LacZ ?-galactosidase: structure and function of an enzyme of historical and molecular biological importance.
ABSTRACT: This review provides an overview of the structure, function, and catalytic mechanism of lacZ ?-galactosidase. The protein played a central role in Jacob and Monod's development of the operon model for the regulation of gene expression. Determination of the crystal structure made it possible to understand why deletion of certain residues toward the amino-terminus not only caused the full enzyme tetramer to dissociate into dimers but also abolished activity. It was also possible to rationalize ?-complementation, in which addition to the inactive dimers of peptides containing the "missing" N-terminal residues restored catalytic activity. The enzyme is well known to signal its presence by hydrolyzing X-gal to produce a blue product. That this reaction takes place in crystals of the protein confirms that the X-ray structure represents an active conformation. Individual tetramers of ?-galactosidase have been measured to catalyze 38,500 ± 900 reactions per minute. Extensive kinetic, biochemical, mutagenic, and crystallographic analyses have made it possible to develop a presumed mechanism of action. Substrate initially binds near the top of the active site but then moves deeper for reaction. The first catalytic step (called galactosylation) is a nucleophilic displacement by Glu537 to form a covalent bond with galactose. This is initiated by proton donation by Glu461. The second displacement (degalactosylation) by water or an acceptor is initiated by proton abstraction by Glu461. Both of these displacements occur via planar oxocarbenium ion-like transition states. The acceptor reaction with glucose is important for the formation of allolactose, the natural inducer of the lac operon.
Project description:The active site of ss-galactosidase (E. coli) contains a Mg(2+) ion ligated by Glu-416, His-418 and Glu-461 plus three water molecules. A Na(+) ion binds nearby. To better understand the role of the active site Mg(2+) and its ligands, His-418 was substituted with Asn, Glu and Phe. The Asn-418 and Glu-418 variants could be crystallized and the structures were shown to be very similar to native enzyme. The Glu-418 variant showed increased mobility of some residues in the active site, which explains why the substitutions at the Mg(2+) site also reduce Na(+) binding affinity. The Phe variant had reduced stability, bound Mg(2+) weakly and could not be crystallized. All three variants have low catalytic activity due to large decreases in the degalactosylation rate. Large decreases in substrate binding affinity were also observed but transition state analogs bound as well or better than to native. The results indicate that His-418, together with the Mg(2+), modulate the central role of Glu-461 in binding and as a general acid/base catalyst in the overall catalytic mechanism. Glucose binding as an acceptor was also dramatically decreased, indicating that His-418 is very important for the formation of allolactose (the natural inducer of the lac operon).
Project description:β-Galactosidase (lacZ) has bifunctional activity. It hydrolyzes lactose to galactose and glucose and catalyzes the intramolecular isomerization of lactose to allolactose, the lac operon inducer. β-Galactosidase promotes the isomerization by means of an acceptor site that binds glucose after its cleavage from lactose and thus delays its exit from the site. However, because of its relatively low affinity for glucose, details of this site have remained elusive. We present structural data mapping the glucose site based on a substituted enzyme (G794A-β-galactosidase) that traps allolactose. Various lines of evidence indicate that the glucose of the trapped allolactose is in the acceptor position. The evidence includes structures with Bis-Tris (2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2',2″-nitrilotriethanol) and L-ribose in the site and kinetic binding studies with substituted β-galactosidases. The site is composed of Asn-102, His-418, Lys-517, Ser-796, Glu-797, and Trp-999. Ser-796 and Glu-797 are part of a loop (residues 795-803) that closes over the active site. This loop appears essential for the bifunctional nature of the enzyme because it helps form the glucose binding site. In addition, because the loop is mobile, glucose binding is transient, allowing the release of some glucose. Bioinformatics studies showed that the residues important for interacting with glucose are only conserved in a subset of related enzymes. Thus, intramolecular isomerization is not a universal feature of β-galactosidases. Genomic analyses indicated that lac repressors were co-selected only within the conserved subset. This shows that the glucose binding site of β-galactosidase played an important role in lac operon evolution.
Project description:This a model from the article:
Feedback regulation in the lactose operon: a mathematical modeling study and comparison with experimental data.
Yildirim N, Mackey MC Biophys. J.
A mathematical model for the regulation of induction in the lac operon in Escherichia coli is presented. This model takes into account the dynamics of the permease facilitating the internalization of external lactose; internal lactose; beta-galactosidase, which is involved in the conversion of lactose to allolactose, glucose and galactose; the allolactose interactions with the lac repressor; and mRNA. The final model consists of five nonlinear differential delay equations with delays due to the transcription and translation process. We have paid particular attention to the estimation of the parameters in the model. We have tested our model against two sets of beta-galactosidase activity versus time data, as well as a set of data on beta-galactosidase activity during periodic phosphate feeding. In all three cases we find excellent agreement between the data and the model predictions. Analytical and numerical studies also indicate that for physiologically realistic values of the external lactose and the bacterial growth rate, a regime exists where there may be bistable steady-state behavior, and that this corresponds to a cusp bifurcation in the model dynamics.
The model reproduces the time profile of beta-galactosidase activity as shown in Fig 3 of the paper. The delay functions for transcription (M) and translation (B and P) have been implemented by introducing intermediates ( I1, I2 and I3) in the reaction scheme which then give their respective products (I1-> M, I2 ->B and I3 ->P) after an appropriate length of time. The steady state values, attained upon simulation of model equations, for Allolactose (A), mRNA (M), beta-galactosidase (B), Lactose (L), and Permease (P) match with those predicted by the paper. The model was successfully tested on Jarnac, MathSBML and COPASI
This model originates from BioModels Database: A Database of Annotated Published Models (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/biomodels/). It is copyright (c) 2005-2010 The BioModels.net Team.
To cite BioModels Database, please use: Li C, Donizelli M, Rodriguez N, Dharuri H, Endler L, Chelliah V, Li L, He E, Henry A, Stefan MI, Snoep JL, Hucka M, Le Novère N, Laibe C (2010) BioModels Database: An enhanced, curated and annotated resource for published quantitative kinetic models. BMC Syst Biol., 4:92.
Project description:The kinetics of hydrolysis of a series of synthetic substrates by two experimentally evolved forms ('evolvants'), ebgabcd and ebgabcde, of the second beta-galactosidase of Escherichia coli have been measured. The ebgabcd enzyme differs from the wild-type (ebgo) enzyme by Asp92-->Asn (a) and Trp977-->Cys (b) changes in the large subunit, as well as two changes hitherto considered to have no kinetic effect, Ser979-->Gly in the large subunit (c) and Glu122-->Gly in the small subunit (d). The enzyme ebgabcde contains in addition a Glu93-->Lys change in the large subunit (e). Comparison of ebgabcd with ebgab [Elliott, K, Sinnott, Smith, Bommuswamy, Guo, Hall and Zhang (1992) Biochem. J. 282, 155-164] indicates that the c and d changes in fact accelerate the hydrolysis of the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate by a factor of 2.5, and also decrease the charge on the aglycone oxygen atom at the first transition state; the charge on the glycone, however, is unaltered [see K, Konstantinidis, Sinnott and Hall (1993) Biochem. J. 291, 15-17]. The e mutation causes a fall in the degalactosylation rate of about a factor of 3, and its occurrence only together with c and d mutations [Hall, Betts and Wootton (1989) Genetics 123, 635-648] suggests that degalactosylation of a hypothetical ebgabe enzyme would be so slow that the enzyme would have no biological advantage over the ancestral ebgab. The transfer products from galactosyl-ebgabcd and galactosyl-ebgabcde to high concentrations to glucose have been measured; the predominant product is allolactose, but significant quantities of lactose are also formed; however, at apparent kinetic saturation of the galactosyl-enzyme, hydrolysis rather than transfer is the preponderant pathway. A knowledge of the rates of enzyme-catalysed exchange of 18O from [1-18O]galactose to water permits the construction of the free-energy profiles for hydrolysis of lactose by begabcd and ebgabcde. As with the other evolvants, changes in the profile away from the rate-determining transition state are essentially random, and there is no correlation between the changes in the free energies of intermediates and of their flanking transition states. We consider the aggregate of our kinetic data on the ebg system to be telling experimental support for the theoretical objections of Pettersson [Pettersson (1992) Eur. J. Biochem. 206, 289-295 and previous papers] to the Albery-Knowles theory of the evolution of enzyme kinetic activity.
Project description:1. The effect of methanol on the beta-galactosidase-catalysed hydrolysis of some nitrophenyl beta-d-galactopyranosides has been studied under steady-state conditions. 2. The initial fractional rate of increase of k(cat.) as a function of methanol concentration with 2,4- and 3,5-dinitrophenyl beta-d-galactopyranosides, but not with the other substrates studied, indicated that degalactosylation of the enzyme was rate-limiting. 3. The decrease in k(cat.) at high methanol concentrations for these substrates is considered to arise from causes other than galactosylation becoming rate-limiting. 4. Both galactosylation and degalactosylation of the enzyme require protonation of a group of pK(a) approx. 9.
Project description:Beta-galactosidase (lacZ) from Escherichia coli is a 464 kDa homotetramer. Each subunit consists of five domains, the third being an alpha/beta barrel that contains most of the active site residues. A comparison is made between each of the domains and a large set of proteins representative of all structures from the protein data bank. Many structures include an alpha/beta barrel. Those that are most similar to the alpha/beta barrel of E. coli beta-galactosidase have similar catalytic residues and belong to the so-called "4/7 superfamily" of glycosyl hydrolases. The structure comparison suggests that beta-amylase should also be included in this family. Of three structure comparison methods tested, the "ProSup" procedure of Zu-Kang and Sippl and the "Superimpose" procedure of Diederichs were slightly superior in discriminating the members of this superfamily, although all procedures were very powerful in identifying related protein structures. Domains 1, 2, and 4 of E. coli beta-galactosidase have topologies related to "jelly-roll barrels" and "immunoglobulin constant" domains. This fold also occurs in the cellulose binding domains (CBDs) of a number of glycosyl hydrolases. The fold of domain 1 of E. coli beta-galactosidase is closely related to some CBDs, and the domain contributes to substrate binding, but in a manner unrelated to cellulose binding by the CBDs. This is typical of domains 1, 2, 4, and 5, which appear to have been recruited to play roles in beta-galactosidase that are unrelated to the functions that such domains provide in other contexts. It is proposed that beta-galactosidase arose from a prototypical single domain alpha/beta barrel with an extended active site cleft. The subsequent incorporation of elements from other domains could then have reduced the size of the active site from a cleft to a pocket to better hydrolyze the disaccharide lactose and, at the same time, to facilitate the production of inducer, allolactose.
Project description:1. Steady-state kinetic parameters for the beta-galactosidase-catalysed hydrolysis of 13 aryl beta-d-galactopyranosides show no simple dependence on aglycone acidity. 2. alpha-Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (k(H)/k(D)) for seven of these substrates, measured under steady-state conditions with [S]>>K(m), vary from 1.00 for poor substrates to 1.25 for hydrolysis of the galactosyl-enzyme. 3. Methanolysis of the galactosyl-enzyme in 1.5m-methanol increases K(H)/k(D) for degalactosylation, but leaves that for hydrolysis of ;slow' substrates unchanged. 4. These data are incompatible with a simple two-step mechanism. A scheme consisting of a conformation change, liberation of a galactopyranosyl cation in an intimate ion-pair, non-productive but preferential collapse of the ion-pair to a covalent species and reaction of the galactosyl enzyme through the ion-paired form is proposed. 5. This scheme is used to rationalize previously puzzling data about the enzyme mechanism.
Project description:Lactococcus raffinolactis, unlike most lactococci, is able to ferment alpha-galactosides, such as melibiose and raffinose. More than 12 kb of chromosomal DNA from L. raffinolactis ATCC 43920 was sequenced, including the alpha-galactosidase gene and genes involved in the Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. These genes are organized into an operon containing aga (alpha-galactosidase), galK (galactokinase), and galT (galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase). Northern blotting experiments revealed that this operon was induced by galactosides, such as lactose, melibiose, raffinose, and, to a lesser extent, galactose. Similarly, alpha-galactosidase activity was higher in lactose-, melibiose-, and raffinose-grown cells than in galactose-grown cells. No alpha-galactosidase activity was detected in glucose-grown cells. The expression of the aga-galKT operon was modulated by a regulator encoded by the upstream gene galR. The product of galR belongs to the LacI/GalR family of transcriptional regulators. In L. lactis, L. raffinolactis GalR acted as a repressor of aga and lowered the enzyme activity by more than 20-fold. We suggest that the expression of the aga operon in lactococci is negatively controlled by GalR and induced by a metabolite derived from the metabolism of galactosides.
Project description:Latent catalysts can be tuned to function smartly by assigning a sensing threshold using the displacement approach for targeted analytes. Three cyano-bridged bimetallic complexes were synthesized as "smart" latent catalysts through the supramolecular assembly of different metallic donors [FeII(CN)6]4-, [FeII(tBubpy)(CN)4]2-, and FeII(tBubpy)2(CN)2 with a metallic acceptor [CuII(dien)]2+. The investigation of both their thermodynamic and kinetic properties on binding with toxic pollutants provided insight into their smart off-on catalytic capabilities, enabling us to establish a threshold-controlled catalytic system for the degradation of pollutants such as cyanide and oxalate. With these smart latent catalysts, a new catalyst displacement assay (CDA) was demonstrated and applied in a real wastewater treatment process to degrade cyanide pollutants in both domestic (level I, untreated) and industrial wastewater samples collected in Hong Kong, China. The smart system was adjusted to be able to initiate the catalytic oxidation of cyanide at a threshold concentration of 20 ?M (the World Health Organization's suggested maximum allowable level for cyanide in wastewater) to the less harmful cyanate under ambient conditions.
Project description:The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis is often found in association with plants in the rhizosphere. Previously, plant polysaccharides have been shown to stimulate formation of root-associated multicellular communities, or biofilms, in this bacterium, yet the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. A five-gene gan operon (ganSPQAB) in B. subtilis has recently been shown to be involved in utilization of the plant-derived polysaccharide galactan. Despite these findings, molecular details about the regulation of the operon and the role of the operon in biofilm formation remain elusive. In this study, we performed comprehensive genetic analyses on the regulation of the gan operon. We show that this operon is regulated both by a LacI-like transcription repressor (GanR), which directly binds to pairs of inverted DNA repeats in the promoter region of the operon, and by the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). Derepression can be triggered by the presence of the inducer ?-1,4-galactobiose, a hydrolysis product of galactan, or in situ when B. subtilis cells are associated with plant roots. In addition to the transcriptional regulation, the encoded ß-galactosidase GanA (by ganA), which hydrolyzes ß-1,4-galactobiose into galactose, is inhibited at the enzymatic level by the catalytic product galactose. Thus, the galactan utilization pathway is under complex regulation involving both positive and negative feedback mechanisms in B. subtilis. We discuss about the biological significance of such complex regulation as well as a hypothesis of biofilm induction by galactan via multiple mechanisms.