A prospective multicenter phase II study evaluating multimodality treatment of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis arising from appendiceal and colorectal cancer: the COMBATAC trial.
ABSTRACT: Peritoneal carcinomatosis is regarded as a common sign of advanced tumor stage, tumor progression or local recurrence of appendiceal and colorectal cancer and is generally associated with poor prognosis. Although survival of patients with advanced stage CRC has markedly improved over the last 20 years with systemic treatment, comprising combination chemotherapy +/- monoclonal antibodies, the oncological outcome-especially of the subgroup of patients with peritoneal metastases-is still unsatisfactory. In addition to systemic therapy, cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) are specific treatment options for a selected group of these patients and may provide an additional therapeutic benefit in the framework of an interdisciplinary treatment concept.The COMBATAC trial is a prospective, multicenter, open-label, single-arm, single-stage phase II trial investigating perioperative systemic polychemotherapy including cetuximab in combination with CRS and HIPEC patients with histologically proven wild-type KRAS colorectal or appendiceal adenocarcinoma and synchronous or metachronous peritoneal carcinomatosis. The planned total number of patients to be recruited is 60. The primary endpoint is progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints include overall survival (OS), perioperative morbidity and treatment-associated toxicity, feasibility of the combined treatment regimen, quality of life (QoL) and histopathological regression after preoperative chemotherapy.The COMBATAC trial is designed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of the combined multidisciplinary treatment regimen consisting of perioperative systemic combination chemotherapy plus cetuximab and CRS plus bidirectional HIPEC with intraperitoneal oxaliplatin.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01540344, EudraCT number: 2009-014040-11.
Project description:Selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from colorectal cancer (CRC) benefit from cytoreductive surgery (CRS) combined with intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (IPC). However, even after optimal cytoreduction, systemic and locoregional recurrence are common. Perioperative chemotherapy with bevacizumab (BEV) may improve the outcome of these patients.The BEV-IP study is a phase II, single-arm, open-label study aimed at patients with colorectal or appendiceal adenocarcinoma with synchronous or metachronous PC. This study evaluates whether perioperative chemotherapy including BEV in combination with CRS and oxaliplatin-based IPC results in acceptable morbidity and mortality (primary composite endpoint). Secondary endpoints are treatment completion rate, chemotherapy-related toxicity, pathological response, progression free survival, and overall survival.The BEV-IP trial is the first prospective assessment of the safety and efficacy of perioperative chemotherapy combined with anti-angiogenic treatment in patients undergoing CRS and IPC for colorectal peritoneal metastases.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02399410 EudraCT number: 2015-001187-19 (registered March 9, 2015).
Project description:Although cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic perioperative chemotherapy (HIPEC) have not been shown to be effective by themselves, as a combined treatment they are now standard of care for peritoneal metastases from appendiceal cancer and from colorectal cancer as well as peritoneal mesothelioma. The timing of the HIPEC in relation to the CRS is crucial in that the HIPEC is to destroy minimal residual disease that remains following the CRS and prevent microscopic tumor emboli within the abdomen and pelvis from implanting within the resection site, within fibrinous clot, or within blood clot. Proper selection of chemotherapy agents is crucial to the long-term benefit of CRS and HIPEC. One must consider the response expected with the cancer chemotherapy agent, its area under the curve (AUC) ratio indicating the amount of dose intensity within the peritoneal space, and the drug retention within the peritoneal space for a prolonged exposure. Hyperthermia will augment the cytotoxicity of the cancer chemotherapy agents and improve drug penetration. Irrigation techniques should not be overlooked as an important means of reducing the cancer cell burden within the abdomen and pelvis. Multiple technologies for HIPEC exist and these have advantages and disadvantages. The techniques vary from a totally open technique with a vapor barrier over the open abdominal space to a totally closed technique whereby the HIPEC is administered at the completion of the surgical procedure. The open techniques depend on a table-mounted retractor for suspension of the skin edges allowing a reservoir to occur within the abdomen and pelvis. There are nearly a dozen commercially available hyperthermia pumps, all of which seem to perform adequately for HIPEC although there is a variable degree of convenience and documentation of the HIPEC procedure. As the management of peritoneal metastases has progressed over three decades, early cases are now seen in which a laparoscopic CRS and HIPEC may be appropriate. Also, prophylactic use of laparoscopic HIPEC with perforated appendiceal malignancies and T4 colon cancers may be appropriate.
Project description:The standard of care for colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis is evolving from chemotherapy to cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for patients with disease limited to the peritoneum. Peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer treated with chemotherapy alone results in median survival of 5 to 13 months, whereas CRS with HIPEC for early peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer resulted in median survival of 48-63 months and 5 year survival of 51%.Completeness of cytoreduction and limited disease are associated with longer survival, yet early peritoneal carcinomatosis is undetectable by conventional imaging. Exploratory laparotomy can successfully identify early disease, but this approach can only be justified in patients with high risk of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Historical data indicates that patients presenting with synchronous peritoneal carcinomatosis, ovarian metastases, perforated primary tumor, and emergency presentation with bleeding or obstructing lesions are at high risk of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Approximately 55% of these patient populations will develop peritoneal carcinomatosis. We hypothesize that performing a mandatory second look laparotomy with CRS and HIPEC for patients who are at high risk for developing peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer will lead to improved survival as compared to patients who receive standard of care with routine surveillance.This study is a prospective randomized trial designed to answer the question whether mandatory second look surgery with CRS and HIPEC will prolong overall survival compared to the standard of care in patients who are at high risk for developing peritoneal carcinomatosis from colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients with CRC at high risk for developing peritoneal carcinomatosis who underwent curative surgery and subsequently received standard of care adjuvant chemotherapy will be evaluated. The patients who remain without evidence of disease by imaging, physical examination, and tumor markers for 12 months after the primary operation will be randomized to mandatory second look surgery or standard-of-care surveillance. At laparotomy, CRS and HIPEC will be performed with intraperitoneal oxaliplatin with concurrent systemic 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. Up to 100 patients will be enrolled to allow for 35 evaluable patients in each arm; accrual is expected to last 5 years.ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01095523.
Project description:Patients with gastric cancer and peritoneal carcinomatosis have a very poor prognosis; median survival is 3 to 4 months. Palliative systemic chemotherapy is currently the only treatment available in the Netherlands. Intraoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has an established role in the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis originating from colorectal cancer, appendiceal cancer, and pseudomyxoma peritonei; its role in gastric cancer is uncertain. Currently, there is no consensus on the choice of chemotherapeutic agents used in HIPEC for gastric cancer.The main objectives of this study are (1) to investigate the safety, tolerability, and feasibility of gastrectomy combined with cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC after systemic chemotherapy, as a primary treatment option for patients with advanced gastric cancer with tumor positive peritoneal cytology and/or limited peritoneal carcinomatosis; and (2) to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of intraperitoneal docetaxel in combination with a fixed dose of intraperitoneal oxaliplatin.The PERISCOPE study is a multicenter, open label, phase I-II dose-escalation study. The MTD of docetaxel will be studied using a 3+3 design. Patients with locally advanced (cT3-cT4) gastric adenocarcinoma are eligible for inclusion if the primary gastric tumor is considered resectable, tumor positive peritoneal cytology and/or limited peritoneal carcinomatosis is confirmed by diagnostic laparoscopy/ laparotomy, and prior systemic chemotherapy was without disease progression. At laparotomy, cytoreductive surgery (complete removal of all macroscopically visible tumor deposits) and a total or partial gastrectomy with a D2 lymph node dissection is performed. An open HIPEC technique is used with 460mg/m2 hyperthermic oxaliplatin for 30 minutes (41°C to 42°C) followed by normothermic docetaxel for 90 minutes (37°C) in a dose that will be escalated per 3 patients (0, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 mg/m2). The primary endpoint is treatment related toxicity.Patient accrual is ongoing and the first results are expected in 2017.The PERISCOPE study will determine the safety, tolerability, and feasibility of gastrectomy combined with cytoreduction and HIPEC using oxaliplatin in combination with docetaxel after systemic chemotherapy as primary treatment option for gastric cancer patients with tumor positive peritoneal cytology and/or limited peritoneal carcinomatosis. This study will provide pharmacokinetic data on the intraperitoneal administration of oxaliplatin and docetaxel, including the MTD of intraperitoneal-administered docetaxel. These data are a prerequisite for the safe conduct of future HIPEC studies in patients with gastric cancer.Netherlands Trial Registration (NTR): NTR4250; http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/ rctview.asp?TC=4250 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6rWJONgkt).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Peritoneal metastases portend poor prognosis in the setting of standard chemotherapy. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) improves outcomes, but relapse is common. We report a phase II trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of adjuvant ?DC1 vaccination with chemokine modulation (CKM) after CRS/HIPEC.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC for appendiceal cancer, colorectal cancer, or peritoneal mesothelioma were enrolled. In addition to standard adjuvant chemotherapy, patients received intranodal and intradermal injections of autologous tumor-loaded ?DC1 vaccine. After each vaccine booster, patients received CKM over 4 days, consisting of celecoxib, interferon (IFN)-?, and rintatolimod.<h4>Results</h4>Forty-six patients underwent CRS/HIPEC followed by ?DC1 treatment, including 24 appendiceal primaries, 20 colorectal, and 2 mesotheliomas. DC maturation was successful, with 97% expressing HLA-DR and CD86. Tumor cell recovery from peritoneal tumors was challenging, resulting in only 17% of patients receiving the target dose of ?DC1. The ?DC1 and CKM regimen was well tolerated. CKM successfully modulated serum inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels. Median progression-free survival (PFS) for appendiceal primaries was 50.4, 34.2, and 8.9 months for grade 1, 2, and 3 tumors, respectively, while median PFS for colorectal cancer was 20.5 and 8.9 months for moderately and poorly differentiated tumors, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Adjuvant autologous tumor antigen-loaded ?DC1 vaccine and CKM is well tolerated. The mucinous nature of peritoneal metastases limits the feasibility of obtaining adequate autologous tumor cells. The improvement in median PFS did not meet our predefined thresholds, leading us to conclude that ?DC1 vaccination is not appropriate for patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC for peritoneal metastases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a difficult clinical challenge in colorectal cancer (CRC) because conventional treatment modalities could not produce significant survival benefit, which highlights the acute need for new treatment strategies. Our previous case-control study demonstrated the potential survival advantage of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) over CRS alone. This phase II study was to further investigate the efficacy and adverse events of CRS+HIPEC for Chinese patients with CRC PC.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 60 consecutive CRC PC patients underwent 63 procedures consisting of CRS+HIPEC and postoperative chemotherapy, all by a designated team focusing on this combined treatment modality. All the clinico-pathological information was systematically integrated into a prospective database. The primary end point was disease-specific overall survival (OS), and the secondary end points were perioperative safety profiles.<h4>Results</h4>By the most recent database update, the median follow-up was 29.9 (range 3.5-108.9) months. The peritoneal cancer index (PCI) ?20 was in 47.0% of patients, complete cytoreductive surgery (CC0-1) was performed in 53.0% of patients. The median OS was 16.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.2-19.8) months, and the 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 70.5%, 34.2%, 22.0% and 22.0%, respectively. Mortality and grades 3 to 5 morbidity rates in postoperative 30 days were 0.0% and 30.2%, respectively. Univariate analysis identified 3 parameters with significant effects on OS: PCI ?20, CC0-1 and adjuvant chemotherapy over 6 cycles. On multivariate analysis, however, only CC0-1 and adjuvant chemotherapy ?6 cycles were found to be independent factors for OS benefit.<h4>Discussion</h4>CRS+HIPEC at a specialized treatment center could improve OS for selected CRC PC patients from China, with acceptable perioperative safety.
Project description:Gastric cancer associated peritoneal carcinomatosis (GCPC) has a poor prognosis with a median survival of less than one year. Systemic chemotherapy including targeted agents has not been found to significantly increase the survival in GCPC. Since recurrent gastric cancer remains confined to the abdominal cavity in many patients, regional therapies like aggressive cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) have been investigated for GCPC. HIPEC has been used for three indications in GC- as an adjuvant therapy after a curative surgery, HIPEC has been shown to improve survival and reduce peritoneal recurrences in many randomised trials in Asian countries; as a definitive treatment in established PC, HIPEC along with CRS is the only therapeutic modality that has resulted in long-term survival in select groups of patients; as a palliative treatment in advanced PC with intractable ascites, HIPEC has been shown to control ascites and reduce the need for frequent paracentesis. While the results of randomised trials of adjuvant HIPEC from western centres are awaited, the role of HIPEC in the treatment of GCPC is still evolving and needs larger studies before it is accepted as a standard of care.
Project description:Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) provide an effective treatment option for selected patients with colorectal peritoneal metastasis with encouraging survival results. Many different drug combinations and HIPEC regimens including bidirectional, i.e. synchronous intravenous and intraperitoneal, drug application have been used. However, there is still no standardization of the HIPEC regimen.Between 05/2007 and 04/2010 190 patients underwent CRS and HIPEC at the University Hospital Regensburg. Thirty-two patients with peritoneal metastasis arising from colorectal or appendiceal cancer underwent complete macroscopic cytoreduction (CC-0/1) and bidirectional HIPEC and completed at least 3-year follow-up. Twenty patients received oxaliplatin-based (OX) and twelve patients received irinotecan-based HIPEC (IRI). Group-specific perioperative morbidity and 3-year survival has been determined.The grade 3/4 morbidity rate according to CTCAE v4 was 35.0% in the OX group vs. 33.3% in the IRI group (p = 1.000). There was no perioperative mortality in both groups. Median survival was 26.8 months (95% CI 15.7-33.1 months) in the IRI group and has not yet been reached in the OX group during a median follow-up of 39.4 months. Three-year survival rates were 65.0% in the OX group vs. 41.7% in the IRI group (p = 0.295).The morbidity and toxicity rates of bidirectional irinotecan-based and oxaliplatin-based HIPEC are comparable. Nevertheless, in the absence of contraindications oxaliplatin-based HIPEC might be preferred due to the positive trend regarding 3-year and median survival.
Project description:Peritoneal Carcinomatosis (PC) is a late stage manifestation of several gastrointestinal malignancies including appendiceal, colorectal, and gastric cancer. In PC, tumors metastasize to and deposit on the peritoneal surface and often leave patients with only palliative treatment options. For colorectal PC, median survival is approximately five months, and palliative systemic therapy is able to extend this to approximately 12 months. However, cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) with a curative intent is possible in some patients with limited tumor burden. In well-selected patients undergoing complete cytoreduction, median survival has been reported as high as 63 month. Identifying patients earlier who are either at risk for, or who have recently developed PC may provide them with additional treatment options such as CRS/HIPEC. PC is diagnosed late by imaging findings or often times during an invasive procedures such as laparoscopy or laparotomy. In order to improve the outcomes of PC patients, a minimally invasive, accurate, and specific PC screening method needs to be developed. By utilizing circulating PC biomarkers in the serum of patients, a "liquid biopsy," may be able to be generated to allow a tailored treatment plan and early intervention. Exosomes, stable patient-derived nanovesicles present in blood, urine, and many other bodily fluids, show promise as a tool for the evaluation of labile biomarkers. If liquid biopsies can be perfected in PC, manifestations of this cancer may be more effectively treated, thus offering improved survival.
Project description:This work was to evaluate the perioperative safety and efficacy of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) with lobaplatin and docetaxel in patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from gastrointestinal and gynecological cancers.Patients were treated by CRS + HIPEC with lobaplatin 50 mg/m(2) and docetaxel 60 mg/m(2) in 6000 mL of normal saline at 43?±?0.5 °C for 60 min. Vital signs were recorded for 6 days after CRS + HIPEC procedures. Perioperative serious adverse events (SAE), hematological, hepatic, renal, and electrolytes parameters, the changes in serum tumor markers (TM) before and after operation, patient recovery, and overall survival (OS) were analyzed.One hundred consecutive PC patients underwent 105 CRS + HIPEC procedures and postoperative chemotherapy. The median CRS + HIPEC duration was 463 (range, 245-820) min, and the highest temperature and heart rate during six postoperative days were 38.6 °C (median 37.5 °C) and 124 bpm (median 100 bpm), respectively. The 30-day perioperative SAE occurred in 16 (15.2 %) and mortality occurred in 2 (1.9 %) patients. Most routine blood laboratory tests at 1 week after surgery turned normal. Among 82 cases with increased preoperative TM CEA, CA125, and CA199, 71 cases had TM levels reduced or turned normal. Median time to nasogastric tube removal was 5 (range, 3-23) days, to liquid food intake 6 (range, 4-24) days, and to abdominal suture removal 15 (range, 10-30) days. At the median follow-up of 19.7 (range, 7.5-89.2) months, the median OS was 24.2 (95 % CI, 15.0-33.4) months, and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 77.5, 32.5, and 19.8 %, respectively. Univariate analysis identified five independent prognostic factors on OS: the origin of PC, peritoneal cancer index, completeness of CRS, cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, and SAE.CRS + HIPEC with lobaplatin and docetaxel to treat PC is a feasible procedure with acceptable safety and can prolong the survival in selected patients with PC.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00454519.