Mouse zygote-specific proteasome assembly chaperone important for maternal-to-zygotic transition.
ABSTRACT: During the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), maternal proteins in oocytes are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), and new proteins are synthesized from the zygotic genome. However, the specific mechanisms underlying the UPS at the MZT are not well understood. We identified a molecule named zygote-specific proteasome assembly chaperone (ZPAC) that is specifically expressed in mouse gonads, and expression of ZPAC was transiently increased at the mouse MZT. ZPAC formed a complex with Ump1 and associated with precursor forms of 20S proteasomes. Transcription of ZPAC genes was also under the control of an autoregulatory feedback mechanism for the compensation of reduced proteasome activity similar to Ump1 and 20S proteasome subunit gene expression. Knockdown of ZPAC in early embryos caused a significant reduction of proteasome activity and decrease in Ump1 and mature proteasomes, leading to accumulation of proteins that need to be degraded at the MZT and early developmental arrest. Therefore, a unique proteasome assembly pathway mediated by ZPAC is important for progression of the mouse MZT.
Project description:Maternal RNA/protein degradation and zygotic genome activation (ZGA), occurring during maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), are the first essential events for the development of pre-implantation embryos. Previously, we have shown the importance of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) for initiation of minor ZGA at the 1-cell stage of mouse embryos. However, little is known about the mechanism of involvement of the UPS-degraded maternal proteins in ZGA. In this study, we investigated the effect of inhibiting maternal protein degradation by the reversible proteasome inhibitor, MG132, on post-implantation development and ZGA regulation during early cleavage stages. Our study revealed that zygotic transcription by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) at the 1-cell stage was delayed and the full-term development was affected by transient proteasome inhibition during 1 to 9 h post-insemination (hpi). Furthermore, we found that the transient inhibition of proteasome activity at the 2-cell stage delayed the onset of transcription of some major ZGA genes. These results support the model hypothesizing the requirement of sequential degradation of maternal proteins by UPS for the proper onset of ZGA and normal progression of MZT in early mouse embryos.
Project description:The heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70, human HSPA1A) plays indispensable roles in cellular stress responses and protein quality control (PQC). In the framework of PQC, it cooperates with the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) to clear damaged and dysfunctional proteins in the cell. Moreover, Hsp70 itself is rapidly degraded following the recovery from stress. It was demonstrated that its fast turnover is mediated via ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. At the same time, the effect of Hsp70 on the functional state of proteasomes has been insufficiently investigated. Here, we characterized the direct effect of recombinant Hsp70 on the activity of 20S and 26S proteasomes and studied Hsp70 degradation by the 20S proteasome in vitro. We have shown that the activity of purified 20S proteasomes is decreased following incubation with recombinant human Hsp70. On the other hand, high concentrations of Hsp70 activated 26S proteasomes. Finally, we obtained evidence that in addition to previously reported ubiquitin-dependent degradation, Hsp70 could be cleaved independent of ubiquitination by the 20S proteasome. The results obtained reveal novel aspects of the interplay between Hsp70 and proteasomes.
Project description:During the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), maternal mRNAs and proteins are degraded, and zygotic genes are activated. We have previously shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) after fertilization plays a role in onset of zygotic transcription. However, the maternal proteins, which are degraded by UPS and can contribute to the zygotic transcription, have not been identified. Here, we identified PIASy (Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y), which is an E3 SUMO ligase, as the maternal proteins that were degraded via UPS after fertilization and by examining the overexpression of PIASy. We observed developmental arrest at the mouse 2-cell stage. Therefore, we examined the effect of PIASy overexpression on zygotic gene expression by using the RNA-sequencing analysis. Overall design: Total RNA-seq was performed using (1) PIASy-WT, (2) PIASy-C335F (SUMO ligase mutant) overexpressed mouse 2-cell embryos, and (3) non-injected mouse 2-cell embryos, in duplicates.
Project description:During the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), mRNAs and proteins stored in oocytes are degraded and zygotic genes are activated. We have previously shown that the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS)-mediated degradation of maternal proteins plays a role in the onset of zygotic transcription. However, it is still unclear which maternal proteins should be degraded for zygotic genome activation and ensuring subsequent embryonic development. In this study, we screen for these maternal factors that are degraded via the UPS. We thus identified a maternal protein PIASy (protein inhibitor of activated STATy), which is an E3 SUMO ligase. The overexpression of PIASy in fertilized embryos causes developmental arrest at the two-cell stage due to severe abnormal chromosome segregation and impaired zygotic transcription. We find that this developmental role of PIASy is related to its SUMOylation activity. Moreover, PIASy overexpression leads to increased trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9me3) in two-cell nuclei and enhanced translocation of H3K9me3 methyltransferase to the pronucleus. Hence, PIASy is a maternal factor that is degraded after fertilization and may be important for the proper induction of zygotic genome activation and embryonic development.
Project description:Proteasomes are responsible for most intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes. The 20S proteasome comprises a dyad-symmetric stack of four heptameric rings made from 14 distinct subunits. How it assembles is not understood. Most subunits in the central pair of beta-subunit rings are synthesized in precursor form. Normally, the beta5 (Doa3) propeptide is essential for yeast proteasome biogenesis, but overproduction of beta7 (Pre4) bypasses this requirement. Bypass depends on a unique beta7 extension, which contacts the opposing beta ring. The resulting proteasomes appear normal but assemble inefficiently, facilitating identification of assembly intermediates. Assembly occurs stepwise into precursor dimers, and intermediates contain the Ump1 assembly factor and a novel complex, Pba1-Pba2. beta7 incorporation occurs late and is closely linked to the association of two half-proteasomes. We propose that dimerization is normally driven by the beta5 propeptide, an intramolecular chaperone, but beta7 addition overcomes an Ump1-dependent assembly checkpoint and stabilizes the precursor dimer.
Project description:The proteasome is responsible for selective degradation of proteins. It exists in mammalian cells under four main subtypes, which differ by the combination of their catalytic subunits: the standard proteasome (?1-?2-?5), the immunoproteasome (?1i-?2i-?5i) and the two intermediate proteasomes (?1-?2-?5i and ?1i-?2-?5i). The efficiency of the four proteasome subtypes to degrade ubiquitinated or oxidized proteins remains unclear. Using cells expressing exclusively one proteasome subtype, we observed that ubiquitinated p21 and c--myc were degraded at similar rates, indicating that the four 26S proteasomes degrade ubiquitinated proteins equally well. Under oxidative stress, we observed a partial dissociation of 26S into 20S proteasomes, which can degrade non-ubiquitinated oxidized proteins. Oxidized calmodulin and hemoglobin were best degraded in vitro by the three ?5i-containing 20S proteasomes, while their native forms were not degraded. Circular dichroism analyses indicated that ubiquitin-independent recognition of oxidized proteins by 20S proteasomes was triggered by the disruption of their structure. Accordingly, ?5i-containing 20S proteasomes degraded unoxidized naturally disordered protein tau, while 26S proteasomes did not. Our results suggest that the three ?5i-containing 20S proteasomes, namely the immunoproteasome and the two intermediate proteasomes, might help cells to eliminate proteins containing disordered domains, including those induced by oxidative stress.
Project description:The assembly of individual mammalian proteasome subunits into catalytically active 20S proteasome is not well understood. Herein, we report the identification and characterization of human and mouse homologues of the yeast proteasome maturating factor Ump1p. We delineate the region of hUMP1 implicated in the specific interaction with proteasome precursors and show that hUMP1 protein is absent from the mature form of the 20S proteasome. We also show that the transcript level of mammalian UMP1 is increased after IFN-gamma treatment and that mammalian UMP1 is functionally related to but not interchangeable with its yeast homologue.
Project description:In animal embryos, the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) hands developmental control from maternal to zygotic gene products. We show that the maternal proteome represents more than half of the protein-coding capacity of Drosophila melanogaster's genome, and that 2% of this proteome is rapidly degraded during the MZT. Cleared proteins include the post-transcriptional repressors Cup, Trailer hitch (TRAL), Maternal expression at 31B (ME31B), and Smaug (SMG). Although the ubiquitin-proteasome system is necessary for clearance of these repressors, distinct E3 ligase complexes target them: the C-terminal to Lis1 Homology (CTLH) complex targets Cup, TRAL, and ME31B for degradation early in the MZT and the Skp/Cullin/F-box-containing (SCF) complex targets SMG at the end of the MZT. Deleting the C-terminal 233 amino acids of SMG abrogates F-box protein interaction and confers immunity to degradation. Persistent SMG downregulates zygotic re-expression of mRNAs whose maternal contribution is degraded by SMG. Thus, clearance of SMG permits an orderly MZT.
Project description:The functional role of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway during maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) remains to be elucidated. Here we show that the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Rnf114, is highly expressed in mouse oocytes and that knockdown of Rnf114 inhibits development beyond the two-cell stage. To study the underlying mechanism, we identify its candidate substrates using a 9,000-protein microarray and validate them using an in vitro ubiquitination system. We show that five substrates could be degraded by RNF114-mediated ubiquitination, including TAB1. Furthermore, the degradation of TAB1 in mouse early embryos is required for MZT, most likely because it activates the NF-?B pathway. Taken together, our study uncovers that RNF114-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of TAB1 activate the NF-?B pathway during MZT, and thus directly link maternal clearance to early embryo development.
Project description:The maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) is a conserved step in animal development, where control is passed from the maternal to the zygotic genome. Although the MZT is typically considered from its impact on the transcriptome, we previously found that three maternally deposited Drosophila RNA-binding proteins (ME31B, Trailer Hitch [TRAL], and Cup) are also cleared during the MZT by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that these proteins are degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Marie Kondo, an E2 conjugating enzyme, and the E3 CTLH ligase are required for the destruction of ME31B, TRAL, and Cup. Structure modeling of the Drosophila CTLH complex suggests that substrate recognition is different than orthologous complexes. Despite occurring hours earlier, egg activation mediates clearance of these proteins through the Pan Gu kinase, which stimulates translation of Kdo mRNA. Clearance of the maternal protein dowry thus appears to be a coordinated, but as-yet underappreciated, aspect of the MZT.