Differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority preschoolers in the Netherlands and the role of family functioning and parenting factors as mediators: the Generation R Study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that, compared to native counterparts, preschoolers from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of problem behaviour. Socio-economic factors only partly explain this increased risk. This study aimed to further unravel the differences in problem behaviour among ethnic minority and native preschoolers by examining the mediating role of family functioning and parenting factors. METHODS: We included 4,282 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, an ethnically-diverse cohort study with inclusion in early pregnancy. At child age 3 years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5); information on demographics, socio-economic status and measures of family functioning (maternal psychopathology; general family functioning) and parenting (parenting stress; harsh parenting) were retrieved from questionnaires. CBCL Total Problems scores in each ethnic subgroup were compared with scores in the Dutch reference population. Mediation was evaluated using multivariate regression models. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, preschoolers from ethnic minorities were more likely to present problem behaviour than the Dutch subgroup (e.g. CBCL Total Problems Turkish subgroup (OR 7.0 (95% CI 4.9; 10.1)). When considering generational status, children of first generation immigrants were worse off than the second generation (P<0.01). Adjustment for socio-economic factors mediated the association between the ethnic minority status and child problem behaviour (e.g. attenuation in OR by 54.4% (P<0.05) from OR 5.1 (95% CI 2.8; 9.4) to OR 2.9 (95% CI 1.5; 5.6) in Cape Verdean subgroup). However, associations remained significant in most ethnic subgroups. A final adjustment for family functioning and parenting factors further attenuated the association (e.g. attenuation in OR by 55.5% (P<0.05) from OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.3; 4.4) to OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.0; 2.4) in European other subgroup). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that preschoolers from ethnic minorities and particularly children of first generation immigrants are at an increased risk of problem behaviour compared to children born to a Dutch mother. Although socio-economic factors were found to partly explain the association between the ethnic minority status and child problem behaviour, a similar part was explained by family functioning and parenting factors. Considering these findings, it is important for health care workers to also be attentive to symptoms of parental psychopathology (e.g. depression), poor family functioning, high levels of parenting stress or harsh parenting in first and second generation immigrants with young children.
Project description:A growing literature indicates that the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) identifies youths with heightened risk for severe psychopathology, comorbidity, and impairment. However, this work has focused on school-age children and adolescents; no studies have examined whether preschool-aged children with the CBCL-DP exhibit a similar constellation of problems.Using a community sample of preschoolers, we compared children with (N = 61) and without (N = 488) the CBCL-DP on a broad range of variables assessed using multiple methods.Univariate analyses revealed numerous differences between children with the CBCL-DP and their peers on psychiatric symptomatology, temperament, parenting behavior, and parental personality, psychopathology, and marital functioning. In multivariate analyses, children with the CBCL-DP exhibited greater temperamental negative affectivity and lower effortful control. They also had more depressive and oppositional defiant symptoms, as well as greater functional impairment. Parents of CBCL-DP children reported engaging in more punitive, controlling parenting behavior than parents of non-profile children.In a non-clinical sample of preschoolers, the CBCL-DP is associated with extensive emotional and behavioral dysregulation and maladaptive parenting.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Preterm-born or asphyxiated term-born children who received neonatal intensive care show more emotional and behavioral problems than term-born children without a medical condition. It is uncertain whether regular parenting intervention programs to which the parents of these children are usually referred, are effective in reducing child problem behavior in this specific population. Our objective was to investigate whether a regular, brief parenting intervention, Primary Care Triple P, is effective in decreasing emotional and behavioral problems in preterm-born or asphyxiated term-born preschoolers. METHODS: For this pragmatic, open randomized clinical trial, participants were recruited from a cohort of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) of two Dutch hospitals. Children born with a gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight <1500 g and children born at a gestational age 37-42 weeks with perinatal asphyxia were included. After screening for a t-score ?60 on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), children were randomly assigned to Primary Care Triple P (n = 34) or a wait-list control group (n = 33). The primary outcome was child emotional and behavioral problems reported by parents on the CBCL, 6 months after the start of the trial. RESULTS: There was no effect of the intervention on the CBCL at the trial endpoint (t64 = 0.54, P = .30). On secondary measurements of child problem behavior, parenting style, parenting stress, and parent perceived child vulnerability, groups either did not differ significantly or the intervention group showed more problems. In both the intervention and control group there was a significant decrease in emotional and behavioral problems during the trial. CONCLUSIONS: Primary Care Triple P, a brief parenting intervention, is not effective in reducing child emotional and behavioral problems in preterm-born children or term-born children with perinatal asphyxia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR): NTR2179.
Project description:The behavioral ratings of preschoolers who sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI) prior to the age of 2 years and a typically developing group were compared; predictors of behavioral functioning were examined.Eighty-two 3-year-olds comprised mild TBI (n = 31), moderate/severe TBI (n = 20), and typically developing (n = 31) groups, with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) as the primary outcome measure.Groups differed on the CBCL Withdrawal Scale. No differences emerged in the proportion of children demonstrating clinical elevations, with average mean scores for each group. Exploratory analyses yielded no differences between inflicted, non-inflicted, and typical groups. Glasgow Coma Scale and Self-Report Family Inventory Leadership predicted Externalizing Problems; developmental level predicted Internalizing Problems.After early TBI, preschoolers did not differ from one another or a matched comparison group in behavioral ratings; however, it may be premature to infer that preschoolers do not evidence behavioral dysfunction after early TBI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) is characterized by angry and noncompliant behaviour. It is the most common disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD), with prevalence estimates of 6-9% for preschoolers and is closely linked to several long-term difficulties, including disorders of conduct, mood, anxiety, impulse-control, and substance abuse. ODD in children is related to parental depression, family dysfunction, and impairments in parental work performance. Children displaying early DBDs exhibit more symptoms of greater severity, more frequent offences, and commit more serious crimes later in life. The goal of the Strongest Families Finland Canada (SFFC) Smart Website intervention research program is to develop and evaluate an affordable, accessible, effective secondary prevention parent training program for disruptive behaviour in preschoolers to prevent the negative sequelae of ODD. Strongest Families is an 11-session program with two booster sessions that focuses on teaching skills to: strengthen parent-child relationships; reinforce positive behaviour; reduce conflict; manage daily transitions; plan for potentially problematic situations; promote emotional regulation and pro-social behaviour and decrease antisocial behaviour. METHODS/DESIGN:This protocol paper describes an ongoing population-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of high-risk 4 year-olds attending well-child clinics in Turku, Finland and environs to examine the effectiveness of the Strongest Families Smart Website intervention compared to an Education Control condition. Randomization consists of a 1:1 ratio for intervention versus the education group, stratified by the child's sex. The participants randomized to the intervention group receive access to the Strongest Families Smart Website and weekly telephone coaching sessions. The participants randomized to the Education Control condition receive access to a static website with parenting tips. Children are followed using parental and daycare teacher measures at 6 and 12 months after randomization. DISCUSSION:The Strongest Families Smart Website intervention is hypothesized to improve parenting skills, reduce child disruptive behaviour, reduce parental distress and improve family functioning. These results will likely inform subsequent investigations, public policy, and early treatment of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT01750996.
Project description:There are marked disparities between pre-school children in key skills affecting school readiness, disparities that commonly persist and influence children's later academic achievements, employment, and adjustment. Much of this disparity is linked to socio-economic disadvantage and its impact on the home learning environment. Children's Centres are an ideal context in which to implement and evaluate programmes to address this problem. They principally serve the 30% worst areas on the Indices of Deprivation Affecting Children, providing for families from the antenatal period up to age 5 years, aiming to promote parenting skills and provide care for children.We are conducting a randomised controlled trial, based in Children Centres, to evaluate a parenting intervention for caregivers of children between 28 and 45 months of age. The intervention provides training to parents in dialogic book-sharing. The training is run by a facilitator who sees parents in small groups, on a weekly basis over 7 weeks. The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial. Twelve of the Children's Centres in the town of Reading in the UK have been randomly assigned to an index or control condition. The primary outcome is child cognition (language, attention, and executive function); and secondary outcomes are child social development, behaviour problems, and emotion regulation, parenting during book-sharing and problem solving and parental child behaviour management strategies. Data are collected at baseline, post-intervention and 4-6 months post-intervention.The Impact of Early-years Provision in Children's Centres trial (EPICC) aims to evaluate the impact of an early parenting intervention on several key risk factors for compromised child development, including aspects of parenting and child cognition, social development, behaviour problems and emotion regulation. The study is being carried out in Children's Centres, which largely serve the most disadvantaged families in the UK. Since the intervention is brief and, with modest levels of training, readily deliverable within Children's Centres and similar early childcare provision centres, demonstration that it is of benefit to child cognition, socio-emotional development and behaviour would be important.ISRCTN Registry, ISRCTN28513611 . Registered on 28 March 2017. This is version 1 of the protocol for the EPICC trial.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the relationship of parent-reported child behaviors on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to cognition, language, and motor skills on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - III (Bayley-III) in toddlers born extremely preterm. STUDY DESIGN:Toddlers born extremely preterm (gestational ages 22 0/7 to 26 6/7?weeks) were tested at 22-26?months corrected age with Bayley-III while parents completed the CBCL. Socio-demographic variables and medical history were recorded. Linear regression models were used to assess the relationship of Bayley-III cognitive, motor, and language scores with CBCL scores, adjusting for medical and socio-demographic factors. RESULTS:Internalizing, affective, and pervasive development problem behavior scores on the CBCL correlated significantly with lower Bayley-III cognitive, language, and motor scores on unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Although externalizing and anxiety problems were significantly associated with cognitive and language scores on unadjusted analysis, the relationships were not significant after adjusting for socio-economic factors. CBCL scores were similar for boys and girls, with the exception of the pervasive developmental problem scale; boys had significantly more problems than girls (p?=?0.02). CONCLUSIONS:This study showed that parent reported behavior problems were related to lower cognitive, language, and motor development in toddlers born extremely preterm. Early findings of behavioral problems in toddlers born extremely premature may help identify children at greater risk for later learning difficulties. Adding a measure of behavior to the evaluation of these children may help better understand factors that can contribute to delays, especially in cognition and language.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Children in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are at high risk for exposure to violence and later violent behaviour. The World Health Organization has declared an urgent need for the evaluation and implementation of low-cost parenting interventions in LMICs to prevent violence. Two areas of significant early risk are harsh parenting and poor child cognitive and socio-emotional development. Parenting interventions suitable for LMIC contexts have been developed targeting these risk factors and have been shown to have promising effects. However, their impact on child aggression, a key precursor of violence, has yet to be determined. The Pelotas Trial of Parenting Interventions for Aggression (PIÁ) has been designed to address this issue. METHODS:We are conducting a randomised controlled trial to evaluate two early parenting interventions for mothers of children aged between 30 and 42 months in a Brazilian city. The first of these, dialogic book-sharing (DBS), aims to promote child cognitive and socio-emotional development; and the second, the ACT Raising Safe Kids Program (ACT), is designed to reduce harsh parenting. These interventions are being compared with a control group receiving neither intervention. Three hundred and sixty-nine families in a birth cohort are being randomly allocated to one of the three groups (DBS, ACT, Control). Facilitators deliver the interventions to groups of five to 10 mothers at weekly sessions for 8 weeks in DBS and 9 weeks in ACT. Independent assessments of parenting and child development are being made before the interventions, shortly afterwards, and at follow-up 6 months later. The primary outcome is child aggression, and the two main secondary outcomes are: (1) child cognitive and socio-emotional development and (2) harsh parenting. Longer-term outcomes will be investigated as the birth cohort is followed into late childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. DISCUSSION:The Pelotas Trial of Parenting Interventions for Aggression (PIÁ) aims to evaluate the impact of two early parenting interventions on child aggression and several other key risk factors for the development of violence, including aspects of parenting and child cognition and socio-emotional functioning. The study is being carried out in a LMIC context where violence constitutes a major social and health burden. Since the two interventions are brief and, with modest levels of training, readily deliverable in LMIC settings, a demonstration that they benefit parenting and reduce risk factors for violence would be of major significance. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Brazilian Ministry of Health Register of Clinical Trials, ID: RBR-2kwfsk . Registered on 6 June 2018.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children's ethnic background. METHOD:Cross-sectional data from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6-13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions ('control over eating', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding'), parenting style dimensions ('involvement' and 'strictness') and children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. RESULT:Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of 'control over eating' had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95%?CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that 'control over eating' was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95%?CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95%?CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. 'Encouragement to eat' was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95%?CI 0.25 to 0.90). 'Instrumental feeding' was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95%?CI 1.01 to 2.04). CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that 'control over eating' may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic backgrounds.
Project description:Introduction: Parenting self-efficacy (PSE) refers to parents' belief in their ability to perform the parenting role successfully, and derives from Bandura's concept of personal self-efficacy formulated within the social cognitive theory. PSE has been demonstrated to be a strong predictor of parenting functioning. At the same time, relatively less is known about its possible role in the situation of migration, when a family experiences acculturation stress in the process of adaptation to the new culture. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to summarize available data on the conceptualization, measurement, and the role of parenting self-efficacy in the context of acculturation processes, and in various groups of immigrant parents. Methods: An extensive search of eight electronic databases was conducted in August 2018 and updated in February 2020 to identify peer-reviewed articles on parenting self -efficacy among immigrants. Eleven studies met pre-specified criteria for inclusion. Nine of the studies employed a quantitative design, whereas the remaining two studies used qualitative methods. In three of the quantitative studies, interventions/programs for immigrants were assessed. Results: Three different approaches to conceptualizing and measuring PSE were identified in the analyzed papers: domain-general, domain-specific, and narrow domain. Incongruent results were found with regards to the links between the strength of PSE and immigrants' cultural orientation. Additionally, PSE was identified as a mediator between a stronger orientation toward the mainstream culture and more supportive parenting. The qualitative studies indicated that a reduction in PSE was typical for the initial period of immigration and might be a consequence of a forced orientation toward the standards of the receiving country, which was a consequence of the parents wanting to maintain close relations with their teenage children. Discussion: Overall, the theoretical and methodological quality of the reported studies varied and hence their findings have to be interpreted with caution. Our analysis clearly points to the usefulness of a multifaceted approach to PSE. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which parental self-efficacy may exert a positive effect on the functioning of immigrant families.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that neighborhood ethnic diversity may be important when it comes to understanding ethnic inequalities in mental health. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether neighborhood ethnic diversity moderated the association between the ethnic minority status and child behavioral and emotional problems. METHODS: We included 3076 preschoolers participating in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. At child age 3-years, parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1,5-5). Individual-level data, assessed with questionnaires, was combined with neighborhood-level data. Multi-level logistic regression models predicted the Odds Ratios for the CBCL total problems score as a function of maternal ethnic background and neighborhood ethnic diversity, computed with the Racial Diversity Index and categorized into tertiles. Interaction on the additive scale was assessed using Relative Access Risk due to Interaction. RESULTS: Being from an ethnic minority was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.88-4.04) and adjusted models (OR 2.64, 95% CI 1.79-3.92). Residing in a high diversity neighborhood was associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in unadjusted (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.13-3.64) but not in adjusted models (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.51-1.57). When stratifying by the three levels of neighborhood ethnic diversity, ethnic inequalities in behavioral and emotional problems were greatest in low diversity neighborhoods (OR 5.24, 95%CI 2.47-11.14), smaller in high diversity neighborhoods (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.66-5.99) and smallest in medium diversity neighborhoods (OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.90-2.82). Tests for interaction (when comparing medium to low diversity neighborhoods) trended towards negative on both the additive and multiplicative scale for the maternal-report (RERI: -3.22, 95% CI -0.70-0.59; Ratio of ORs: 0.30, 95% CI 0.12-0.76). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that ethnic inequalities in child behavioral and emotional problems may be greatest in ethnically homogeneous neighborhoods.