NC-mediated nucleolar localization of retroviral gag proteins.
ABSTRACT: The assembly and release of retrovirus particles from the cell membrane is directed by the Gag polyprotein. The Gag protein of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) traffics through the nucleus prior to plasma membrane localization. We previously reported that nuclear localization of RSV Gag is linked to efficient packaging of viral genomic RNA, however the intranuclear activities of RSV Gag are not well understood. To gain insight into the properties of the RSV Gag protein within the nucleus, we examined the subnuclear localization and dynamic trafficking of RSV Gag. Restriction of RSV Gag to the nucleus by mutating its nuclear export signal (NES) in the p10 domain or interfering with CRM1-mediated nuclear export of Gag by leptomycin B (LMB) treatment led to the accumulation of Gag in nucleoli and discrete nucleoplasmic foci. Retention of RSV Gag in nucleoli was reduced with cis-expression of the 5' untranslated RU5 region of the viral RNA genome, suggesting the psi (?) packaging signal may alter the subnuclear localization of Gag. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) demonstrated that the nucleolar fraction of Gag was highly mobile, indicating that there was rapid exchange with Gag proteins in the nucleoplasm. RSV Gag is targeted to nucleoli by a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in the NC domain, and similarly, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC protein also contains an NoLS consisting of basic residues. Interestingly, co-expression of HIV-1 NC or Rev with HIV-1 Gag resulted in accumulation of Gag in nucleoli. Moreover, a subpopulation of HIV-1 Gag was detected in the nucleoli of HeLa cells stably expressing the entire HIV-1 genome in a Rev-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that the RSV and HIV-1 Gag proteins undergo nucleolar trafficking in the setting of viral infection.
Project description:Combination antiretroviral therapy fails in complete suppression of HIV-1 due to drug resistance and persistent latency. Novel therapeutic intervention requires knowledge of intracellular pathways responsible for viral replication, specifically those untargeted by antiretroviral drugs. An understudied phenomenon is the nucleolar localization of Rev phosphoprotein, which completes nucleocytoplasmic transport of unspliced/partially spliced HIV mRNA through multimerization with intronic cis-acting targets-the Rev-response element (RRE). Rev contains a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) comprising the COOH terminus of the arginine-rich motif for accumulation within nucleoli-speculated as the interaction ground for Rev with cellular proteins mediating mRNA-independent nuclear export and splicing. Functionality of Rev nucleolar access during HIV-1 production and infection was investigated in the context of deletion and single-point mutations within Rev-NoLS. Mutations induced upon Rev-NoLS are hypothesized to inactivate the HIV-1 infectious cycle. HIV-1HXB2 replication ceased with Rev mutations lacking nucleolar access due to loss or replacement of multiple arginine residues. Rev mutations missing single arginine residues remained strictly nucleolar in pattern and participated in proviral production, however, with reduced efficiency. Viral RNA packaging also decreased in efficiency after expression of nucleolar-localizing mutations. These results were observed during propagation of variant HIV-1NL4-3 containing nucleolar-localizing mutations within the viral backbone (M4, M5, and M6). Lentiviral particles produced with Rev single-point mutations were transducible at extremely low frequency. Similarly, HIV-1NL4-3 Rev-NoLS variants lost infectivity, unlike virulent WT (wild type) HIV-1NL4-3. HIV-1NL4-3 variants were capable of CD4+ host entry and reverse transcription as WT HIV-1NL4-3, but lacked ability to complete a full infectious cycle. We currently reveal that viral integration is deregulated in the presence of Rev-NoLS mutations.
Project description:The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) Gag protein directs the assembly in the cytoplasm of immature viral capsids, which subsequently bud from the plasma membranes of infected cells. MMTV Gag localizes to discrete cytoplasmic foci in mouse mammary epithelial cells, consistent with the formation of cytosolic capsids. Unexpectedly, we also observed an accumulation of Gag in the nucleoli of infected cells derived from mammary gland tumors. To detect Gag-interacting proteins that might influence its subcellular localization, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed. Ribosomal protein L9 (RPL9 or L9), an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit and a putative tumor suppressor, was identified as a Gag binding partner. Overexpression of L9 in cells expressing the MMTV(C3H) provirus resulted in specific, robust accumulation of Gag in nucleoli. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and coimmunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that Gag and L9 interact within the nucleolus, and the CA domain was the major site of interaction. In addition, the isolated NC domain of Gag localized to the nucleolus, suggesting that it contains a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS). To determine whether L9 plays a role in virus assembly, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown was performed. Although Gag expression was not reduced with L9 knockdown, virus production was significantly impaired. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that efficient MMTV particle assembly is dependent upon the interaction of Gag and L9 in the nucleoli of infected cells.
Project description:The ability of the retroviral Gag protein of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) to transiently traffic through the nucleus is well-established and has been implicated in genomic RNA (gRNA) packaging Although other retroviral Gag proteins (human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1; feline immunodeficiency virus, FIV; Mason-Pfizer monkey virus, MPMV; mouse mammary tumor virus, MMTV; murine leukemia virus, MLV; and prototype foamy virus, PFV) have also been observed in the nucleus, little is known about what, if any, role nuclear trafficking plays in those viruses. In the case of HIV-1, the Gag protein interacts in nucleoli with the regulatory protein Rev, which facilitates nuclear export of gRNA. Based on the knowledge that RSV Gag forms viral ribonucleoprotein (RNPs) complexes with unspliced viral RNA (USvRNA) in the nucleus, we hypothesized that the interaction of HIV-1 Gag with Rev could be mediated through vRNA to form HIV-1 RNPs. Using inducible HIV-1 proviral constructs, we visualized HIV-1 Gag and USvRNA in discrete foci in the nuclei of HeLa cells by confocal microscopy. Two-dimensional co-localization and RNA-immunoprecipitation of fractionated cells revealed that interaction of nuclear HIV-1 Gag with USvRNA was specific. Interestingly, treatment of cells with transcription inhibitors reduced the number of HIV-1 Gag and USvRNA nuclear foci, yet resulted in an increase in the degree of Gag co-localization with USvRNA, suggesting that Gag accumulates on newly synthesized viral transcripts. Three-dimensional imaging analysis revealed that HIV-1 Gag localized to the perichromatin space and associated with USvRNA and Rev in a tripartite RNP complex. To examine a more biologically relevant cell, latently infected CD4+ T cells were treated with prostratin to stimulate NF-?B mediated transcription, demonstrating striking localization of full-length Gag at HIV-1 transcriptional burst site, which was labelled with USvRNA-specific riboprobes. In addition, smaller HIV-1 RNPs were observed in the nuclei of these cells. These data suggest that HIV-1 Gag binds to unspliced viral transcripts produced at the proviral integration site, forming vRNPs in the nucleus.
Project description:Localisation of both viral and cellular proteins to the nucleolus is determined by a variety of factors including nucleolar localisation signals (NoLSs), but how these signals operate is not clearly understood. The nucleolar trafficking of wild type viral proteins and chimeric proteins, which contain altered NoLSs, were compared to investigate the role of NoLSs in dynamic nucleolar trafficking. Three viral proteins from diverse viruses were selected which localised to the nucleolus; the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid (N) protein, the herpesvirus saimiri ORF57 protein and the HIV-1 Rev protein. The chimeric proteins were N protein and ORF57 protein which had their own NoLS replaced with those from ORF57 and Rev proteins, respectively. By analysing the sub-cellular localisation and trafficking of these viral proteins and their chimeras within and between nucleoli using confocal microscopy and photo-bleaching we show that NoLSs are responsible for different nucleolar localisations and trafficking rates.
Project description:Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) late expression factor 5 (LEF5) is highly conserved in all sequenced baculovirus genomes and plays an important role in production of infectious viral progeny. In this study, nucleolar localization of AcMNPV LEF5 was characterized. Through transcriptome analysis, we identified two putative nucleolar proteins, Spodoptera frugiperda nucleostemin (SfNS) and fibrillarin (SfFBL), from Sf9 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated that SfNS and SfFBL were localized to the nucleolus. AcMNPV infection resulted in reorganization of the nucleoli of infected cells. Colocalization of LEF5 and SfNS showed that AcMNPV LEF5 was localized to the nucleolus in Sf9 cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that basic amino acids of LEF5 are enriched at residues 184 to 213 and may contain a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS). Green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to NoLS of AcMNPV LEF5 localized to the nucleoli of transfected cells. Multiple-point mutation analysis demonstrated that amino acid residues 197 to 204 are important for nucleolar localization of LEF5. To identify whether the NoLS in AcMNPV LEF5 is important for production of viral progeny, a lef5-null AcMNPV bacmid was constructed; several NoLS-mutated LEF5 proteins were reinserted into the lef5-null AcMNPV bacmid with a GFP reporter. The constructs containing point mutations at residues 185 to 189 or 197 to 204 in AcMNPV LEF5 resulted in reduction in production of infectious viral progeny and occlusion body yield in bacmid-transfected cells. Together, these data suggested that AcMNPV LEF5 contains an NoLS, which is important for nucleolar localization of LEF5, progeny production, and occlusion body production.IMPORTANCE Many viruses, including human and plant viruses, target nucleolar functions as part of their infection strategy. However, nucleolar localization for baculovirus proteins has not yet been characterized. In this study, two nucleolar proteins, SfNS and SfFBL, were identified in Sf9 cells. Our results showed that Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infection resulted in redistribution of the nucleoli of infected cells. We demonstrated that AcMNPV late expression factor 5 (LEF5) could localize to the nucleolus and contains a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS), which is important for nucleolar localization of AcMNPV LEF5 and for production of viral progeny and yield of occlusion bodies.
Project description:The lentiviral Rev protein, which is a regulatory protein essential for virus replication, has been first studied in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The main function of Rev is to mediate the nuclear exportation of viral RNAs. To fulfill its function, Rev shuttles between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. The Jembrana disease virus (JDV), a lentivirus, is the etiologic agent of the Jembrana disease which was first described in Bali cattle in Indonesia in 1964. Despite the high mortality rate associated with JDV, this virus remains poorly studied. Herein the subcellular distribution of JDV Rev, the nuclear and nucleolar localization signals (NLS and NoLS, respectively) and the nuclear export signal (NES) of the protein were examined. JDV Rev fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) predominantly localized to the cytoplasm and nucleolus of transfected cells, as determined by fluorescence microscopy analyses. Through transfection of a series of deletion mutants of JDV Rev, it was possible to localize the NLS/NoLS region between amino acids (aa) 74 to 105. By substituting basic residues with alanine within this sequence, we demonstrated that the JDV Rev NLS encompasses aa 76 to 86, and is exclusively composed of arginine residues, whereas a bipartite NoLS was observed for the first time in any retroviral Rev/Rev-like proteins. Finally, a NES was identified downstream of the NLS/NoLS and encompasses aa 116 to 128 of the JDV Rev protein. The JDV Rev NES was found to be of the protein kinase A inhibitor (PKI) class instead of the HIV-1 Rev class. It also corresponds to the most optimal consensus sequence of PKI NES and, as such, is novel among lentiviral Rev NES.
Project description:Transport of C/D snoRNPs to nucleoli involves nuclear export factors. In particular, CRM1 binds nascent snoRNPs, but its precise role remains unknown. We show here that both CRM1 and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking are required to transport snoRNPs to nucleoli, but the snoRNPs do not transit through the cytoplasm. Instead, CRM1 controls the composition of nucleoplasmic pre-snoRNP complexes. We observed that Tgs1 long form (Tgs1 LF), the long isoform of the cap hypermethylase, contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal, shuttles in a CRM1-dependent manner, and binds to the nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) of the core snoRNP protein Nop58. In vitro data indicate that CRM1 binds Tgs1 LF and promotes its dissociation from Nop58 NoLS, and immunoprecipitation experiments from cells indicate that the association of Tgs1 LF with snoRNPs increases upon CRM1 inhibition. Thus, CRM1 appears to promote nucleolar transport of snoRNPs by removing Tgs1 LF from the Nop58 NoLS. Microarray/IP data show that this occurs on most snoRNPs, from both C/D and H/ACA families, and on the telomerase RNA. Hence, CRM1 provides a general molecular link between nuclear events and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking.
Project description:The Rev protein is essential for the replication of lentiviruses. Rev is a shuttling protein that transports unspliced and partially spliced lentiviral RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm via the nucleopore. To transport these RNAs, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev uses the karyopherin ? family importin ? and CRM1 proteins that interact with the Rev nuclear localization signal (NLS) and nuclear exportation signal (NES), respectively. Recently, we reported the presence of new types of bipartite NLS and nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in the bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) Rev protein. Here we report the characterization of the nuclear import and export pathways of BIV Rev. By using an in vitro nuclear import assay, we showed that BIV Rev is transported into the nucleus by a cytosolic and energy-dependent importin ?/? classical pathway. Results from glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays that showed the binding of BIV Rev with importins ?3 and ?5 were in agreement with those from the nuclear import assay. We also identified a leptomycin B-sensitive NES in BIV Rev, which indicates that the protein is exported via CRM1 like HIV-1 Rev. Mutagenesis experiments showed that the BIV Rev NES maps between amino acids 109 to 121 of the protein. Remarkably, the BIV Rev NES was found to be of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) type instead of the HIV-1 Rev type. In summary, our data showed that the nuclear import mechanism of BIV Rev is novel among Rev proteins characterized so far in lentiviruses.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Nuclear localization of Gag is a property shared by many retroviruses and retrotransposons. The importance of this stage for retroviral replication is still unknown, but studies on the Rous Sarcoma virus indicate that Gag might select the viral RNA genome for packaging in the nucleus. In the case of Foamy viruses, genome encapsidation is mediated by Gag C-terminal domain (CTD), which harbors three clusters of glycine and arginine residues named GR boxes (GRI-III). In this study we investigated how PFV Gag subnuclear distribution might be regulated.<h4>Results</h4>We show that the isolated GRI and GRIII boxes act as nucleolar localization signals. In contrast, both the entire Gag CTD and the isolated GRII box, which contains the chromatin-binding motif, target the nucleolus exclusively upon mutation of the evolutionary conserved arginine residue at position 540 (R540), which is a key determinant of FV Gag chromatin tethering. We also provide evidence that Gag localizes in the nucleolus during FV replication and uncovered that the viral protein interacts with and is methylated by Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) in a manner that depends on the R540 residue. Finally, we show that PRMT1 depletion by RNA interference induces the concentration of Gag C-terminus in nucleoli.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Altogether, our findings suggest that methylation by PRMT1 might finely tune the subnuclear distribution of Gag depending on the stage of the FV replication cycle. The role of this step for viral replication remains an open question.
Project description:The nucleolus is a subnuclear compartment with multiple cellular functions, including ribosome biogenesis. USP36 is a deubiquitylating enzyme that localizes to nucleoli and plays an essential role in regulating the structure and function of the organelle. However, how the localization of USP36 is regulated remains unknown. Here, we identified a short stretch of basic amino acids (RGKEKKIKKFKREKRR) that resides in the C-terminal region of USP36 and serves as a nucleolar localization signal for the protein. We found that this motif interacts with a central acidic region of nucleophosmin/B23, a major nucleolar protein involved in various nucleolar functions. Knockdown of nucleophosmin/B23 resulted in a significant reduction in the amount of USP36 in nucleoli, without affecting the cellular USP36 level. This was associated with elevated ubiquitylation levels of fibrillarin, a USP36 substrate protein in nucleoli. We conclude that nucleophosmin/B23 recruits USP36 to nucleoli, thereby serving as a platform for the regulation of nucleolar protein functions through ubiquitylation/deubiquitylation.