CD8(+) T cells mediate RAS-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation through IFN-?.
ABSTRACT: The RAS signaling pathway is constitutively activated in psoriatic keratinocytes. We expressed activated H-RAS(V12G) in suprabasal keratinocytes of adult mice and observed rapid development of a psoriasis-like skin phenotype characterized by basal keratinocyte hyperproliferation, acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, intraepidermal neutrophil microabscesses, and increased T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th17 and T cell type 1 (Tc1)/Tc17 skin infiltration. The majority of skin-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells coexpressed IFN-? and IL-17A. When RAS was expressed on a Rag1-/- background, microabscess formation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation were suppressed. Depletion of CD8(+), but not CD4(+), T cells reduced cutaneous and systemic inflammation, the RAS-induced increase in cutaneous Th17 and IL-17(+) ?? T cells, and epidermal hyperproliferation to levels similar to a Rag1-/- background. Reconstitution of Rag1-/- inducible RAS mice with purified CD8(+) T cells restored microabscess formation and epidermal hyperproliferation. Neutralization of IFN-?, but not of IL-17A, in CD8(+) T-cell-reconstituted Rag1-/- mice expressing RAS blocked CD8-mediated skin inflammation, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and keratinocyte hyperproliferation. These results show that CD8(+) T cells can orchestrate skin inflammation with psoriasis-like pathology in response to constitutive RAS activation in keratinocytes, and this is primarily mediated through IFN-?.
Project description:The excellent clinical efficacy of anti-interleukin 17A (IL-17A) biologics on psoriasis indicates a crucial pathogenic role of IL-17A in this autoinflammatory skin disease. IL-17A accelerates the proliferation of epidermal keratinocytes. Keratinocytes produce a myriad of antimicrobial peptides and chemokines, such as CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL8, and CCL20. Antimicrobial peptides enhance skin inflammation. IL-17A is capable of upregulating the production of these chemokines and antimicrobial peptides in keratinocytes. CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL8 recruit neutrophils and CCL20 chemoattracts IL-17A-producing CCR6+ immune cells, which further contributes to forming an IL-17A-rich milieu. This feed-forward pathogenic process results in characteristic histopathological features, such as epidermal hyperproliferation, intraepidermal neutrophilic microabscess, and dermal CCR6+ cell infiltration. In this review, we focus on IL-17A and keratinocyte interaction regarding psoriasis pathogenesis.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation and by an influx of inflammatory cells. The mechanisms underlying psoriasis in humans and in mouse models are poorly understood, although evidence strongly points to crucial contributions of IL-17 cytokines, which signal via the obligatory adaptor CIKS/Act1. Here we identify critical roles of CIKS/Act1-mediated signaling in imiquimod-induced psoriatic inflammation, a mouse model that shares features with the human disease. We found that IL-17 cytokines/CIKS-mediated signaling into keratinocytes is essential for neutrophilic microabscess formation and contributes to hyperproliferation and markedly attenuated differentiation of keratinocytes, at least in part via direct effects. In contrast, IL-17 cytokines/CIKS-mediated signaling into nonkeratinocytes, particularly into dermal fibroblasts, promotes cellular infiltration and, importantly, leads to enhanced the accumulation of IL-17-producing ??T cells in skin, comprising a positive feed-forward mechanism. Thus, CIKS-mediated signaling is central in the development of both dermal and epidermal hallmarks of psoriasis, inducing distinct pathologies via target cell-specific effects. CIKS-mediated signaling represents a potential therapeutic target in psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis is characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation. While significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanism regulating the proliferation of keratinocytes, little is known about the epigenetic factors that control this process. EZH2 and EZH2 mediated trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) was previously shown ectopically expressed in carcinoma and mediated proliferation, thereby we sought to clarify the role of EZH2-H3K27me3 in the proliferation of psoriatic keratinocyte. Interestingly, we found that EZH2 and H3K27me3 were both overexpressed in the epidermis of psoriatic lesional skin compared to normal skin. In vitro, the expression of EZH2 and H3K27me3 was stimulated in human keratinocytes treated with mixture of psoriasis-related cytokines pool (TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-17A, and IL-22). Knockdown of EZH2 significantly reduced keratinocyte proliferative activity. Results from mRNA microarray analysis suggested that Kallikrein-8 (KLK8) might be the target gene of EZH2 in psoriatic keratinocytes. Overexpression or knockdown KLK8 could partially reverse the abnormal proliferation of keratinocytes caused by knockdown or overexpression of EZH2. In vivo, the inhibitor of EZH2, GSK126 could ameliorate the imiquimod-induced psoriasiform lesion. These results suggest that EZH2 might be a therapeutic target for the treatment of psoriasis.
Project description:The massive infiltration of lymphocytes into the skin is a hallmark of numerous human skin disorders. By co-culturing murine keratinocytes with splenic T cells we demonstrate here that T cells affect and control the synthesis and secretion of chemokines by keratinocytes. While pre-activated CD8+T cells induce the synthesis of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in keratinocytes and keep in check the synthesis of CXCL1, CXCL5, and CCL20, keratinocytes dampen the synthesis of CCL3 and CCL4 in pre-activated CD8+T cells. One key molecule is IFN-? that is synthesized by CD8+T cells under the control of NFATc1 and NFATc2. CD8+T cells deficient for both NFAT factors are unable to induce CXCL9 and CXCL10 expression. In addition, CD8+T cells induced numerous type I IFN-inducible "defense genes" in keratinocytes encoding the PD1 and CD40 ligands, TNF-? and caspase-1. The enhanced expression of type I IFN-inducible genes resembles the gene expression pattern at the dermal/epidermal interface in lichen planus, an inflammatory T lymphocyte-driven skin disease, in which we detected the expression of CXCL10 in keratinocytes in close vicinity to the infiltration front of T cells. These data reflect the multifaceted interplay of lymphocytes with keratinocytes at the molecular level.
Project description:Interferon gamma (IFN?) is a key moderator of cell-mediated immunity with diverse, mainly pro-inflammatory actions on immunocytes and target tissue. Recent studies have shown it may enhance anti-tumor and antiviral effects of CD8 T cells. Here we investigate the mechanisms by which IFN? mediates CD8 T-cell cytotoxic function. We show that in vivo, antigen-specific CD8 T cells that produce INF? are necessary to effect rejection of skin grafts expressing OVA as a transgene in keratinocytes. The ability of CD8 T cells to produce IFN? enhanced their ability to migrate to the site of antigen-presenting skin cells. By in vivo imaging, we show that CTL motility, particularly speed, during graft rejection was enhanced by locally available IFN?. We then used a reductionist two-cell model of CTL effectors and keratinocyte targets to investigate the effects of locally available (paracrine) and CTL-producing (autocrine) IFN? on the motility behavior and killing ability of the CTL. Using live-cell imaging by prolonged time-lapse microscopy of primary effector CD8 T cells and antigen-expressing primary keratinocyte targets, we show that CD8 T-cell cytotoxic function and motility is enhanced by locally available IFN?. Conversely, deprivation of either autocrine or paracrine IFN?, or blockade of IFN? signaling to CTL markedly reduced their cytotoxic function, their kinematics, and effector cell survival. We conclude that in vitro and in vivo, autocrine production of IFN? by CTL enhances their motility and promotes killing of primary target keratinocytes. The absolute need for local IFN? to enable cytotoxic CD8 T-cell function is of significance for immunotherapy for chronic viral infection and for cancer.
Project description:Cervical cancer is a malignant transformation of keratinocytes initiated by the E7 oncoprotein of human papillomavirus (HPV). These tumors are characterized by keratinocyte hyperproliferation and are often infiltrated with activated CD8 T cells. HPV infection confers changes to gain immunological advantage to promote chronic infection, and these persist with malignant transformation. We investigated the relative importance of the many redundant mechanisms of cytotoxicity used by CD8 T cells to kill keratinocytes expressing HPV E7 oncoprotein using extended-duration time-lapse microscopy that allows examination of cell-to-cell interactions during killing. E7 expression by keratinocytes increased susceptibility to cell-mediated killing. However, while killing of non-transgenic keratinocytes was traditional, perforin-mediated, and caspase-dependent, E7-expression favored killing by perforin-independent, caspase-independent mechanisms. The roles of perforin, TNF?, IFN?, Fas/FasL and PD1/PD-L1 were graded according to target cell survival to produce a hierarchy of killing mechanisms utilized in killing E7-expressing cells. TNF? was essential for perforin-mediated killing of E7-expressing cells, but not perforin-independent killing. IFN? facilitated killing by Fas/FasL interaction, especially in the absence of perforin. Additionally, expression of E7 offered protection from killing by up regulation of PD-L1, Fas and FasL expression on keratinocytes promoting fight-back by target cells, resulting in effector cell death. This study shows that keratinocytes expressing E7 are highly susceptible to killing by CD8 T cells, but utilizing different armamentarium. Down-regulation of CD8 T cell cytotoxicity in HPV-related tumors may be due to suppression by E7-expressing keratinocytes. Immunotherapy for HPV-related cancers may be improved by suppression of PD-L1, or by suppression of FasL.
Project description:Epithelial keratinocyte proliferation is an essential element of wound repair, and abnormal epithelial proliferation is an intrinsic element in the skin disorder psoriasis. The factors that trigger epithelial proliferation in these inflammatory processes are incompletely understood. Here we have shown that regenerating islet-derived protein 3-alpha (REG3A) is highly expressed in keratinocytes during psoriasis and wound repair and in imiquimod-induced psoriatic skin lesions. The expression of REG3A by keratinocytes is induced by interleukin-17 (IL-17) via activation of keratinocyte-encoded IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) and feeds back on keratinocytes to inhibit terminal differentiation and increase cell proliferation by binding to exostosin-like 3 (EXTL3) followed by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and the kinase AKT. These findings reveal that REG3A, a secreted intestinal antimicrobial protein, can promote skin keratinocyte proliferation and can be induced by IL-17. This observation suggests that REG3A may mediate the epidermal hyperproliferation observed in normal wound repair and in psoriasis.
Project description:Mps one binder 1a (MOB1A) and MOB1B are key components of the Hippo signaling pathway and are mutated or inactivated in many human cancers. Here we show that intact Mob1a or Mob1b is essential for murine embryogenesis and that loss of the remaining WT Mob1 allele in Mob1a(?/?)1b(tr/+) or Mob1a(?/+)1b(tr/tr) mice results in tumor development. Because most of these cancers resembled trichilemmal carcinomas, we generated double-mutant mice bearing tamoxifen-inducible, keratinocyte-specific homozygous-null mutations of Mob1a and Mob1b (kDKO mice). kDKO mice showed hyperplastic keratinocyte progenitors and defective keratinocyte terminal differentiation and soon died of malnutrition. kDKO keratinocytes exhibited hyperproliferation, apoptotic resistance, impaired contact inhibition, enhanced progenitor self renewal, and increased centrosomes. Examination of Hippo pathway signaling in kDKO keratinocytes revealed that loss of Mob1a/b altered the activities of the downstream Hippo mediators LATS and YAP1. Similarly, YAP1 was activated in some human trichilemmal carcinomas, and some of these also exhibited MOB1A/1B inactivation. Our results clearly demonstrate that MOB1A and MOB1B have overlapping functions in skin homeostasis, and exert their roles as tumor suppressors by regulating downstream elements of the Hippo pathway.
Project description:The novel keratinocyte-specific chemokine CCL27 plays a critical role in the organization of skin-associated immune responses by regulating T cell homing under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Here we demonstrate that human keratinocyte-derived skin tumors may evade T cell-mediated antitumor immune responses by down-regulating the expression of CCL27 through the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-MAPK-signaling pathways. Compared with healthy skin, CCL27 mRNA and protein expression was progressively lost in transformed keratinocytes of actinic keratoses and basal and squamous cell carcinomas. In vivo, precancerous skin lesions as well as cutaneous carcinomas showed significantly elevated levels of phosphorylated ERK compared with normal skin, suggesting the activation of EGFR-Ras signaling pathways in keratinocyte-derived malignancies. In vitro, exogenous stimulation of the EGFR-Ras signaling pathway through EGF or transfection of the dominant-active form of the Ras oncogene (H-RasV12) suppressed whereas an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor increased CCL27 mRNA and protein production in keratinocytes. In mice, neutralization of CCL27 led to decreased leukocyte recruitment to cutaneous tumor sites and significantly enhanced primary tumor growth. Collectively, our data identify a mechanism of skin tumors to evade host antitumor immune responses.
Project description:The transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) plays a crucial role in the development of several organs. However, its role in the skin has not been explored. Here, we show that keratinocytes in normal human and mouse skin expressed high levels of SRF but that SRF expression was strongly downregulated in the hyperproliferative epidermis of wounded and psoriatic skin. Keratinocyte-specific deletion within the mouse SRF locus during embryonic development caused edema and skin blistering, and all animals died in utero. Postnatal loss of mouse SRF in keratinocytes resulted in the development of psoriasis-like skin lesions. These lesions were characterized by inflammation, hyperproliferation, and abnormal differentiation of keratinocytes as well as by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Ultrastructural analysis revealed markedly reduced cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts and loss of cell compaction in all epidermal layers. siRNA-mediated knockdown of SRF in primary human keratinocytes revealed that the cytoskeletal abnormalities and adhesion defects were a direct consequence of the loss of SRF. In contrast, the hyperproliferation observed in vivo was an indirect effect that was most likely a consequence of the inflammation. These results reveal that loss of SRF disrupts epidermal homeostasis and strongly suggest its involvement in the pathogenesis of hyperproliferative skin diseases, including psoriasis.