ABSTRACT: Ischemic colitis is a commonly misunderstood clinical condition. Although the colon is the most common region of ischemia in the gastrointestinal tract, many surgeons have difficulty with diagnosis and treatment of ischemic colitis. The process can occur from either occlusive vascular disease or nonocclusive disease, and can be gangrenous or nongangrenous. Differentiating gangrenous from nongangrenous disease can be a difficult clinical challenge as both sets of patients generally present with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. Although the majority of patients have transient ischemia with nongangrenous colitis that can be successfully managed nonoperatively, prompt recognition and surgical intervention is critical in patients with gangrenous colitis. In this article, the diagnosis and treatment of ischemic colitis is reviewed with emphasis on a systematic, evidence-based approach to management.
Project description:Ischemic colitis (IC), the most common form of intestinal ischemia, ranges from superficial mucosal and submucosal injury to full-thickness mural necrosis. As risk factors include cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, prior abdominal surgery, irritable bowel syndrome, and constipation, IC typically occurs in elderly persons with multiple comorbidities rather than young children. A 1-year-old Japanese girl receiving a stimulant laxative for constipation since age 7 months was hospitalized for fever, vomiting, and hypovolemic shock. Her abdomen was swollen, and abdominal computed tomography showed colonic distension with abundant stool. Colonic decompression and intensive care brought about rapid improvement until persistent bloody diarrhea that commenced on day 17 of illness required transfer to another hospital, where colonoscopy on day 42 showed mucosal sloughing forming pseudomembranes, as well as focal stenosis. Contrast enema on day 45 confirmed stenosis with a "thumbprint" contour at the splenic flexure. Diagnosed with IC, she received parenteral nutrition and an elemental diet. Bloody diarrhea resolved by day 75. Colonoscopy and contrast enema on day 110 showed normal mucosa and resolution of stenosis. We believe that IC arose from constipation and stimulant laxative treatment and consider this to be the first report of infantile IC complicating constipation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) most commonly complain of gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea. Diarrhea negatively affects patient quality of life and has miscellaneous etiologies, such as Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) and ischemic colitis. However, it is sometimes extremely difficult to determine the true etiology given the comorbidities and complications the patients have. A rare cause of diarrhea is ulcerative colitis (UC), which commonly affects the rectum and proximal colon in a continuous fashion. UC with rectal sparing or segmental distribution, although atypical, sometimes leads to misdiagnosis. Herein, we present a case of UC in a patient on hemodialysis with intractable diarrhea; we initially considered that the diarrhea was caused by CDAD and ischemic colitis. CASE PRESENTATION:A 69-year-old man with a history of hypertension, bilateral thalamic hemorrhage, and decreased kidney function was admitted to our hospital because of congestive heart failure. Volume control was impossible due to renal dysfunction and he was started on hemodialysis. Thereafter, he received various antibiotics for bacterial infections. Simultaneously, he experienced continuous watery, and sometimes bloody, diarrhea, which was diagnosed as CDAD owing to a positive stool test for Clostridium difficile toxins. Antibiotic treatment for CDAD did not result in symptom relief. Subsequently, we performed colon biopsy via colonoscopy, and the pathology showed virtually no inflammation with rectal sparing and segmental distributions. These findings favored the presence of ischemic colitis due to arteriosclerosis and ESKD rather than infections. He died of cardiac arrest before the diarrhea was alleviated. Finally, UC was revealed on autopsy as the main cause of the uncontrollable diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS:Patients with ESKD have a greater risk of developing CDAD and ischemic colitis, which have clinical features that sometimes overlap with those of UC, as in the present case. This case emphasizes the importance of correctly diagnosing the etiology of intractable diarrhea and the fact that other diarrhea etiologies can obscure the existence of inflammatory bowel disease, which should be considered and treated properly when patients on hemodialysis present with intractable diarrhea.
Project description:Ischemic or volatile anesthetic preconditioning is defined as tissue protection from impending ischemic cell damage by repetitive short periods of tissue exposure to ischemia or volatile anesthetics. Objective of this study was to elucidate, if ischemic preconditioning and pharmacological preconditioning with sevoflurane have effects on muscle tissue oxygen saturation in patients undergoing surgical revascularization of the lower limb.In this prospective randomized pilot study ischemic and pharmacological (sevoflurane) preconditioning was performed in 40 patients with lower limb arterial occlusive disease undergoing surgical revascularization. Sevoflurane preconditioning was performed in one group (N?=?20) by repetitive application of sevoflurane for six minutes interspersed by six minutes of washout. Thereafter, ischemic preconditioning was performed in all patients (N?=?40) by repetitive clamping of the femoral artery for six minutes interspersed by six minutes of reperfusion. The effect of both procedures on leg muscle tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy during both procedures and during surgery and reperfusion (INVOS® 5100C Oxymeter with Small Adult SomaSensor® SAFB-SM, Somanetics, Troy, Michigan, USA).Repetitive clamping and reperfusion of the femoral artery resulted in significant cyclic decrease and increase of muscle rSO2 (p?<?0.0001). Pharmacological preconditioning with sevoflurane resulted in a faster and higher increase of rSO2 during postoperative reperfusion (Maximal 111% baseline?±?20 versus 103% baseline?±?14, p?=?0.008) consistent with an additional effect of pharmacological preconditioning on leg perfusion.Ischemic preconditioning of lower limb muscle tissue and pharmacological preconditioning with sevoflurane have an effect on tissue oxygenation in patients with lower limb occlusive arterial disease.The trial has been registrated at http://www.ClinicalTrial.gov,NCT02038062 at 14 January 2014.
Project description:Occlusive atherosclerotic disease of the anterior cerebral circulation is one of the most common causes of anterior circulation ischemia and stroke. Treatment options include medical therapies (including antiplatelet use, blood pressure control, lipid reduction, and lifestyle modification) and extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery (such as superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery bypass). However, the optimal treatment remains unclear. The objective of this study will be to compare the efficacy of and extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery with that of other medical therapy in adult patients with occlusive atherosclerotic disease of the anterior cerebral circulation. This is the study protocol for a systematic review. We will search MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library (from January 1980 onwards). We will include randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (non-randomized, interrupted time series), and observational studies (e.g., cohort studies and case-control studies), examining the efficacy of extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery compared to other treatments for adult patients with occlusive atherosclerotic disease of anterior cerebral circulation. Two team members will independently screen all citations, full-text articles, and abstract data. Potential conflicts will be resolved through discussion. The primary outcome will include stroke or death. The secondary outcomes will include intracranial hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack, and myocardial infarction. The study methodological quality (or bias) will be appraised using appropriate tools. If feasible, we will conduct random effects meta-analysis. Additional analyses will be conducted to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity (e.g., study design, geographical location, or risk of bias). This review will evaluate the evidence on the efficacy of extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery for adult patients with occlusive atherosclerotic disease of the anterior cerebral circulation. We anticipate that our findings will be of interest to patients, their families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and in making optimal treatment selection. Implications for future clinical and epidemiological research will be discussed. PROSPERO CRD42018105513.
Project description:Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the gastrointestinal (GI) tract but can involve extraintestinal organs including musculoskeletal system and skin. The most frequent cardiac manifestations of UC are pericarditis and myocarditis. Patients display an increased risk for venous thromboembolic complications and mesenteric ischemia, but the association with ischemic heart disease and myocardial infarction is uncertain. We present the case of a 27-year-old man with anti-PRIII ANCA-positive ulcerative colitis and increased factor VIII activity who presented with an acute myocardial infarction. We discuss possible causative links between these clinical entities and demonstrate the role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with underlying inflammatory conditions who present with chest pain and evidence of myocardial damage.
Project description:Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the colon, and its incidence is rising worldwide. The pathogenesis is multifactorial, involving genetic predisposition, epithelial barrier defects, dysregulated immune responses, and environmental factors. Patients with ulcerative colitis have mucosal inflammation starting in the rectum that can extend continuously to proximal segments of the colon. Ulcerative colitis usually presents with bloody diarrhoea and is diagnosed by colonoscopy and histological findings. The aim of management is to induce and then maintain remission, defined as resolution of symptoms and endoscopic healing. Treatments for ulcerative colitis include 5-aminosalicylic acid drugs, steroids, and immunosuppressants. Some patients can require colectomy for medically refractory disease or to treat colonic neoplasia. The therapeutic armamentarium for ulcerative colitis is expanding, and the number of drugs with new targets will rapidly increase in coming years.
Project description:Single-vessel, intracoronary infusion of stem cells under stop-flow conditions has proven safe but achieves only limited myocardial coverage. Continuous flow intracoronary delivery to one or more coronary vessels may achieve broader coverage for treating cardiomyopathy, but has not been investigated. Using nonocclusive coronary guiding catheters, we infused allogeneic cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs) either in a single vessel or sequentially in all three coronary arteries in porcine ischemic cardiomyopathy and used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess structural and physiological outcomes. Vehicle-infused animals served as controls. Single-vessel stop-flow and continuous-flow intracoronary infusion revealed equivalent effects on scar size and function. Sequential infusion into each of the three major coronary vessels under stop-flow or continuous-flow conditions revealed equal efficacy, but less elevation of necrotic biomarkers with continuous-flow delivery. In addition, multi-vessel delivery resulted in enhanced global and regional tissue function compared to a triple-vessel placebo-treated group. The functional benefits after global cell infusion were accompanied histologically by minimal inflammatory cellular infiltration, attenuated regional fibrosis and enhanced vessel density in the heart. Sequential multi-vessel non-occlusive delivery of CDCs is safe and provides enhanced preservation of left ventricular function and structure. The current findings provide preclinical validation of the delivery method currently undergoing clinical testing in the Dilated cardiomYopathy iNtervention With Allogeneic MyocardIally-regenerative Cells (DYNAMIC) trial of CDCs in heart failure patients.
Project description:Effects of Ischemic Preconditioning, Bevacizumab and Etanercept Ischemia and reperfusion injury provides an acute model of ischemic retinopathy that includes neurodegeneration and VEGF-dependent vascular permeability and is amenable to rapid drug testing. The distinct effects of ischemic preconditioning and bevacizumab demonstrate that the apoptotic and vascular responses to ischemia may be separated and that VEGF expression is not neuroprotective following ischemic-reperfusion. Using transient ischemia followed by reperfusion (IR) to model ischemic retinal disease, this study compares the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) on retinal apoptosis, vascular permeability and mRNA biomarker expression. Only the Ischemic Preconditioning (not Bevacizumab and Etanercept treated samples) were hybridized to arrays. Study contains 6 replicates of control and 6 IP treated retinal samples.
Project description:Effects of Ischemic Preconditioning, Bevacizumab and Etanercept Ischemia and reperfusion injury provides an acute model of ischemic retinopathy that includes neurodegeneration and VEGF-dependent vascular permeability and is amenable to rapid drug testing. The distinct effects of ischemic preconditioning and bevacizumab demonstrate that the apoptotic and vascular responses to ischemia may be separated and that VEGF expression is not neuroprotective following ischemic-reperfusion. Overall design: Using transient ischemia followed by reperfusion (IR) to model ischemic retinal disease, this study compares the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and therapies targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) on retinal apoptosis, vascular permeability and mRNA biomarker expression. Only the Ischemic Preconditioning (not Bevacizumab and Etanercept treated samples) were hybridized to arrays. Study contains 6 replicates of control and 6 IP treated retinal samples.
Project description:Collaterals lessen tissue injury in occlusive disease. However, aging causes progressive decline in their number and smaller diameters in those that remain (collateral rarefaction), beginning at 16 months of age in mice (i.e., middle age), and worse ischemic injury-effects that are accelerated in even 3-month-old eNOS(-/-) mice. These findings have found indirect support in recent human studies.We sought to determine whether other cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) associated with endothelial dysfunction cause collateral rarefaction, investigate possible mechanisms, and test strategies for prevention.Mice with nine different models of CVRFs of 4-12 months of age were assessed for number and diameter of native collaterals in skeletal muscle and brain and for collateral-dependent perfusion and ischemic injury after arterial occlusion. Hypertension caused collateral rarefaction whose severity increased with duration and level of hypertension, accompanied by greater hindlimb ischemia and cerebral infarct volume. Chronic treatment of wild-type mice with L-N (G)-nitro-arginine methylester caused similar rarefaction and worse ischemic injury which were not prevented by lowering arterial pressure with hydralazine. Metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and obesity also caused collateral rarefaction. Neither chronic statin treatment nor exercise training lessened hypertension-induced rarefaction.Chronic CVRF presence caused collateral rarefaction and worse ischemic injury, even at relatively young ages. Rarefaction was associated with increased proliferation rate of collateral endothelial cells, effects that may promote accelerated endothelial cell senescence.