critical EEC populations--I cells of the small intestine and L cells of the large intestine, respectively. Furthermore, these effects were mediated by the GPCR Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaSR) and involved the following serial events: (1)PLC-mediated activation of the IP3 receptor and mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) stores, (2) activation of transient receptor potential melastatin-5 ion channel and resultant L-type voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channel-facilitated extracellular Ca(2+) entry, (3) amplification of extracellular Ca(2+) entry by transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 channel activation, and finally (4) Ca(2+)-driven CCK and GLP-1 excytosis. These in vitro findings provide a foundation for future investigation of mechanisms by which DON and other trichothecenes modulate EEC function in ex vivo and in vivo models.
Project description:In this study, similarities between EECs and β-cells were evaluated in detail. To obtain specific subtypes of EECs, cell sorting by flow cytometry was conducted from STC-1 cells (a heterogenous EEC line), and each single cell was cultured and passaged. Five EEC subtypes were established according to hormone expression, measured by quantitative RT-PCR and immunostaining: L, K, I, G and S cells expressing glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, cholecystokinin, gastrin and secretin, respectively. Global microarray gene expression profiles revealed a higher similarity between each EEC subtype and MIN6 cells (a β-cell line) than between C2C12 cells (a myoblast cell line) and MIN6 cells, and all EEC subtypes were highly similar to each other. Genes for insulin secretion-related proteins were mostly enriched in EECs. Overall design: A total of 100 ng of RNA from each sample was amplified to make cDNA using the GeneChip Whole Transcript Amplification kit according to the supplied protocol. The sense cDNA was then fragmented and biotin-labeled with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase using the GeneChip Whole Transcript Terminal Labeling kit. A 5500-ng sample of each cDNA was hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse 2.0 ST Arrays at 45°C for 16 h. Hybridized arrays were scanned using a GSC3000 Scanner.