Structural, expression and interaction analysis of rice SKP1-like genes.
ABSTRACT: The degradation of proteins by the 26S proteasome is initiated by protein polyubiquitination mediated by a three-step cascade. The specific ubiquitination of different target proteins is mediated by different classes of E3 ubiquitin ligases, among which the best known are Skp1-Cullin-F-box complexes. Whereas protists, fungi and some vertebrates have a single SKP1 gene, many animal and plant species possess multiple SKP1 homologues. In this paper, we report on the structure, phylogeny and expression of the complete set of rice SKP1 genes (OSKs, Oryza sativa SKP1-like genes). Our analyses indicated that OSK1 and OSK20 belong to a class of SKP1 genes that contain one intron at a conserved position and are highly expressed. In addition, our yeast two-hybrid results revealed that OSK proteins display a differing ability to interact with F-box proteins. However, OSK1 and OSK20 seemed to interact with most of the nine F-box proteins tested. We suggest that rice OSK1 and OSK20 are likely to have functions similar to the Arabidopsis ASK1 and ASK2 genes.
Project description:The ubiquitin proteasome 26S system (UPS), involving monomeric and multimeric E3 ligases is one of the most important signaling pathways in many organisms, including plants. The SCF (SKP1/Cullin/F-box) multimeric complex is particularly involved in response to development and stress signaling. The SKP1 protein (S-phase kinase-associated protein 1) is the core subunit of this complex. In this work, we firstly identified 92 and 87 non-redundant Triticum aestivum SKP1-like (TaSKP) genes that were retrieved from the latest release of the wheat genome database (International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) RefSeq v1.0) and the genome annotation of the TGAC v1 respectively. We then investigated the structure, phylogeny, duplication events and expression patterns of the SKP1-like gene family in various tissues and environmental conditions using a wheat expression platform containing public data. TaSKP1-like genes were expressed differentially in response to stress conditions, displaying large genomic variations or short insertions/deletions which suggests functional specialization within TaSKP1-like genes. Finally, interactions between selected wheat FBX (F-box) proteins and putative ancestral TaSKP1-like proteins were tested using the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system to examine the molecular interactions. These observations suggested that six Ta-SKP1 genes are likely to be ancestral genes, having similar functions as ASK1 and ASK2 in Arabidopsis, OSK1 and OSK20 in rice and PpSKP1 and PpSKP2 in Physcomitrella patens.
Project description:As a core subunit of the SCF complex that promotes protein degradation through the 26S proteasome, S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes, including gibberellin (GA), jasmonate, ethylene, auxin and light responses. P7-2 encoded by Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a devastating viral pathogen that causes severe symptoms in infected plants, interacts with SKP1 from different plants. However, whether RBSDV P7-2 forms a SCF complex and targets host proteins is poorly understood. In this study, we conducted yeast two-hybrid assays to further explore the interactions between P7-2 and 25 type I Oryza sativa SKP1-like (OSK) proteins, and found that P7-2 interacted with eight OSK members with different binding affinity. Co-immunoprecipitation assay further confirmed the interaction of P7-2 with OSK1, OSK5 and OSK20. It was also shown that P7-2, together with OSK1 and O. sativa Cullin-1, was able to form the SCF complex. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that P7-2 interacted with gibberellin insensitive dwarf2 (GID2) from rice and maize plants, which is essential for regulating the GA signaling pathway. It was further demonstrated that the N-terminal region of P7-2 was necessary for the interaction with GID2. Overall, these results indicated that P7-2 functioned as a component of the SCF complex in rice, and interaction of P7-2 with GID2 implied possible roles of the GA signaling pathway during RBSDV infection.
Project description:O(2) sensing in diverse protozoa depends on the prolyl 4 hydroxylation of Skp1 and modification of the resulting hydroxyproline with a series of five sugars. In yeast, plants, and animals, Skp1 is associated with F-box proteins. The Skp1-F-box protein heterodimer can, for many F-box proteins, dock onto cullin-1 en route to assembly of the Skp1-cullin-1-F-box protein-Rbx1 subcomplex of E3(SCF)Ub ligases. E3(SCF)Ub ligases conjugate Lys48-polyubiquitin chains onto targets bound to the substrate receptor domains of F-box proteins, preparing them for recognition by the 26S proteasome. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium, we found that O(2) availability was rate-limiting for the hydroxylation of newly synthesized Skp1. To investigate the effect of reduced hydroxylation, we analyzed knockout mutants of the Skp1 prolyl hydroxylase and each of the Skp1 glycosyltransferases. Proteomic analysis of co-immunoprecipitates showed that wild-type cells able to fully glycosylate Skp1 had a greater abundance of an SCF complex containing the cullin-1 homolog CulE and FbxD, a newly described WD40-type F-box protein, than the complexes that predominate in cells defective in Skp1 hydroxylation or glycosylation. Similarly, the previously described FbxA-Skp1CulA complex was also more abundant in glycosylation-competent cells. The CulE interactome also included higher levels of proteasomal regulatory particles when Skp1 was glycosylated, suggesting increased activity consistent with greater association with F-box proteins. Finally, the interactome of FLAG-FbxD was modified when it harbored an F-box mutation that compromised Skp1 binding, consistent with an effect on the abundance of potential substrate proteins. We propose that O(2)-dependent posttranslational glycosylation of Skp1 promotes association with F-box proteins and their engagement in functional E3(SCF)Ub ligases that regulate O(2)-dependent developmental progression.
Project description:Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae, causes severe damage to cereal crops in South East Asia. The protein P7-2, encoded by the second open reading frame of segment S7, is conserved among most plant-infecting fijiviruses, but its function is still obscure.In this study, P7-2 was used as bait in two-hybrid screens of a cDNA library expressing Zea mays proteins. It was found that there is a strong interaction between P7-2 and Z. mays SKP1 (SKP1Maize), a core subunit of the multicomponent SCF (SKP1/Cullin1/F-box/Rbx1) E3 ubiquitin ligase. The interaction was then confirmed in leaf epidermal cells of Nicotiana benthamiana by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. Further investigations indicated that P7-2 also interacts with SKP1 proteins from other plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, N. benthamiana,Oryza sativa and Saccharum sinense. The C-terminal fragment of SKP1Maize (residues 97-176) and the middle fragment of P7-2 (residues 79-214) are necessary to sustain the interaction, while the C-terminal putative ?-helix domain spanning residues 214-295 of P7-2 greatly facilitates the interaction. Agrobacterium-mediated transient suppression assay showed that P7-2 has no obvious activity to suppress local RNA silencing.Taken together, our results indicated that RBSDV P7-2 can interact with SKP1 proteins from different plants. This is the first report linking a Fijivirus protein to a component of the ubiquitin proteasome system. P7-2 might be a potential F-box protein encoded by RBSDV and involved in the plant-virus interaction through ubiquitination pathway.
Project description:The role of Skp1 as an adaptor protein that links Cullin-1 to F-box proteins in E3 Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein (SCF) ubiquitin ligases is well characterized. In the social amoeba Dictyostelium and probably many other unicellular eukaryotes, Skp1 is modified by a pentasaccharide attached to a hydroxyproline near its C terminus. This modification is important for oxygen-sensing during Dictyostelium development and is mediated by a HIF-? type prolyl 4-hydroxylase and five sequentially acting cytoplasmic glycosyltransferase activities. Gene disruption studies show that AgtA, the enzyme responsible for addition of the final two galactose residues, in ?-linkages to the Skp1 core trisaccharide, is unexpectedly critical for oxygen-dependent terminal development. AgtA possesses a WD40 repeat domain C-terminal to its single catalytic domain and, by use of domain deletions, binding studies, and enzyme assays, we find that the WD40 repeats confer a salt-sensitive second-site binding interaction with Skp1 that mediates novel catalytic activation in addition to simple substrate recognition. In addition, AgtA binds similarly well to precursor isoforms of Skp1 by a salt-sensitive mechanism that competes with binding to an F-box protein and recognition by early modification enzymes, and the effect of binding is diminished when AgtA modifies Skp1. Genetic studies show that loss of AgtA is more severe when an earlier glycosylation step is blocked, and overexpressed AgtA is deleterious if catalytically inactivated. Together, the findings suggest that AgtA mediates non-enzymatic control of unmodified and substrate precursor forms of Skp1 by a binding mechanism that is normally relieved by switch-like activation of its glycosylation function.
Project description:In the social amoeba Dictyostelium, Skp1 is hydroxylated on proline 143 and further modified by three cytosolic glycosyltransferases to yield an O-linked pentasaccharide that contributes to O2 regulation of development. Skp1 is an adapter in the Skp1/cullin1/F-box protein family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that targets specific proteins for polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. To investigate the biochemical consequences of glycosylation, untagged full-length Skp1 and several of its posttranslationally modified isoforms were expressed and purified to near homogeneity using recombinant and in vitro strategies. Interaction studies with the soluble mammalian F-box protein Fbs1/Fbg1/OCP1 revealed preferential binding to the glycosylated isoforms of Skp1. This difference correlated with the increased ?-helical and decreased ?-sheet content of glycosylated Skp1s based on circular dichroism and increased folding order based on small-angle X-ray scattering. A comparison of the molecular envelopes of fully glycosylated Skp1 and the apoprotein indicated that both isoforms exist as an antiparallel dimer that is more compact and extended in the glycosylated state. Analytical gel filtration and chemical cross-linking studies showed a growing tendency of less modified isoforms to dimerize. Considering that regions of free Skp1 are intrinsically disordered and Skp1 can adopt distinct folds when bound to F-box proteins, we propose that glycosylation, which occurs adjacent to the F-box binding site, influences the spectrum of energetically similar conformations that vary inversely in their propensity to dock with Fbs1 or another Skp1. Glycosylation may thus influence Skp1 function by modulating F-box protein binding in cells.
Project description:Skp1 is a conserved protein linking cullin-1 to F-box proteins in SCF (Skp1/Cullin-1/F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligases, which modify protein substrates with polyubiquitin chains that typically target them for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. In Dictyostelium (a social amoeba), Toxoplasma gondii (the agent for human toxoplasmosis), and other protists, Skp1 is regulated by a unique pentasaccharide attached to hydroxylated Pro-143 within its C-terminal F-box-binding domain. Prolyl hydroxylation of Skp1 contributes to O2-dependent Dictyostelium development, but full glycosylation at that position is required for optimal O2 sensing. Previous studies have shown that the glycan promotes organization of the F-box-binding region in Skp1 and aids in Skp1's association with F-box proteins. Here, NMR and MS approaches were used to determine the glycan structure, and then a combination of NMR and molecular dynamics simulations were employed to characterize the impact of the glycan on the conformation and motions of the intrinsically flexible F-box-binding domain of Skp1. Molecular dynamics trajectories of glycosylated Skp1 whose calculated monosaccharide relaxation kinetics and rotational correlation times agreed with the NMR data indicated that the glycan interacts with the loop connecting two α-helices of the F-box-combining site. In these trajectories, the helices separated from one another to create a more accessible and dynamic F-box interface. These results offer an unprecedented view of how a glycan modification influences a disordered region of a full-length protein. The increased sampling of an open Skp1 conformation can explain how glycosylation enhances interactions with F-box proteins in cells.
Project description:Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) E3 ligases constitute the largest and best-characterized family of the multisubunit E3 ligases with important cellular functions and numerous disease links. The specificity of an SCF E3 ligase is established by one of the 69 human F-box proteins that are recruited to Cul1 through the Skp1 adaptor. We previously reported generation of ubiquitin variants (UbVs) targeting Fbw7 and Fbw11, which inhibit ligase activity by binding at the F-box-Skp1 interface to competitively displace Cul1. In the present study, we employed an optimized engineering strategy to generate specific binding UbVs against 17 additional Skp1-F-box complexes. We validated our design strategy and uncovered the structural basis of binding specificity by crystallographic analyses of representative UbVs bound to Skp1-Fbl10 and Skp1-Fbl11. Our study highlights the power of combining phage display with structure-based design to develop UbVs targeting specific protein surfaces.
Project description:Ubiqitination is an important process in eukaryotic cells involving E3 ubiquitin ligase, which co-ordinates with cell cycle proteins and controls various cell functions. Skp1 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 1) is a core component of the SCF (Skp1-Cullin 1-F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex necessary for protein degradation by the 26S proteasomal pathway. The rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae has a single MoSKP1(MGG_04978) required for viability. Skp1 has multiple functions; however, its roles in growth, sporulation and appressorial development are not understood. MoSKP1 complements Skp1 function in the fission yeast temperature-sensitive mutant skp1 A7, restoring the normal length of yeast cells at restrictive temperature. The MoSkp1 protein in M. oryzae is present in spores and germ tubes, and is abundantly expressed in appressoria. Various RNA interference (RNAi) and antisense transformants of MoSKP1 in B157 show reduced sporulation, defective spore morphology, lesser septation and diffuse nuclei. Further, they show elongated germ tubes and are unable to form appressoria. Transformants arrested in G1/S stage during initial spore germination show a similar phenotype to wild-type spores treated with hydroxyurea (HU). Reduced MoSkp1 transcript and protein levels in knockdown transformants result in atypical germ tube development. MoSkp1 interacts with the putative F-box protein (MGG_06351) revealing the ability to form protein complexes. Our investigation of the role of MoSKP1 suggests that a decrease in MoSkp1 manifests in decreased total protein ubiquitination and, consequently, defective cell cycle and appressorial development. Thus, MoSKP1 plays important roles in growth, sporulation, appressorial development and pathogenicity of M. oryzae.
Project description:Genome sequencing has uncovered tremendous sequence variation within and between species. In plants, in addition to large variations in genome size, a great deal of sequence polymorphism is also evident in several large multi-gene families, including those involved in the ubiquitin-26S proteasome protein degradation system. However, the biological function of this sequence variation is yet not clear. In this work, we explicitly demonstrated a single origin of retroposed Arabidopsis Skp1-Like (ASK) genes using an improved phylogenetic analysis. Taking advantage of the 1,001 genomes project, we here provide several lines of polymorphism evidence showing both adaptive and degenerative evolutionary processes in ASK genes. Yeast two-hybrid quantitative interaction assays further suggested that recent neutral changes in the ASK2 coding sequence weakened its interactions with some F-box proteins. The trend that highly polymorphic upstream regions of ASK1 yield high levels of expression implied negative expression regulation of ASK1 by an as-yet-unknown transcriptional suppression mechanism, which may contribute to the polymorphic roles of Skp1-CUL1-F-box complexes. Taken together, this study provides new evolutionary evidence to guide future functional genomic studies of SCF-mediated protein ubiquitylation.